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PRINCETON, N. J. * f * 

Collection of Puritan Literature. 







O R. 



Mn Cettament? 

CHRIST and the Heavenly Things of the 
Gofpel were Preached and Shadowed to the 
People of G O D of Old. 

Explain'd and Improv'd in fundry 


By SAMVEL MATHER, fometime Paftor 
of a Church in Dublin. 

%\)Z @eC0nD CDtttOIt, To which is annex'd, ( more than 
was in the former Edition ) a SCHEME and TABLE of the whole, 
whereby the READER may readily turn to any Subject treated 
of in this BOOK. 


Printed fat Nat h. Hi liter, at the Prince's Arms in Leaden- 
hall-ftreet, over againft St. Mary Axe, 1705. 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 





Thofe of that CHURCH, to which this Author 
was fometime PASTOR. 

EVERT Church is by the Ordinance of Chrift a Pillar 
of faving Truth, holding it forth to befeen and re ad 
of all Men 5 the Teachings and Ordinances adminh 
fired in Churches being among the chief of the Ways y 
whereby the blejjed God inflru&s and enlightens a dark 
World in the way of Eternal Life. Thefe following Difcourfes are 
part, and but part of thofe 777 any precious Truths and teachings held 
forth by this Servant of Chrifl, in the courfe of about fifteen Tears 
Minijiry, in that Candlejlicl^ in which the Lord made him a finn- 
ing- Light. The Prophets do not live for ever 5 but their Words 
and Fruit fiould, yea will live and remain after they are gone to 
their everlafiing Rejl. 

Not long after this Author had gone thro this Subjett, God took 
him to Heaven, (when he wanted above fix Months of being fix 
and forty Tears old) by an Impoflhume in his Liver 5 which as Some 
who were converfant with him judged, hung upon him when hejlu- 
died and preached thefe Sermons 5 and which perhaps was the Rea- 
fon, that from the beginning to the finiflnng of them folong afpact 
ran out. Having no more time to review them, and make any Ad~> 
ditions unto the Notes that he prepared for Preaching, they are lefs 
perfect then otherwife they would x, and it is not unlike, but that ma- 
ny things jiudied by him before-hand, and delivered in Preachings 
especially in the Applicatory part (wherein he had an Excellency) 
are loft, becaufe not written down by himfelf Had he lived to have, 

A reviewed 

iv To the READER. 

reviewed and prepared thefe Difcourfes for the Prefs, it is like he 
would have fpoken to and cleared up fome Things wore fully $ and 
perhaps, on fecond thoughts, haveinjome P ajf ages delivered hi mfelf 
fomewhat otherwife. 

It is not expeBed that every one^ much lefs critical and capti- 
ous Heads , will fubfcribe to every thing which they may here meet 
with. Info diffufe andvaft^ and withal fo obfcure aSubjeft, and 
fo untrodden a Path, it is no wonder if every one will not tread in 
Juji the fame Jieps with him^ for there are fome Things wherein 
he departs from the Sentiments of fome other learned and judi- 
cious Perfons. His making fome of the old legal Ordinances Types 
of the instituted Church, and Ordinances under the New Tejlament 
and our Ordinances the Antitypes of theirs, it may be Some may 
not affent unto, following therein Ames Prol. in Pf. 2. and Mr. 
Jeans, who (Exam. Exam. p. 241.) cites Chamier torn. 4. L 
9. en. Se£h 13. 15. pag. 515. Tilenus Syntag. Part. ult. Difp. 
63. Se£h 12. Ames. Bellarm. Enerv. torn. 3. 1. 4. c 7. to which he 
might have added thofe Words of his torn. 3. lib. r. cap.4. Thef.13. 
and lib. 2. cap. 4.Thef. 4. But Others there are who go with this 
our Author. See Beza^y? 1 Cor. 10. 6. and on 1 Pet. 3. 21. and 
Mr. Cotten,HolinefsofChurch-Members 5 cap.2.feft. \2.and 13. 
Not to mention any of the Schoolmen, or the elder Writers among 
Chrifiians, who are very frequent and very exprefs to this Purpofe. 
Nor can it be denied that there is a common Nature wherein their 
Institutions and ours agree, the one being a Shadow or darker A- 
dumbration, the other a more lightfome and lively Image of the fame 
Things. And it is beyond all Contradiction, that the Holy Ghojl him* 
felf doth frequently injlruff us in our Duty, with reference to our In- 
Jtitutions, from theirs under the Old Tejlament \with relation to their 
typical Ordinances. As for his calling our Injli tut ions the Antitypes 
to theirs, thd there fiould be a Truth in that Obfervation, Theo 
logi GracciTypum&Antitypum promifcueufurpant proiifdem, 
grorefignificati nunquam.JodocLaren. apud Tvviff. Animadv. 
in Corv. Def. Armiri. cont. Tilen. pag. 280. yet there is ajlr0 
and proper Acceptation of the Word, wherein it may be fa\d,that our 
InflUutions are the Antitypes of theirs : vid. Jun. Animadv. in Bell. 
Contr. 3. lib. 1. cap. 9. not. 25. and in that Senfe the HolyGhojh 


To the READER. v 

ufeth it, I Pet. 3.21. Nor needs any on$ Jiumble at our Author s 
ufing it in fomewhat a different Signification^ for ZJfage is the Mafier 
and Rule of Language 5 Loquendura cum vulgo D fentiendum cum 

But it is not for the fake offuch Pajfages that thefe Difcourfes are 
Publijhed : But at the injiant de fires of * Many ] , and for the fake of 
that Gofpel - light which flrines throughout the whole, and which 
is therein caft upon fo great apart of Holy Scripture, which was writ- 
ten not for their Z)fe only who had the worldly Santtuary, and were to 
obferve thofe carnal Ordinances } but for ours alfo, who live in thefe 
better times of the New Teflament. And tho' every thing be not fo 
clearly and convincingly made out, as fome perhaps will de fire 5 yet 
that the Worhjsfingularly ufeful will be ntanifefi ofitfelf: Nor is any 
humane Writing without its Defefts^ and thofe which come ovt after 
the Author s Deaths, and were not by their own hands finifoed for the 
Prefs (which is the Cafe of this*) muji have Allowance beyond others, 
Befides,that this is a Subject which None, or almofi none hath waded 
through before him. How he was indowed for it, and what he had 
attained in it, is not for Co obfeure and incompetent a Pen as writes 
this, to fay. If this Work find inceur aging Acceptance, other of his 
Labours may pojjlbly be Publijhed hereafter. For befides This, and 
thofe three other J mall !><*#/, viz. his Defence of the Proteftant Re- 
ligion againfi the impotent A/faults of a Popifo Prieji,his Irenicum, 
or EfTay for Union among the reforming Parties in thefe Nations^- 
and his Two Sermons againft the Ceremonies, on 2 King. 18.4. 
which are already Printed ^ there are fome other Works of his, not un+ 
fit to fee the Publick high. 

As to you who were fometime his Charge,d«d ufedto fit under his 
Minijiry, this Providence fhould be looked on by you, as that which 
adds greatly unto your Account. If you be not judicious and eftablifl)- 
ed Chrijiians^ if you be not living thriving Souls, you will be mofi 
inexcufable. God hath made you as a City on an Hill, not only by the 
tminency of Place where you fojoum, but alfo by the lufire of thofe 
Stars in his Right hand, whom he hath formerly fet among you : Thofe. 
hoary Heads, zealous and lively Dr. Winter, that mighty Man in 
Prayer 5 grave and judicious Mr. Timothy Taylor 5 and thofe of 
fewer daysjn whom yet was thelnfpiration of the Almighty to give 


vi To the READER. 

them Undzrftanding,holy,humble Mr. Murcot,<*W this Author, the 
clearnefs and wcightinejs of whofe Preaching fonie of you have a pre- 
cious Remembrance ofmufl all of them be accounted for unto God one 
Day, by you that fat under their Minifiry. Dr. Winter thought the 
Joy and Glory of Saints in Heaven receive fome Addition thereof 
their Works while they were on Earth do bring forth Fruit here be- 
low , grounding this his Judgment on]er. 32. 19. and the like Scrip- 
tures 5 fee his Epiftle before Mr. Murcot's Sermons. And there 
are that thinly godly Minijiers fid all at the Day of Chrift have the 
prefenting unto Him, thofe that have been Converted and favingly 
wrought upon by their Minifiry. The Apojile Paul feems to have an 
Expectation ,that hefjould prefent the Corinthians unto Chrift as a 
chaft Virgin cfpoufed unto the Lord by him, 2 Cor. 1 1 . 2 . and he 
lool(d on the Theffalonians as his Joy and Crown of glorying be- 
fore God not only in this Worlds I Theff.3. 9. but alfo hereafter in 
the Prefence of our Lord Jefus Chrift at his coming, 1 lhejf.2. 

If the affeUionateKemembrance of your former Teachers ^whichflill 
lives in your Hearts , and ought fo to do, fid all fir you up to make a 
fruitful Improvement offuch Monuments of their Labours as are yet 
with you, whatever Advantage JIj all accrue to them who are now a- 
bove a thanklefs World and cloudy Sky, certainly you will be gainers 
unfpeakably. Thofe Exhortations of the Apojile do fpeak^unto you. 
Remember thofe that have had the Rule over you, and have 
fpoken to ycu theWord of God, whofe Faith follow, confider- 
ing the end of their Converfation 5 Jefus Chrifl: is the fame 
yefterday, to day and for ever : He will be the fame to you that he 
hath been to them. You have not yet refifted unto Blood $ but 
how Coon you may be called forth unto it, is with him in whofe Hand 
are all our Times. The Churches of the Hebrews in Juda?a had 
flood, when the Apojile fo wrote to them^ much about the fame time 
that you have been in the Fellowfl)ip and Order of the GofpeL And 
as they then might and did fee a Day of National Calamity approach- 
ing, Heb. IO. 25. f& may you difeem black and threatning Progno- 
flicks. Wherefore forfake not the afiembling of your felves to- 
eetl er a^ ihe man* er of iome is,but Exhort and Incourage one 
ancih;r to it.and that lb much the more as you fee the Day ap- 

To the R E A D E R. vii 

proaching, lift up the Hands that hang down, let the feeble 
Knees be ftrengthened,and make (freight Paths for your Feet,left 
that which is lame be turned out of the Way, but let it rather be 
healed. Follow Peace with all Men,and Holinefs, without which 
no Man (hall fee theLord^ lookingdiligentlyjeft any Manful of 
the Grace of God, left any root of bitternefs fpringing up trou- 
ble you,and thereby many be defiled, &c. For ye are not come 
unto the Mount that might be touched, Ye are not under' the old 
dark legal Difpenfati on, which was full of Terr our 5 but ye are coiDe 
to Mount Sion,and to the City of the Jiving God : ye are under 
afar more glorious Gofpel-Difpenfation and have in thefe Difcourfes 
the Gofpel and fpiritual Glory of that old Difpenfation fl)ining out upon 
yon 5 the Veil being taken oft from it by the Min/flry of this Servant 
of Chriji for your fakes* For what- your Minijlers are J hey are for yon. 
Epapnras was a faithful Unifier of Chriftfor the Church at Colofs, 
This Author was inlightned by Chrififor you. The Influences that the 
Minijlers are the Subjects of are for their People. If their Confo- 
lation abound thro Chrift,77 is that they may be able to Comfort 
others by the Comfort wherewith they themfelves areComfort- 
ed of God, 2 Cor. I. 4, 6. If they be enabled to walk Exemplarily 
in Gofpel-fimplicity, holinefs, juflnefs and unblamablenefs through 
variety of fingular and fore Tryals it is for your fakes, 1 Thejf. 1.5. 
mthchap.2. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,9, 10. their Light and Gifts are yours 
and for you, I Cor. 3.22. Thefe Sermons in the Preaching of them 
were in a peculiar manner for you : So are they now in this making 
of them yet more Publicly So are thofe that now lobour among yon 
in the Word and Doctrine your Servants for Chrift's fake. The 
Blejjing of Heaven go along with both this Booh^ and their Labours, 
Amen. And let every one alfo that reads, fay Amen. 


BOOKS Printed for N. Hiltier, at the Frinces Arm 
in Leaden hall-jireet, over againft St.Mary-Axe. 

THE Righteoufnefs of God, by Faith upon all, without Difference 
who believe, In Two Sermons on Rom. 3. 12. Preached at the 
Merchants Le&ure at Pirfner^s-hall, Qjiarto. 

A Difcuflion of the Lawfulnefs of a Paftor's a&ing as an Officer in 
other Churches, befides that to which he is efpecially called to take the 
Over* fight of. In Twelves. 

Twenty three feieft Sermons, preached at the Merchants Le&ore, at 
Tinner's-batt, and in Lime-ftreet\ wherein feveral Cafes of Confcience^ 
and other weighty Matters are propounded and handled, InOdtavo. 
jiU Three by the Judicions and Learned ^/r.Nath. Mather. 

A practical Difcourfe of God's Sovereignty, with other material 
Points deriving thence, viz.. of the Righteoufnefs. Of God. Of Ele&i- 
on. Of Redemption. Of effe&ual Calling, and of Perfeverance. By 
Eli/ha Cole, InO&avo, the Fifth Edition. 

The Throne of Grace difcourfed of, in Thirteen Sermons from Heb. 
4,16. By the Reverend Mr. Robert Traile, In O&avo. 

A Learned and Accurate Difcourfe of the Guilt of Sin, Pardon of 
that Guilt, and Prayer for that Pardon : Written fome Years fince, 
by the Reverend Mr. Iho Gilbert, lately deceafed at Oxford, In Oftavo. 

The Divine Inftitution of Congregational Churches, Minifters aofT 
Ordinances, as has been profefled by thofe of that Perfwafion, aflerted 
and proved from Scripture, In Oftavo, 

An Eflay to the Interpretation of the Angel GabrieW Prophcy, de- 
livered by the Prophet Daniel, Chap. 9. Verf 24. IrtOctavo. 

Chris's Afcenfion to fill all Things ; In a Sermon at Horfly-down^ 
In O&avo. All Three by the Reverend Mr. Jfaac Chancy, 

Scripture Proof for finging Scripture Pfalms, Hymns and fpiritual 
Songs, By E. H. In Oftavo. 

A Defence of the gloriQUs Gofpel of the bleffed God, attempted 
againft the New Law : With an Aufwer to Thirteen Arguments of 
Mr. Barret for it, By the late Reverend Mr. John Ryther of Nottwg- 
ham y In OSavo. 

The Sinner's Jul! Location, or the Lord our Righteoufnefs: Deli- 
vered in feveral Sermons, By Ok d: ah Grew, D. D. late Minifter of the 
Gofpel at Coventry. The Second Edition, In Twelves. 

The Marrow of modern Divinity, touching the Covenant of Works 
and the Covenant of Grace, witjj their UfeandEnd- clearly deferr- 
ing the Way to Eternal Life by Jelus Chrift. By E. H. The Ninth 
Ed i rion. In Twelves. 

The Conqueft and Triumph of Grace, in an Account of the Con- 
verfion of the Indians. By Matthew Mayhew. In Twelves. 

f Vifions. 14 of 
j Dreams. 16 
I Voices. 17 

£ r iadiversA^».J^ f P irationsl 7 

' * ' Wonders. 17 
I Intimate fami- 
L liarity 18. 

f Fatter* 


C Spirit, 
Angels, if 

.Other Things 16 

•SJ * 

ffrom-.>6fc»f to /-The Firft Promife, 1* 
T(oah 12. when \ Outward Signs, as Sacrifices, &c. ii 
GOD reveal'd< Church-Difcipline , and Separation 
Himfelfby 2— # jthe Ungodly 14 


Before the Law, 11 «5 
in three Periods, 

From ?ioab to 
.Abraham, i6 t 
in which DH- 
penfation God 

.Raifing up Prophets, &c. 2? 

Saved 'em in the Ark, 27 

Renew'd his Covenant, and gave the Rain- 
y bow for a &g», 17 

Enlarged theirFoo^allowmg 'emAnimalsjiy 
fcReftrain'd the Eating Blood, z8 
'Gave 'em Magistracy, z8 

Dirlded the World among *em, 29 

From .Abraham to Mofes, 31 
^ In which- — . 

Abraham's Call. 
' Promife of a Seed, 
^ Promife of Canaan, 

, In Four Intervals <v 

From Mofes to Solo- 
mon s Temple, 37 

■ Deliverance out of EryPK 37 
r Giving the 1**, n * 
God's taking the Jetrifb Nation for 

his Church, and for his Kingdom. 38 
Giving Vifible Tokens of hisVrefence^ 
Leading them thro* the Vefart to Ca- 
naan, 38 

From the Temple to the CapHyity, 39 

^fehoiakim's & Daniel's, 
The Time of the Captivities^,^ feconia'sb Ezekiel\ 

CZedekiah'sSt Jeremiah's. 
.The Time of the Second Temple, 41. 

Tfie Chwnotogr of the whole, from Che Creation, 49. 

b Type- 

r Their Defcnption, KU[ }K m tl^ <, 
\Rules for better undemanding Thew^J . . Thi { 

f Their Tfc*mrMl< Difference and Agreement between Them and other mi D5 

4.r£dSs?y which TYPESateexprefs'd, 1f 

HeAfmsvrhy GOD fpake by Them, 6z 

f Before the 
Law, 64 

Enoch, 67 
Ttyahi 71 
Mtlch\%tlt* ,77 
Abraham, 80 
J/W, 83 

>>/#, 8* 


■ Perfbns,6*3 t 




LiWwtheLtw, 9X« 

TvDJcal 0r<fe« 


Prions, "7 

fcWfc Nation, 
.Firit-Bom, 118 

Pty***«tt5, 119 

|Prophets, 113 
'Priefts, 1x3 
»Kings v iH 

■ 18 

f Jtfo/ei,9£ 

Sampfon, 1^3 

D4>i^, 106 
3 Solomon , 107 
^ £//>*/>, 109 
* Eli(ka,\V 

Jonah, 113 

Zerubabel, II f 

?<>/&<*4 the 
L Prieft, 115. 

f Occasional 
117 ? 

Real,U7 «* 

?*ofc's Udder, 130 
Afo/« s s Bumins-Bufti£ 
Pillar of Clo»d&f»< J 33 

Manna, 137 c '■■■-. 

The Rock, 142. f Deliverance cut of £- 

Brazen Serpent, H5 . ft l54 

Waters of Btthefd*** pj^ fcro' theSea 157 
, MarclitW the Wilder- 
f Veliyeraftces ot nefs, 158,, . 

God's People, 154<{ paffaeetWftw* 1 ** 

Anions, «! 

|En^nceintoC.n. r .^o 
I Deliverance out oi * 

Deftruftion of 
nemies, 161 

L byh»-> l6 ° 
( Sodom, 

{ c the Deluge 
inN Sodom, 

as Types of 

Rom*, XcX 

> (as 



I Perpetual 1- or* Th« Ceremonial Uw v Ut 


Sfri Or, External Part, 174 

Not to the Covenant of Works. 176 

f Crrcumcifion, 
170, 173. 


My fiery. Or, 
What Cove- 
nan tit relates 
to, 175 

What Kefteft .. 
this Covenant 

To the Cove-, 
nant of Grace 
177 implying 

To be a G O D to Abraham, 178 

C Great Seed, the MefRahr 
To five J i 7 8 

Him a^A Church Seed, 172 
Seed, / Belleying JewfJkSeedj™ 
I7$,vi*\ ^Ingrafted Gentile Seed % 179 
To provide an Inheritance. 180- 

*s Sufferings, 18 1 
Righteoufnefs, 181 
It fhadov/d forth Baptifa^ 183 











where confider * 

C of the Herd, 1 96 
'Biimt-Offering,i94^ of the Flock, 20 $ 
Meat-Offering, no of Fowls, 205- 
'Peace- Offering, 226 
(Sin Offering, 243 
Trefpafs-OffeJng, 25-9 
Conlecration-Oflering, z-ji, ^3 

f Ceremonial Vncleanntfs^, 28 2 r 

TheLeprofie, 291 

. p r Matter of the Sacrifice, 

Ceremonial V Unclean Eating & Touch-3 306 

cleanfings/ cfrom ) ings, confider c Rites about it, 308 

306 5 

„ r Unclean Eating & Touchings, 183 
y ~l Unclean Iffues, 290 

S Unclean Iflues,where con- 3 Matter, 313 
J fider— — / Rites, 313 

(* ^ ... „ * Preparative,^ 

.How Ceremonial Cleanfing Typified Spiritual, 282 

Feafts- — ^Pentecoft, 422 . 
Tabernacles, 424 
)Trumpets, m6 
^Expiation, 440,45:0 
New Moons,44i f Seventh Day, 444 
•Sabbaths, 444 ^ Seventh Year, 447 

Fiftieth Year, or Jubilee, 448 

Leprofie,3 1 3. Means were} Execu- 5 'Matter, 315 
tive,3i5^ Rites, %%$ 

Feftivals, 414 

Temple Oifi 
cer^i 7 i^i 


- Pnefts, 491 f CH RI S T, 492, 

Kinds, 49O Levites, 531 V WhafThey Ty-5 His Minifters, 491 
C Nethmims,<tt 1 nified. aq%\ ' 

Maintenance, 534 

Nethimms, 533 \ pifiecf, 492^ His Members, 49; 

\ . { Perfonal Qualifies 

) Wherein They 

were Types, \ 
W 5 



in J Apparel, 499 
their^ Confecration, 5^» 
/ Miniftration, or 
V Work, j»7 


r Baming Buffi, orPlaceof GOD's Appearing to Mofis, 31$ 
fTranfient,3t£, as— .-JPlace where God appear'd to fo/faa, 31$ 
J jMount Sinai, 316 

i 1 £Mount of C H R I S Ts Transfiguration, 31* 

Land of Canaan, 316 
Cities of Refuge, &6 

ui , 


f» Foundation^? 
Walls, 345 


jTHoufe,344 [Cma^Vm^Si^ ^ 7 

/Floor, 348 
LRoof, 348 



& Temple, 
31*, 338 

•Builders 33? 
jTime 340 
Place 340 
(Materials 341 
,Parts j4i,wa. <f 

I Sped 

r Porch, 3?o 
) Sanctuary, 351 
Special Parts, ) Oracle, 351 
349 t Chambers, 351 

Ifrrnfakm, 318. 

{Outward, 3*4 
Inward, 37? 

f Of Natural Neceifity, 3*9 

1 Veffels, 
t 359 

, tuted, 
I 360. S 

* Wtfto»f y-TwoPillars,^ 
ofBrafs\ Altar of Burnt- 

«( Offering 364 
) Molten Sea,and 
V. La vers, 3 J 

of Gold 

San- r ( 


fin the San-, Candleftick, 
auary,389 ) 388. 

Shew- bread, 
Table, 394 

Veffels for of- 
fering In- 

ofHa/i£< Th . e ARK, 

) with its ap- 






Chrift and the Heavenly Things of the Gofpel were 
Preached, and Shadowed to the People of God 
of Old. 

23 Mar. 1666. 

Hebrews IV. ii. 

For unto us was the Gofpel Preached, as well as unto them : But 
the word Preached did not Profit them, not being mixed with 
Faith in them that heard it. 

TH E Scope of this Epiftle, is to perfwade them to perfevere 
in their Chriftian Profeffion, and not to fall off to Judaism, 
from the Gofpel to the Law. To this end, he fets before 
them the Excellency of the Gofpel above the Law, the Excellency of 
Cbrift aboye Mofcs. la the Profecution whereof, he iaferts many 

B wholefois* 

2 The Gofpel Preached under the Old 

wholefome Exhortations, and Applications of tbofe former Truths, 
and Difpenfations or Old to us in Gofpel Times : And, having from 
Pfalm the c^th fpoken of their being (hut out of God's reft, becaufe of 
their Unbelief, in Cap. 3, 18. And to whom [ware he that they fhould not 
enter into his reft, but tu them that believed not f He applies this. Cap. 4. 
1 . Let us therefore feat? left a promife being left hs of entring into his reft, 
any of you (hould feem to come fhort of it : And ihforcerti this Caution* 
by paralelling their State with ours in the Words of the Text. For un- 
to us was the Gofpel preached, as well as unto them. 

You fee how the Text comes in as an inforcement of that Exhortati- 
on, take heed of falling fhort of entring into reft, feeing the Gofpel is preach- 
ed unto us as it was unto them, and it became unprofitable unto them, 
becaufe they did not take heed of that Sin which is- here dehorted from, 
even the Sin of Vnbelief. 

In the Words are three Proportions. 

1 . The Gofpel was preached both under the Old and New Teftament •, to 
them as well as to us ; to us as well as them. The Apoftle joins thefe to- 
gether, unto us, as well as unto them. 

2. There be fome, who tho they hear the Gofpely yet do not profit by it % 
They are but high- way ground, ftony ground, thorny ground hearers, as 
Matth. 13. The Word may be preached to many that live under the 
clear and powerful Difpenfations of the Gofpel, yet they not profit by it. 
There is but one fort of good Ground, of fruitful hearers : Many there 
are to whom the Gofpel is Preached, but they hear it unfrukfully, and 

3. The main Caufe of this unprofitablcnefs under the Gofpel is their Vnbe- 
lief The Reafon of unf ruitfulnefs and barrennefs under the preaching 
of the Gofpel, is want of Faith in them that hear it. The Word did not 
profit them, not being mixed with Faith. Unbeliet is the Caufe of this un- 
profitablenefs. Many complain of their own unprofitablenefs, and take 
no Motice of the Caufe of it. It is for want of Faith. It is the firft 
of thefe three that I defign to fpeak unto, tke Lord affifting. 

Doclr. 1 1 The Gofpel was preached to them under the Old Teftament, 
as well as to us under the New. I put it fo, as beft failing with the 
Scope I intend. The Apoftle here fuppofeth it as a known and 
granted Truth, that they had the Gofpel • and he adds, that we have 
it too, as well as they : But that they had it, he fuppofeth it as a 
Thing beyond all queftion • a9 a Thing received, and believed, and 
underftood amongft them, and that needed no difpute. For unto us 
was the Gofpel preached as well as unto them. As if he fhould fay, no 
•Joubt it was preachU to them, and fo it is to us alfo. Gal. 3. 8. And 


Teftament as well as tinder the New. 5 

the Scripture fort feeing that God would jujtifie the Heathen through Faith, 
preachrd before the Gofpel unto Abraham, faying, in thee (hail ail Nations 
be blejfed ' 

The Gofpel is the glad Tidings of Man's Recovery by jefus Chrift, 
out of the State of Sin and Death into which he was fallen, into a 
State of Favour and Communion with God again *, into a State of Life 
and Happinefs. Now this was made known to them of old , thefe 
glad Tidings founded in their Ears, as well as ours, PfaL 89. 1 5. Blejfed 
are the people that know the joyful found. 

The Reafons for the Proof of it, may be fuch as thefe. 

Reaf. 1. Bccaufe they had the fame Gofpel blejfwgs and mercies pro- 
mifed, preached, and revealed unto them, that we have now revealed 
and made known unto us ^ and in the fame way, and upon the fame 
ac&onnt as we have them now. 

There be two Branches of this Argument. 

1. That they had the fame Gofpel Mercies preached and held 
forth, and this, 

2. In the fame way, and upon the fame account. 

1. They had the very fame Gofpel'Bleffings and Mercies that we 
have in thefe latter Days. This will be eafily made out and appear, 
if we Enquire what the good Things of the Gofpel are, we (hall find 
that they were exhibited unto them, as well as unto us. And what 
are they ? 

In general, That God would be their God. How oft is this promife 
made to them ? And fo he is to us. 

Now this includes three things. 1, Regeneration. 1. Reconciliation 
and Remiffion of Sins. 3. Everlajling Salvation. 

I. Regeneration, or the New Heart, the Heart of Flefli, the writing 
of Gods Law in the Heart. You know moft of thefe are Old Tefta- 
ment Phrafes, Jer. 31. 33. / will put my Law in their inward parts, and 
write it in their hearts, and will be their God, and they {hall be my people. 
This was preached and held forth to them by that Seal of Circum- 
cifion, Deut. 30. 6. And the Lord thy God will circumcife thine heart , and 
the heart of thy feed, to love the Lord thy God with all thine heart, and 
with all thy foul, that thou mayeft live : And by all their legal wafhings 
and purifications, which fignificd their cleanfing from Sin ; from the 
filth and power, as well as from the guilt of it, Ezek. 35. 25, 20", 
27. Then will 1 fpr inkle clean water upon you, and ye Jball be clean : From 
all your filthinefs, and from all your Idols will J cleanfe you. A new 
heart alfo will J give you, and a new fpirit will 1 put within yon : And 
J will take away the ftony heart out of your fiefh, and J will give yon 

62 ** 

4 The Gofpel Preached under the Old 

an heart of fiefh. And J will put my fpirit within you, and caufc yon 
to walk in my flatntes, and ye (hail keep my judgments and do them. This 
includes the whole frame of Saving Grace, a new difpofition in 
the Heart, new Principles, new Walkings : This fucceeds the Old 
Man, corrupt Nature : This is one great Gofpel Bleflbg common to 
them with us. 

II. A fecond great Bk fling of the Gofpel is Reconciliation and 
Remijfion of fins, I fa. i. 18. Come now and let us rtafon together, faith 
the Lord, though your fins be as fcarlet, they fbaU be as white as fnow ; 
though they be red like crimfon, they fliaU be as wooll, Jer. 31. 34. 1 will 
forgive their iniquities , and 1 will remember their fins no more. And 

. innumerable more promifes they had of this throughout the Old 
Teftament. This part of the Gofpel was preached and lhadowed 
forth to them by all their Sacrifices and Oblations, which are therefore 
faid to make atonement for them : It is a Phrafe often ufed in 
the nine firft Chapters of Leviticus, He that finned, fhatt bring fuch 
or fuch an Offering ; And the Prieft (haU make Atonement for him 
concerning his fin, and it fhaU be forgiven him : Levit. 5. 6. He {baft 
bring his Trefpafs-Qffering ante the Lord for the fin which he hath finned, 
&c. And the Prieft (hall make an Atonement for him concerning his fin : 
and ver. 10. He fhaU offer a Burnt-Offering according to the manner, 
and the Prieft fhaU make an Atonement for him for his fin which he had 
finned, and it fhatt be forgiven him. Hence it is, that we find the Saints 
under the Old Teftament, were fo full of Confidence and Holy Boldnefs, 
in feeking and pleading with God for pardon and forgivenefs of Sin : 
As we fee in the Pfalms, and other Scripture- Prayers, what Strong 
and Eminent Actings of Faith they had this way : Which to expect 
bad been a prefumptuous thing, if they had had noProraife to ground 
their Faith upon : But they had very plentiful Aflurances and Promifes 
of it in thofe times. And that is a Second Gofpel-bleffing revealed and 
affured to them, as well as tous^ the Remijfwn of all their Sins. 

III. Everlafting Life and Salvation in Heaven. This is not a Truth 
revealed only by the Gofpel, but was well known, clearly revealed, 
and firmly believed by the Saints of old. They had afTurance of this 
that they (hould live with God for ever in Glory. When I awake 
J /hall be fat isfied with thy lihnefs, Pfal. 17. 15. Thou wilt guide me with 
thy counfel, and afterwards receive me to glory, Pfal. 73. 24. In thy pre* 
fence is fulnefs of joy, and at thy right hand there are pleafures for ever- 
more, pfal. 16. 11. They looked for another Country, whereof Cana- 
an was but a Type and Shadow, as the Apoftle fhews in this Epi- 
ftle to the Hebrews^ Cap. 11. io\ They knew there was an Eternal 


Teftament, as well as under the New. 5 

State of Happinefs for the Saints, as well as an Eternal State of Mifery 
for the Wicked ; they did believe this in thofe days. 

Thus we fee they had the fame Gofpel-bleffings preached unto 
them of old, that we have at this day: And thefe bleffings and good 
things are ckmonftrations that it was Gofpel, becaufe thefe Bleffings 
are not promifed in the Law. The Law knows no Remiffion, or Re- 
generation of a loft Soul, no Salvation of a Sinner. This was the 
firft Branch of the Argument -, but for a more clear and fujl Eviction 
of it, the fecond Part of the Argument was this. 

2. Becaufe they had thefe Bleffings upon the fame account, and in the 
fame way as we have them now. I fpeak as to the Principal and Internal 
Caufes of them : For in the outward way and manner of Difpenfation, 
there was a difference, but not in this. For upon what account have 
we thefe precious Benefits, and good Things of the Gofpel ? You will 
find, if you confider it aright, that it was then, as now. We receive 
all from the meer Mercy, ami Free-grace of God in Chrifi ; and this was 
the Fountain of their Supplies alfo: If they had received Pardon of Sin, 
and Grace, and Glory, on the account of their own Merits and Works 
of Righteoufnefs, then it had not been Gofpel -, But they had them in 
the fame way we have them, as to the internal Caufe from whence all 
Bleffings come, even from the Mercy and Free-Grace of God -, a very 
glorious Attribute of God, and mod abundantly, yea continually held 
forth throughout the Old Teftament : That he is the Lord, the Lord 
God^gr actons and merciful. How many Prayers, and Pfalms, and Songs of 
Praife unto him, for that his Mercy endurethfor ever ? How fweetly, how 
pathetically do the Prophets Teach and Preach it to them ? This all the 
Saints of Old had recourfe unto. David , Pfal. 51. 1, when feekkig 
Pardon, have Mercy, (faith he) upon me, O God^ according to thy loving 
hindnefs : According to the Multitude of thy Mercies blot out my Tranfgref- 
fions : And Daniel 9. 8, 9. when he befought the Lord on behalf of the 
"Jews, Lord, to us belongeth confufion of face , &c. becaufe we have finned 
again fl thee : To the Lord our God belong Mercies and forgiveneffes, tho*we 
have rebelled again fi him We do not prefent our Supplications before thee for our 
Right eoufneffss, but for thy great Mercies, ver. 18. and for thine own fake ' 9 
ver. 19. This then was that they had recourfe unto, as the Fountain of 
all the Good whereof they flood in need, and of all their Supplies,, 
even the infinite Mercy of God, 

Moreover, it was the Mercy of God in Chrifi, his Mercy thro ? the 
Mediation of Jefus Chrift. For only thro* Him is Mercy communicated 
to Sinners, fo alone is Mercy communicated : Therefore Daniel there 
prays, Dan. 9. 17. Look upon thy SancJnary that is defolaie 9 for the Lords 

6 Tki Gofpel Preached under tie Old 

fake, that is, for the Lord Jefus ChnP's fajgp. Hence rhey did fo often 
make mention of Abraham, fxac, J^ob, (as bcin- the Types of Chrift) 
in their Prayeis, a:id of David, Fm thy Servant David's:/****, 
Pfal. 89. not as retting in David literally , but looking beyond the 
lhadow, unto him that was the Truth thereof 5 for by David they 
meant Chrift : Chrift is oft called by that Name, became David was 
fo Eminent a Type of him. 

And what is it in Chrift that procures all thefe Bleffings in the Gofpel 
for us ? It is his Blood and Satisfaction that atones Juftice^ his Prayers 
and Interceffion that prevail with Mercy for us ; and fo it was of Old : 
Both thefe had an influence into their Mercies, as well as ours. 

1. The Death and Blood and Satisfaction of Jefus Chrift. This all 
their Sacrifices pointed at. For it was impojfihle that the blood of BuUs 
and Goats (honld take away fins. Heb. 10. 4. Tet it [anftifiedto the purify* 
ing oftheflejh : How much more (hall the blood ofChriji, &c. Heb. 9. 13, 
14, See how clearly the Prophet Jfaiah preacheth this, Ifau 53. 
throughout the Chapter, but look efpecialiy to ver. 10. When thou 
{halt make his foul an offering for fin, he {ball fee bis feed % he {hall prolong 
his days : And the pleafure of the Lord (hall profper in his hand. This was 
the Myftery of all the Sacrifices wherein Blood was flied : They were 
Types and ihadows of the Blood of Chrift. 

.1. His Prayers and Interceflions. For, look, as Mercy is Pur chafed 
by the Merit of his Death, fo it is communicated and applied thro 1 the 
Vertue of his Interceffion ; Juftice is fatisfied by his Death, and Mercy 
intreated in his Interceffion, and fo both thofe great Attributes are ac- 
knowledged and glorified in Zech. 1. 12. Then the Angel of the Lord, 
that is, Jefus Chrift the Angel of the Covenant that appeared, he an* 
fwered and faid, how long wilt thou not have Mercy on Jerufalem, and on 
the Cities of Judah, againft which thou haft had indignation thefe three fcore 
and ten years ! And the Lord an fwered the Angel that talked with me, with 
good words, and with comfortable words y ver. 13. here the prevailing pow- 
er of his Interceffion is fet forth. 

And as the Merit of his Blood was Jhadowed by the Sacrifices ; fo 
the Efficacy of his Interceffion was (hadowed forth by the lncenfe and 
Sweet Odours offered up to God under the. Law. Thefe related to 
the Prayers of Jefus Chrift ^he offers lncenfe with the Prayers of the 
Saints, Revel. 8. 3, 4. And another Angel came and flood at the Altar, 
having a Golden Cenfer^ and there was given unto him mnch lncenfe, that 
be (hould offer it with the Prayers of all Saints upon the Golden Altar which 
was before the Throne. And the fmoke of the lncenfe which came with the 
Prayers of the Saints, afcendedup before God out of the Angels hand. 


Teftament, as well as iin&ti the Tsexv. 7 

They had therefore both the fame Gofpel-blefllngs, and upon the 
fameGofpel account, as we, namely, from the meer Mercy of God, 
thro' the Mediation of Jefus Chrift, thro' bis Death and Inteicefiion. 

Reaf. 2. A fecond Argument mi&ht be taken from an Hiftorka] Indu- 
ction of all thofe former times, and the feveral Gofpei Difcoveries which 
the Lord vouchfafed to them all along from time to time. 

As to Adam'm Pa radife after his Fail. The Gofpei was preached 
to him in that great andbiefled Promife, that the Seed of the Woman- 
Jhould break the Serpents bead. This was the firft Gofpei Sermon that 
ever was preached. 

Afterwards to Abraham the Gofpei was preached, Gal. 3. 8. whea 
it was promifed that in thy feed fhali all the Nations of the World be blejfed % 
andinlfaacfhall thy feed be called. 

To Mofes, and by Mofes to lfrae\ y when the Lord faid, / am the Lord 
thy God that brought thee forth out of the Land of Egypt : For he was a Ty- 
pical Mediator. 

There were yet further Difcoveries in David's time : Chrift is 
the true David. 

Thus I might go through the whole Old Teftament, and fhew 
you how the Lord from time to time made further and further di(co-' 
varies of himfelf to his people in fucceeding ages. 

Reaf 3. Either the Gofpei was preached unto them of old, or elfe it . 
will follow, that they were all damned, or elfe that they were faved 
without Chrift; which to imagine were infinitely derogatory and dilho- 
norable to the Lord Jefus Chrift. The Fathers before the coming of 
Chrift were faved and went to Heaven. But without Chrift there is 
no falvation. For there is mother name under heaven, &c. Afts. 4. 12. 
It is impofllble that any Sinner fhould be faved without Chrift. Qui 
faliitem cuiquam promittit fine Chriflo, ntfcio an ille falutem habere poteft in 
Chrijlo, Auftin. He that promifeth any man Salvation without Chrift, 
I know not whether he can have Salvation by Chrift. By the worh of 
the Law (hall noflefh bejuftified or faved, Rom. 3. 20. Gal. 2. 16. Jefus 
Chrift' therefore is the fame y eft er day, and to day, and for ever, Heb. 13. 
8. that is, in all times and ages : And fo we may apply it thns - 7 Ye* 
fterday under the Law, to day under the Gofpei, and for ever, Jefiis 
Chrift is the only 'Saviour. Therefore if the Old Teftament Saints 
were faved, it was by Chrift, and if by Chrift, they had the Cofpd ■ 
preached to them as well as we. 

So we fee the Truth of the Doftrine. 

Obj, 1, But why do we call it the OU Teftament, if it was Gof=-' 


9 The Gofpel I'reached under the Old 

Anfw. This is only in regard of the manner of Difpenfation : Wc 
do not call the firft part of the Bible, or the times wherein it was writ- 
ten, the Old Teftament', and the latter part of the Bible, and the times 
wherein it was written, the new Teftament, as if the former were meer 
Law, and the latter nothing but Gofpel. No, therefore take heed of 
miftaking here. For there is very much of the Gofpel, and the Grace 
of God in Chrift revealed in the Old Teftament -, many precious Gof- 
pel-truths in the Old Teftament : And there is very much of th? Law 
and threatnings thereof declared, written down and left upon Record 
to us in the New Teftament. Yea, there is more of Hell and Dam- 
nation, there are more dreadful threatnings thereof in the Sermons 
of our Lord Jefos Chrift recorded in the four Evangelilts, rhan is to 
be found in all the Old Teftament. But we call it the Old Teftament, 
becaufe it was the firft Difpenfation of the Gofpel : And the Gofpel we 
call the New Teftament, becaufe it is the new Difpenfation of the 
fame everlafting Gofpel ; therefore the reafon is only in the way and 
manner of their Difpenfation, and not in the Subjects themfelves. 

Ob}. 2. But there is a fecond Objection.- m. That the Apoftle of- 
ten fpeaks of That ancient Difpenfation, as if it was Law, and not Gof- 
fpel. Some Scriptures call that Old Teftament Administration, Law, 
and the Miniftration of Death : as John. i. 17. the Law came by Mofes, 
but Grace and Truth by Jeftts Chrift. and 2. Cor. 3. 7, the miniftration of 
Death written and engraven in Stone : and ver. 9. the miniftration of Con- 
demnation. If it was Law, (may fome fay) then \t was not Gofpel. 

Anfw. We muft diftinguifh between the thing preached, and the 
manner of preaching, between the Shell, and the Kernel, the Shadow, 
and the Subftance. Now the thing preached was the Gofpel ; tho' the 
manner of preaching it was legal : The Kernel was Goipel, tho' the 
Shell was Law : The Spirit and Subftance, and Myftery of that Dif- 
penfation was Evangelical, tho' it was involved in a legal Shell and 
outfide r and overfhadowed with the Shades and Figures of the Law. 
God never had but one way only to fave men by ; but it had diners faftii- 
ons and forms, divers outward difcoveries and manifeftations ; in 
thofe times in a more legal manner, but afterwards more like it felf, 
in a more Evangelical Manner. 

This Legality of that Adminiftration appears chiefly in five things, 
which were the peculiar Properties and Chara&ers of that Difpenfati- 
on \ by which it is diftinguifhed from the Gofpel/difpenfation, as being 
much inferiour to it. So we (hail fhew you two Things at once, both 
the differences of the two Administrations, and withal the Preeminence 
and Excellencies of the New above the Old. It was dark, weak, carnal, 
bmbcnfome^ and terrible. 1. It 

Te figment, as well as under the New. 9 

i. It was dark, but the Gofpei is clear : all things were involved in 
thick and dark fhadows Tho' there was a Light in that Mofaical Paedi- 
^ogy, which did appear aid Ihine forth into the Minds of God's Elect, 
yet withal there was a CloMd of Darknefs, as to the outward Admini- 
stration, efpecially if compared with the Difpenfation of the Gofpei 
fince the coming of Chrift. 

There was and is a double ttfi of Types and parables, and of that 
whole way of Argument by Si mllittxle and' Cdufpaiifons : They do 
both darken and iflajlrate: If explained and underftood, they dbexcec 
ingly enlighten and iiluftrate^ but if not explained, they are like a 
Riddle, they call: a dark mid and cloud upon the thing. 

So was the Law of Mofes to all thofe that were not inflructed by 
the Spirit to anderfhnd the Myftery of it. The Reafon and Meaning 
of it W3S hidden to the moft of them ^ hence a Fail is faid to bzupen 
their Hearts, that they could not fee to the end of that nhicb is abolifhed, <?c, 
i Cor. 3. 13, 14, &c. as the Apoftle there difcourfeth at large 

2. It was mail but the Gofpei is powerful, 1 Cor. 3. therefore that is 
called the Letter, this the Sphit. 

3. There was much of external Pomp and Splendor, but little of that 
Power and Spirituality that is in Gofpel-worfhip Tho' that Pomp and 
Splendor were very pleafing to the people, yet upon this account partly 
the Apoftle calls them carnal Ordinances, Heb. 9. 10. and a worldly San- 
ttuary, ver. 1. becaufe they confided fo much in outward, low, fenfi- 
ble things, fofuitable to the relifh, defire, and difpofition of a carnal 
Heart. Therefore the carnal Jews were very tenacious of thefe ex- 
ternals of Mofes,tho y defperately averfe to the things themfelves included 
and intended in them. Chrift oppofeth their local Worfhip to fp'irit** 
al Worfhip, Joh. 4. 21, 23. implying it was not fo fpiritual as 
Gofpel-worfhip. The carnal Jews did turn it into meer Law and 
Works by their abufe and mifunderftaning of it. As the Pharifees ; 
how did they truft in outward Works, and expected Salvation by 
their own Righteoufnefs ? They refted and fat down in the Shell and 
outfide of things Rom. 9. 32. As it were by the Works of the Law. For 
they had no real legal Perfection in them •, but only in their own proud 
and falfe Conceit, they thought the bringing of a Sacrifice was tha\ y 
which did expiate Sin, and Merit and deferve Acceptance with God : 
They did not look beyond all, to the meer Mercy and free Grace of 
God id Chrift -, they did not look to the end of things, to the time of Re- 
formation which was to come, and fo they Humbled at the Humbling- 

c 4.: It 

I a- Tfie Go/pel Preached under the Old 

4. It was a burihenfome Difpenfation, Jcls 15. 10. a Yoke which neither 
our Fathers, nor ire, mre able to bear. Their Services were an infupporta- 
ble Yoke, an intolerable Burthen, both as t6 their number and nature: 
They had a great number of external Obfervations, from all which 
the Gofpel hath fet us free. 

5. The manner of AdminiCratiGn was legal, in regard of the Bon- 
dage and Terror of it : It left impreflions of terror upon their fpirits, 
God appeared in fuch dreadful Majefly unto them on Mount Sinai, as 
Ihook the Mountain, and (hook all their Hearts, fo terrible was it that 
Mofes faid, I exceedingly fear and quake, Heb. 12. 21. fo terrible to all 
the people, that they xo'ifhed that God vcould never fpeak. unto them imme- 
diately any mo>'e, v. to. fo the Lord gave an Interpreter to reveal and 
fpeak the Mind of God unto them -, and fo it hath been ever fince. 
Hence was that Speech of Auflin >, Brevis differentia Legis & Evangelii* 
timor & amor, the difference between Law and Gofpel in brief is Fear 
and Love. 

Thus you fee the DoQrine cleared up, and fo much (hall ferve for the 
clearing up this Truth, and removing thefe Objections againft it. 

We (hall conclude with two or three words of Vfe. 

Vfe I. Incour agement to fludy the Old Teftament, and the Types and Sha- 
dows of the Law. Is it fo that the Gofpel was preached to them under 
the Old Teftan ent, as well as to us under the New ? We fee then the 
nfefulnefs of the Old Teftament to New-Teftament Saints : We fee 
what ufe there is of fearching into thefe ancient Difpenfauons. Will 
you fearch into the Myftery of the Gofpel ? Then confider how God 
intruded and taught them of old. There are feme Gofpel Truths 
Eminently andexpreQy revealed and mentioned to them ofold,asthat 
of Forgivenefs of Sins, &c. Therefore let us fearch into thofe ancient 
Administrations, becaufe there is much Gofpel there ; tho' the Shell be 
hard, yet there is excellent Subftance in the Kernel. 

Vfe 2. Direction how to attain to the understanding of thofe My- 
fteriessyhw^ the Gofpel : For it was Gofpel that was preached to them, 
Fosdus gratis clavvs totius Scripture. 

Vfe 3. We may here learn another leflfon, which wife Agur learned 
(and it was his wifdom) to know that he wanted Wifdom, Prov. 30. 
2, 3. Many, coming to read Chapters in the Leviticai Law, are apt to 
think, this is a fealed Book, we are not to bring thefe Offerings to God 
now, we know not what ufe to make of it : Many Ghriftians make no 
more ufe of them, than of Apocrypha. This may fhewusour. ignorance. 
For there is no part of the Scripture but is of ufe*, we might fee much 
of God, and of the Gofpel in them, if we had skill to fearch out the 


Teftament, as well as under the New. \ i 

meaning and Myftery of them. But we have not the under /landing of the 
holy. Poor, daik, ignorant Creatures we are, the Lord knows. Quan- 
turn eft quod nefcimus ! 

Vfe 4. lncour agement to believe and receive theGofpel : For it is the ever- 
lafting Gofpel. This ufe is the direct Scope of this Text, they had«a 
promife of entring into reft, but came fhort of ic thro' Unbelief. Take 
we heed therefore of unbelief left we enter not into reft : For the Gofpel is 
preached to us as well as to them. There is ground of encouragement to 
believe the Gofpel, \o embrace and clofe with it \ for it is that which 
all the Saints of God both under the Old and New Teftament have 
ventured their Souls upon. The Gofpel was preached to them as well 
as to us, and to us, as well as unto them. Thou mayeft fafely venture 
thy Soul in that way wherein fo many Saints in all ages are gone to 
Heaven : Let us take heed left we fall fhort by unbelief ^ for the Gofpel 
was preached to us as well as unto them ; hut the Word profited them not^ be- 
caufc it was not mixed with Faith in them that heard it. Take heed, having 
the Promifes of entring into reft, left any of yon fall fhort ; Take heed of 
falling (hort of the good things of the Gofpel, of that Reft which the 
Gofpel gives to fintul, guilty, weary Souls. Is fuch a Gofpel preach- 
ed, and fuch glad tydings revealed, and wilt not thou clofe with them, 
and receive them gladly and thankfully ? 

All the Gofpel Difpenfations in the Book of God will rife up againft 
thee, if thou art an Unbeliever •, all the Saints of old will judge thee, 
and teftifie againft thee. They- had but a little glimmering Light, yet 
they ventured all upon that. But now the Sun appears and mines on 
the World in Clearnefs and Glory. They might have objected, that 
the height of Gofpel-light is not difcovered, which might be great hin- 
derance to them •, therefore if God was angry with them then, how 
much more with us now, how fhall we efcape, if we negled fo great 
Salvation ? If every word fpoken then was ftedfaft, and was fufficienc 
to bring Souls out of the ftateof Sin and Death, to Happinefs-, bow 
much more the Word and Light that we enjoy ? For if the Word fpoken 
by Angels was ftedfaft, and every Tranfgreffion and Difobedience received 
a juft recompence of Reward, Heb 2. 2,3. how /hall we efcape, if we neg- 
leclfo great Salvation f Unbelief is a damning Sin in all ages •, but the 
more clearly the Gofpel is preached, the more inexcufable is the Unbe- 
lief of finners that perifh in their Sins ; the more inexcufable is their 
Sin, and the more deep and dreadful will their Damnation be. The 
Apoftle calls the Gofpel the Word of Truth \ Unbelief faith it is a Lye: 
It gives God the Lye, it makes him a Lyar, and makes the Gofpel a 
Table. It there be a way of recovery, why fhould'fl: not thou believe 

C 2 and 

1 2 The G of pel Preached under the Old 

and ven tore thy Soul on that •, if there be no fuch wav, then the Gof- 
pel is a Lye, and wilt thou fay the Gofpel is a lye ? We have a pro- 
verb, as jure as Gofpel. There is nothing fo clear, and Cure, and cer- 
tain, as the Gofpel. All Happinefs depends on the believing of the 
Gofpel. Therefore take heed of, and Arrive againft Unbelief, labour as 
much againft it as againft: any other Corruption : And the chief help is 
a clear underlranding, a clear inftght and underlranding in the Myltery 
of the GMpel, this will help againft all thy Unbelief ^ then all thy Obje- 
ctions will vaniih as Darknefs before the Sun. \t s Ignorance of the 
Gofpel from whence fo many Objections arife : Beg of God to give thee 
clear Gofpd-Light, and this will be the beft means to overcome and 
overpower that Sin r i Unbelief. Did men fee the Excellency, the Truth 
and Goodnefs of the Gofpel ; they would receive it gladly and 
thankfully. The Gofpel is both true tydings and glad tydings, it's 
both true and glad tydings. Now were this believed, it would chear 
up the Hearts of poor Sinners. 

Hebrews I. i, li, iii, 

God ', who at fun dry times, and in divers manners fa ake in time p aft unto the 
Fathers by the Prophets^ hath in thefe laft days fpoken unto us by bvs Son, 
whom he hath appointed Heir of all things^ by whom alfo he made the Worlds : 
Who being the Brightnejs of his Glory, and the exprefs Image of his perfon, 
and upholding all things by the Word of bis power , when he had by himfelf 
purged our Sins, fat down on the right hand of the Majefty on high. 

THAT the Gofpel was preached to them under the Old Tefta- 
ment, as well as to us under the New, hath been cleared from 
Heb. 4. 2. where the Apoftle faith, Vnto us wot the Gofpel preached, a* 
vn!l as unto them. We are next to consider, How it was preached unto 
them. Now to this the Text anfwers, that it was done in divers man- 
vers, and at fundry times. nOATTTPoVCS and riOATMEPns 

The fcope of the words is to compare and prefer the Gofpel Difcoveries 
and mani-eftations of God before the Legal. Which he doth by a moft 
elegant Antithefis between them : Then God fpake to the Father, now 
to vj •, that was by the Prophets, but now by his Son : Thnfs Diicoveries 
were of old, and fo are palled away, bat the Gofpel is in theft I aft days , 
And finally, then he fpake in divers manners, and at fundry times : But 
now he hath fixed upon this we way, and once for all, to reveal himfelf by 
his Son. 


Teftamert, in divers Manners. 1 3 

We may refolve the Texc into four general Propolkions or points 
of Doctrine. 

t. That it hath pleafed God to fpeak or reveal Himfelf, and his 
Mind, and Will, onto poor loft: Man, id order to his Happinefs and 
Salvation. For he fpeaketh here only of the Gofpel Difcoveries. 

2. That there be two grand Difcoveries or Difpenfations of the Mind 
of God unto the Sons of Men ; the one before, the other fince the 
coming of his Son. 

3. That under that former Difpenfation God did reveal and fpeakhis 
Mind of old unto the Fathers by the Prophets in divers manners, and at 
fundry times. 

4. That in this lad Difpenfation, inftead of all thofe former various 
Difcoveries ufed of old, he hath fpokeo his Mind unto us only by bis 

You fee the two lad Doctrines do contain and hold forth the Diffe- 
rences and peculiar Characters of each Difpenfation. 

It is only the third Dcclrine that we are now to fpeak unto, viz.. that 
under the old Difpenfation God did reveal and fpeak bis Mind unto the Fathers 
by the prophets in divers manners, and at fundry times. 

[. It zas of old ; therefore now palled away, as Heb. 8. 13. tbatrrbicb 
decayeth, and waxeth old^ is ready to vanijh. 

2. To the Fathers \\\\*t is, to their Anceftors-, for he writes this Epiftle 
to the Hebrews, as the Title of it (hews. 

3. By the Prophets • all tbofe by whom God revealed his Mind to o- 
thers were in that refpeft Prophets, that is, Difcoverers or Reveal- 
ers of the Mind of God. 

4 In divers manners. 

5. At fundry times. 

Thefe two laft I intend a little to infill upon, viz.. the [e divers man- 
ner*, and fundry times. I (hall endeavour to (hew, 

1 . W hat were the fe divers manners or ways of Difcovery. 

2. What were the feveral times, or the feveral pieces and parcels of 
it. For this is the Importance of the two Words, noATTPoriGS and 

1. 1 (hall fpeak fir ft to the Manner •, as being firft in confideration, 
tho' laft mentioned in the Text. The Lord was pleafed herein to ufc 
great variety ; he did not limit and confine himfelf to one way and 
manner of Difcovery •, but he fpake fometimes in one manner and fome- 
times in another. It concerns us to enquire into it, fo far as we have 
Scripture-light to guide us. fox we are built upon the Foundations of the 
Prophets and Apoflks, Ephef. 2. 20. Yet we rauft do it with Sobriety of 


14 The Gofpel Preached under the Old 

Spirit, cfchewing and taking heed of vain Curiofity. For they them* 
fekes who received thofe extraordinary Manifestations did not always 
fully know the manner of them in all circuinftances : as the Apofile 
Paul himfelf knew not whether in the Body, or out of the Body, i Cor. 1 2. 1„ 
This is one of rhe great things God doth, which we cannot compre- 
hend, asElihn fpeaks, Job. 37. 5. Yet fo far as the Scripture goes be- 
fore us, we may fafely follow. Thefe divers manners therefore of 
Gods fpeaking, or revealing his Mind of old, may be referred chiefly 
to thefe feven Heads. 

1. By Vifions. 

2. By Dreams. 

3. By Voices. 

4. By inward Infpirations and Impulfes of his Spirit. 

5. By legal Types and Shadows. 

6. By Signs and Wonders. 

7. By a fpecial and peculiar kind of Intimacy and Familiarity. 

1. The Lord was wont then to fpeak by Vifions : I mean vifible Ap- 
paritions and Reprefentations of things to the Eye •, t^e Perfon being 
awake and not afleep. I do not mean things reprefented meerly to 
the Mind and inward Thoughts ; for this will come in afterwards un- 
der another Head ; Namely, that of inward Infpiration and Revelati- 
on ^ but I fpeak now of fuch Vifions wherein things were really and 
indeed objected to the outward Senfes. Hence the Prophets are called 
Seers ^ hence that Phrafe, the Vifions of God, ufed concerning Proprie- 
ties. And what was it that they faw ? Sometimes they faw God him- 
felf -, fometimes the Angels \ and fometimes other things were repre- 
fented, and did appear in Villon to them. 

1. Sometimes the Lord himfelf did appear in Vifions to them. Not as 
tho' his Effence were corporeal or vifible. He dwells in Light unap- 
proachable, 1 Tim. 6. 10*. whom no Man hath feen, or can fee • but crea- 
ted Manifeftations and Reprefentations of his Glor* he did appear in. 
So Exod 20. 18.-- and 19. 18,19,20. Jehovah descended Symbolical- 
ly, in regard of the glorious Tokens and Symbols of his Prefence. But 
then they faw no fimilitude, only Fire and Smoke, and the Mountain flak- 
ing, Deut. 4. 12. And they faw the God o/lfrael : And there was under 
bis Feet, as it were a paved work of a Saphire Stone—alfo they faw God, 
and did eat and drink, Exod. 24. 10. 11. And the Lord defcended in the 
Clond, and flood with him there, and proclaimed the N ame of the Lord, and 
the Lord paffed by before him, and proclaimed &c. Erod. 34. 5. 6. It 
feemeth by the exprefilons, Denm hnmana cffgie pcrtranfiijfe -, that God 
pafled by in an humane fhape. 


Teftament, in divers Manners. 1 5 

All the three Terfons of the Trinicy have appeared diflinftly invifible 

God the Father and the Son, Dan. 7. 9.— 13- / beheld till the Throw 
rctre caft down, and the ancient of days did fit 5 —Ifaw in the night l r ifiom ; 
and behold one like the Son of Man came with the Clouds of Heavw to the 
ancient of days — Revel 4. J. compared with Chap. 5.7- where we 
find, that the Lamb took the Booh but of the right hand of him that fat upon 
the Throne. So that here be two cf thofe glorious Perfons diftinctly 
appearing. Ezjek?\. 16. Above the Firmament there was the likenefs of a 
Throne, and upon it the likenefs as the appearance of a Man about it — It 
feems to be meant of God the Father, becaufe tzek. 9. 2. 4. He is dl- 
llinguifhed from the Man with a Writers lnkhorn by his fide, who is 
thought to be our only High Prieft the Lord Jefus Chrift. 

The fecond Ferfn Jefus Chrift appeared to Mofes, Exod. 3. 2, 4. For 
he is called the Angela which agrees not fo well to the firft Perfon. And 
Mo fes prays for his Good will , Deut. 33. 16. Therefore it was not any 
created Angel, but Jefus Ch lift the Angel of the Covenant ofGracej 
as zpraludium to his Incarnation. So to Ifaiah 6. 1. he faw the Lord, 
It is the Lord Jefus Chrift, fo it is interpreted, John 12 41. SoCen. 32. 
24. And Jacob was left alone, and there wreftled a Man with him until the 
breaking of the day ; that is, Gcd in the form of a roan, as the old Geneva 
Note hath it. The prophet Hofea faith, it was God Hof 12. 3,4. 
and Jacob wept and made application unto him, and there he, or God, fpake 
with us. 

The third Perfon, the Holy Ghoft appeared in the fliape of a Dove at 
the Baptifm of Jefus Chrift, Matth. 3. 16. 

1. Sometimes Angels have appeared. Sometimes in Bodies of humane 
fliape provided for them by the power of God, either created of nothing, 
and after the Apparition annihilated -, or compacted of the four Ele- 
ments, and efpecially of Air condenfed, and then refolved again, after 
the Appearance was paft, into the matter of which they were com- 

As to Lot, Gen. 19. 1, 10. And there came two Angels fo Sodom, and 
Lot feting 1 hem rofe up to meet them, and bowed himfelf with his Face to the 
ground. Thefe Angels verf. 10. are called Men. 

To David, a. Sam. 24. 17. And David [pake unto the Lord, when he 
faw the Angel that fmote the people, and [aid, Lo J have finned, and 1 have 
done wickedly, &c. He faw the Angel. Which is further explained, 
1 Chron. 21. 16, And David lift up bit eyes, and faw the Angel of the Lord 
(land between the Earth and the Heaven with a drawn Sword in bis hand. 


1 6 The Go/pel ? reached ?'nder the Old 

\ At ChriftVs Refurre&ion divers. Ange! : appealed in the Jhapes of 
Men, Matth. 28, 2, 3. An Angel rolled back *he Stunt- from the door of the. 
Sepulchre, end fat upon it, &c. Luke 24. 4. hchM two Men flood by 
them in fhining Rat ent. 

So at his Afcenfioc, Acls u 10. Behold two Men flood by them in wbiie 

Sometimes the Angels did appear nor only in humane {hapes, but wich 
ether Reprefentations accompanying them : as Horfes and Chariots of 
Fire, that is with Riders upon them, 2 Kings. 6. 17. .Behold, the Moun- 
tain was full of Horfes and Chariots of Fire round about Eli (ha. Zach. 1. 8. 
Behold a Man riding upon a red Horfe, and behind him there were red Hoy ft s 
fpeckled and white and 6. 1. theYe came four CbaYiots out from be- 
tween the two Mountains, ver. 5. Thefe are the four Spirits of the Hea* 

3. Sometimes other things were reprefented and fhewn in Vifion to the 
Prophets to fignifie to them the Mind ot God : as Jerem. 1. 11, 13. 
The Prophet there feeth the rod of an Almond tree, and a feething pot, with 
the face thereof toward the North, So Amos cap. 7. ver. 1, 4, 7, 8. has fe- 
veral things prefented iu Vifion to him. 

And this is one of thefe divers manners of the Lords fpeaking, viz 
by Vtfions, or Reprefentattons to the eye Waking. 

2. Another manner was by Dreims, that is, by Reprefentation of 
things to the Fancy in fleep : And they had not only things prefented, 
but ofually Words fpoken, to interpret ihem. Sometimes the Lord 
gave divine Dreams to wicked men ; as to Pharaoh and Nebuchadnezzar : 
But they knew not what they meant, and fo were not Prophets *, but 
the Lord fent the Interpretation by others, who were his faithfull Ser- 
vants. But the Prophets and Servants of God ufually had both the Dream, 
and fome further light for the Perception and Interpretation of it. As to 
Abraham, Gen. 15. 12. And when the Sun was going down, a deep fleep 
fell upon Abraham, and lo, an honour of great Darknefs fell upon him, and 
be faid unto Abraham, know of a furety, &c. ver. 13. 

And to Jacob, Gen. 28. 12,13. ^ e Dream of the Ladder, ver. 12. 
is interpreted to him by God in the following v'erfes, and 31. 11, 12. 
The Angel of the Lord appeared to Jacob in a Dream, and fpeaks unto 
him : and 45. 2. God fpake unto Ifrael in the Viftons of the night. So to 
Daniel, cap. 7. 1, 7, 13. the divers night- Vifions he had there are after- 
wards interpreted to him, ver. 15, &c. To Jofe[b t Matth. 1 20. An 
angel of the Lord appeared to him in a Dream, faying, fear not to take un- 
to thee Mary thy Wife; and Matth. 2. 13, 19. An Angel of the Lord 
appeareth in a Dream to him, faying^ arife, and take the young Child and 


Tejlament, in divers Manners. 17 

hvs Mother, and go into the Land of Ifrael. This way and manner of 
fpeaking Teems to have been very frequent and ufual in rhofe ancient 
times: As thofe words of EUhu intimate, Job 33. 14, 15, 16. tor God 
fpeaktth once, yea twice, in a Dream in a Vifim of the 
ntght, when deep fletpfaUtth upon Men, influnbtrs upon the ^ ^cf^'^nd 
bed, then he openeth the Ears of Men, &C. G ™\ * *' 

3. A third manner was by Voices, by an audible 

Voice uttered either by God himfelf immediately, or by Angels. And 
thefe audible Voices are accompanied fometimes with vifible Appearances 
to the eye -, but fometimes the Voice alone without any villble appariti- 
on, as to our firfl Parents, Gen. 3. 3. It was the Voice of God, and not 
of an Angel. For he faith, the Tree which I commanded &c. 

But the mod famous Inftarce hereof was at the giving of the Law 
upon Mount Sinai, Exod \ 9, and 20. where toe Lord fpake with an audi* 
ble Voice from Heaven : Chap. 19 9, 20. fo that the People might hear; 
and Chap. 20. 22. and fee, that the Lord talked with them from Heaven. 
Dent 5. 22, 23. 24. Thcfe words the Lord fpke unto all jour AJJembly in 
the Mount, out of the midfi of the Fire, of the Cloud, and of the thick Dark* 
ntfs, with a great Voice, And when ye heard the Voice — Heb. 12 l6 f 
Whofe Voice then /hook the Earth : 

So Matth. 17. 5. A Voice out of the Cloud faid, this is my beloved Son. 
But they faw no fimilitude, Deut. 4. 12. 15. 1 Kings 19. 12, 13. A fiill 
fmail Voice. 

4. By an inward lnfiintl •, by immediate Infpirations and Imputes of the 
Hdy Ghoft. So to David 1 Chro. 28. 12, 19. tbo' he had it in Writ- 
ing alfo, and left it to his Son But it was revealed to him by the 

Spirit of God. So to Phtlif, Ads 8. 29. The Spirit faid unto Philip— 

To Peter, Acts 10. 19. The Spirit fasd unto him, and Atts 11, 12. the 
Spirit bade me go with them' To Paul and Silas, Ails 16. 7. Not 

to go into Bithynia \ but the Spirit fuff ere d them not. 

5. By legal Types and Shadows : Thefe were fpeaking things. And. 
what did They fpeak? They fpake forth Gofpel Truths and Myfteries. 
The Ceremonial Law was the Gofpel in Types and Shadows. Heb. 10, l. 
The Law having a fhadow of good things to come* A Type is a legal 
(hadow of Gofpel Truths and Myfteries. Thefe were the ftanding Or- 
dinances and Inftruftions of thofe times. 

6. By Signs and Wonders. Thefe had a Voice, and did fpeak the 
Mind of God : Thefe were atteftationsto the Truth and Mind of God, 
and to the Authority of the MefTenger. See Exod. 4. 8. If thty will 
not believe thee, nor harken to the Voice ofthefi r [l Sign, they will believe 
the Voice of the latter Sign John, 3.2. We know, that thou art a Teach* 

D er 

1 8 The Go r pel 'Preached under the Old 

er come from God : Fur no ma* can do thefe Miracles that tfou doeft, ex- 
cept God be with Mm. The Lo d may work Miracles now. But he 
doth not now fend forth any perfon with a CommuTion to do it, as he 
did of old. 

7. By a fpecial and peculiar kind of intimacy and familiarity, as it were 
mouth to mouth, without Parable or Riddle ^ without Obfcurity ; with 
ail poffible familiarity And rhis was Mofes his priviledge, Numb. 1 2. 8. 
with hint will I [peak mouth to mouth -, apparently, and not in dark fpee- 
ches, Exod. 33. 11, 23. The Lord [pake to him face to face, as a man 

fpeaketh to his Friend, thou fo alt fee my back parts — Thatphrafe 

of /peaking mouth to mouth, notes the clearnefs, and certainty, and familia- 
rity of it : as when Jofeph faith, ye fee it is my mouth that fpeaketh unto 
you, Gen. 45. 12. This was a priviledge peculiar unto Mofes, Deut. 
34.. 10. There arofe no prophet like himftnce, whom the Lord knew face to 
face That which comes neareft to it feems to be the ineffable things 
that Paul faw and heard in the third heaven, 2 Cor. 12.1,2,3,4 — and 
the Revelation given to the Apoflle^w in the lfle of Fatmos, which is 
the cleareft, and yet withal the deepeft and mod wonderful of all the 
Proprieties recorded in the Scripture. 

There be two Quefiions may arife here, which would be briefly fpo- 
ken to. 

Que ft. 1 . Whether there were not counterfeits of thefe things \ and if there 
were, how did they difcern the Lords voice in thefe extraordinary difpenfati- 
ons from Satan's Voice in his delufions? 

An/w. It is true, there were counterfeits of them \ there were Vifi- 
ons, Dreams, feeming Miracles, Impulfes from Satan, as well as from 
God. DUbolus eft Deifimia. Hence that Caution of Mo/es, Deut. 1 3. 1 . 
And hence are thofe complaints of the Prophet Jeremy, cap. 14. 13. 14, 
1 $. And that is a famous Inftance of a lying Spirit in the mouths of 
Ahabs Prophets, 1 Kings 22. 22. 23. Therefore to have a Vifion, to 
dream flrange and fupernatural Dreams, to have a powerful Impetus 
and afflatus from a Spirit, are not things fimply peculiar to the true 
Prophets of God. But though Satan did, partly out of Craft, to deceive 
thereby the more effectually, and partly out of Blafphemy and Malice, 
to put an affront as it were upon God, ufe ways and means of deceiving, 
that had force refemblance of God's own ways and Ordinances^ yet there 
were manifeft and palpable differences between them. I fhall name but 
thefe four -, 

1. The Lord did not ufually fuffer Satan to transform himfelf fo far 
into an Angel of Light,as to come in thefe ways unto his own people, unto 
fuch as were truly Godly. Search the Scriptures^ and you will not find, 


Teflament, in divers Manners. 19 

that Satan did appear to give Sacanical Dreams and Vifiors, and the 
like, to fuch as were Godly : It is true, he did tempt them *, but in a 
more fpiritual manner, as he tetnpted David to number the people. Or 
by other outward means : As when the young Prophet, that c?me from 
Bttbei was deceived by the old one. Bat when Sdta>idx& mfpire any 
with Dreams and Villous, &c. it was done to wicked and ungodly men. 
As to Saul, when he nifrd up the Devil, he and the Witch fa w the 
Gods, that is, Spirits, infernal Spirits, 3 (tending up out of the Earth. 
And to the falfe prophets of Jhib, thofe four hundred Idolaters ; they 
fpake as Prophets, and were acted by a Spirit : but it was a lying Spirit, 
and they were lewd and wicked men: So that there was a great difference 
in the Per fan or Subjcft recipient of Divine Revelations, and of Satauical 

2. In Divine Difcoveries there was an holy Elevation of their Mipds f 
when they did receive them j but in the Organs and Inftruments of Sa» 
tan there wa« only a ftupefaftion and depreffion of them. As when 
John did receive the Revelation, he was in the Spirit, chap. 1. 10. Some- 
times they wete fo far elevated,and railed, and aded by the Spirit, that 
they did not attend to any other thing •, but were tranfported above 
Senfeand fenfible things, to attend-wholly to the Vifions and Revela- 
tions of Gcd : So Peter fell into a Trance, Ails 10. 10. Paul was 
Uit+mxm, Ads 22. 17. Hence oftentimes they fell upon their Fa- 
ces, being aftoniih'd at the Majefty and Glory of the Lord ; both gra- 
cious and natural Fear concurring — Ezek. f. 28. Ban. 10. 8, 9 Mattb. 
17. 6,7. But this Ravifhment of Spirit was not a ftupefa&bn, but 
an holy Elevation of their Minds, whereby they were taken offand lift- 
ed up above all thefe low things, to the higheft exercife of Faith and 
fpiritual Reafon, and fo better fitted and compofed to receive thofe 
Divine Irradiations and Manifestations of God. So Daniel 10. 1. He nn- 
derjloodthe thing, and had under ft adding oftheVtfton : So Balaam, when 
the Lord was pleafed in an extraordinary cafe to adfc him after the man- 
ner of a true Prophet, Numb. 24. 4, 16. falling into a trance^ b*t having 
his eyes open. 

But on the contrary, fuch as werea&ed b, Satan, they had their ex- 
tatical Furies, wherein their Minds were fo difcompofed, that they 
were not compotes [ana mentit, As fome have written of the Sybils ^ that 
when after their Prophefyings, they came to themfelves again, 
they had forgotten what they had faid,and fd could not review and cor- 
rect what- vas written from them : But it was not fo with the Prophets 
of God, John wrote, and had Order to write his Apocalypfe : and fo the 
other Prophets. And when thofe to whom, and by whom the Devil 

D a fpake, 

20 The G of pel Preached under the Old 

fpake, were not difcompofed to fuch a degree, even to fury and 
Diitra&ion; yet they were always debafed and brought down below 
themfelves. The Lord's Prophets were raifed above themfelves: Thefe 
were deprefled even below themfelves by dealing with Satan. 

3. The Prophets and Servants of God had aninward Seal from God of 
the Truth of what they fpake. Not unlike that new Name in the n hite Stone^ 
which none could read but he that had it, Revel. 2. 1 7. Jer. 11. 18. — 7 bey 
believed, and therefore fpake, 2 Cor. 4. 1 3. See I fat. 52. 6. My people /had 
Jinow, that J am he that doth fpeak, behold it is I. The true Prophets were 
no Scepticks •, they were as fure of what they faid, that it was the Miad 
of God, asMinifters are now, when they preach the Gofpel, 1 Job. 1. 
1,2. On the contrary, thofe by whom Satan fpake, either knew, that 
they were adted by the Devil, as the Witch at Endor ; Or elfe were de- 
luded by him to think it was God ; or elfe knew not, but were un- 
certain in themfelves. 

4. They had alfo fome of thofe ordinary Rules of Tryal that we have now. 
As for inftance. If God confute them by the event, Dent. 18. 21, 22. 
— or if it correfpond with the event •, yet if it be contrary to the 
Fundamentals of Religion, SzeDeut. 13. 1,2,3. Or if they be wicked 

men on the one fide, and the Prophets of the Lord on the other ■ 

This gave fome glimmerings of Light to Jehofaphat, \ King 22. 7. They 
were Baalites, pretenders indeed to Jehovah \ but fuperftitious wretches ; 
therefore he could not acquiefce in what they had faid. 

Queft. 2. Whether thefe ways of Difcovery be now ceafed, yea or no ? 

Anfw. As to that, the Text is plain enough : That inftead of all thofe 
divers manners ufedby God of old, he hath now fubftituted inftead 
thereof this one and only way of revealing himfelf, viz. in and by his Son. 
And his Son fpeaks by his Word and Ordinances ; as alfo by the Works 
of his Providence ; in all which his Spirit breaths : Therefore there we 
are to meet with God, and to hear his Voice, and there only to ex- 
pect it. Thefe old things are vanifhed away. 

Some think there be fome footfteps of them to this day. See a notable 
Inftance of Information by a Dream, in the Life of Zmnglm Melch. Adam. 
p. 43. And of a Vifion in Aielantthon on Daniel ro. But, 

1. Such things are altogether extraordinary : The Lord goes out of his 
ordinary courfe, when he doth fuch things; they are not the ftanding 
ways that God hath appointed under the Gofpel ; therefore they are not 
to be expected or trufted to. 

x They are only to be regarded in the way of a Providence -, not in the way 
of an Ordinance; and to be tryed and judged by the Matter of them, as 
agreeing or difagreeing with the Scripture. As if a man in a Dream 


Teftament, in divers Manners. 2 1 

have fome Duty, forae Scripture-truth brought to him, he is to obferve 
and accept the Providence of God in it : Or if he find a ftrong impulfe 
or mocion of the Spirit in his Heart, whereby fome Truth cr duty is 
ftrongly imprefs'd acd fet upon his Heart; Let him examine it by the 
Scripture, and if the Scripture fay it is a Duty, he is to look at that 
internal motion and impreflion, as a motion of the Spirit of God, elfe 

Vfe I. See tbs variety of God's Wifdom andGoodnefs to bis people ; that 
he hath fo many ways revealed himfelf to them. 

Vfe 2. We may fee fomething of the lownefs of that legal Dipznfation^ 
from this which hath been faid ^ that the Lord fpake infucb divers man- 

Vfe 3. Blefs God for the days wherein we live, and for the Difpenfation 
we are under. It is much clearer and better. For it hby bis Son, fpeak- 
ing by his Word, working and breathing by his Spirit. The Light 
Ihincs much clearer. We fee that which many Kings and Prophets and Righ- 
teous men have dsftredtofee, andbave not feen *, as Mattb. 13. 17. Luke 10. 
24. Chrift fpake it to his Difciples then, but it holds true concerning all 
the Saints under the New Teftament. It is true ; there was a Cloud 
of Antichriftian Darknefs did arife, which did exceedingly obfeure Goi- 
pel-light. But that Cloud was never fo dark, but that the Elect of 
God did fee through it in fome mcafure. Moreover the Lord hath be- 
gun todifpeland fcatter thofe Clouds of Antichriftian Darknefs, and 
will in time fcatter them from offthe face of the earth. 

1. We are now to fpeak to the fecond Word, thefe Sun- 27 l6 £* De 
dry Times. Having (hewed the divers Manners of the Lords 
fpeaking to his People of Old, we are now to fhew the divers times, 
or feafons, wherein he did it. For he fpake not only ricAi/T^w, 
but noAvu^, by piece-meal, not all at once, but heie a little, and 
there a litilq fn ft once piece of his Mind was difcovered at one fwie,thea 
another peice at anotbtr time 5 firft a little Light brake forth, fome dar- 
ker hints and intimations, then further and clearer Difcoveries and Ma- 
nifestations by degrees. 

In the opening of this we mail have occafion to run through fome 
general heads of the Hiftoryof the Church throughout the Scripture, till 
the coming of Jefus Chrift. And it is an Inquiry both ufeful and 
profitable, and alfo pleafant and delightful to an inquifitive Mind;, 
view the feveral dates of Religion, and of the Church of God in r 
feveral ages of the World. Under every one of which we (hall h 1 
occafion to take notice both of God's Manifefi at ions ,and of mens Depart u 


22 The Gofpel Preached under the Old 

from the Lord, and from the Truth-, That we may fee the occaflon o^ 
every new Difcovery : They departed ind deftroyed themfelves-, and 
then the Lord appeared again in recovering Difpenfation*. 

Now thefe rioto* ^ ? m, thefe feveral pieces and parcels of the Lor d*s 
Discoveries and Manifeftations of himfelf may be referred to two gene- 
ral heads. 

i. Before the Law. 

a. Under the Lav;. 

Thefe were the two great pieces of it, and the Scripture takes notice 
of them both. Of that Difpenfation that was before the La%, from 
Adam to Mofes, the Apoftle fpeaks, Rom. 5. 14. Death reigned f om 
Adam to Mofes. Of the Difpenfation under the Law, our Saviour 
fpeaks, Matth. 11. 13. 'For all the Prophets and the Law propheficd until 
John : again, Luk. 16. 16. the Law and . Prophets wcYl until John. The 
difference between thefe two lay chiefly in this > .-.that under the former* 
Difpenfation, the ordinary way of pi f rving the Knowledge of God 
was only by oral Tradition : But from Mofes his time,it was committed 
to Writing. 

In both thefe the Church of God was mder-years, in a ftate of 
Childhood, Gal. 4. 1, 3. But in the former, viz.. the time before the Law % 
they were little Children, it was the very Infancy, and firft and weak 
beginnings of the Church. 

1 . This period Before the Law : Or the Churches Infancy, may be fub- 
divided into three particulars.- 

1. The Difpenfation they were under from Adam to Noah. 

2. From Noah to Abraham. 

3. From Abraham to Mofes. 

1. Adam's Difpenfation ^ 1 mean, after the Fall: For it is the gradual 
breakings forth of Gofpel-Ught whereof the Text fpeaks. 

We are to confider how the Lord then fpake, and how far he reveal- 
ed himfelf in that age and ftate of Mankind. Befides what was common 
to all times, viz,, the Works of God, and the Light implanted in man's 
Heart: There were feveral things that were the fpecial Difcoveries and. 
Light of that Age, I ihall inftance in four particulars. 

1. The Lord, having convinced them of their Sin, gave them that 
famous promt fe , that the Sued of the Woman fhoald break the Serpents Head, 
Gen. 3. 15. This was the firft Beam of Gofpel-Lighc, that ever brake 
forth unto loft and fallen Man : A cornprehenfive promife* which 
includes the whole Gofpel } as you have formerly heard in many 
particulars upon that Text, Gen. 3. 1 5. This great and precious Promife 
they, and all the Sa*nts for almoft four thoufand years did believe and 


Teftament, in divers Manners. 29 

live upon, waiting a* d longing for the coming of that Bcffed Seed, that 
vttfortow Seed, that ftould flay the Dragon, and deftroy the Works of the 
Devil-, as 'i Job. 3.8 It is thought, that Eve did hope to have feen 
him in her days, and that (he her felf fhould have been rhe immediate 
Mother of the Mejfi ib: ^\nd thence (he called her firft Son CainjoffeJJion • 
thinking file had now got the Promife in pofTefTion and performance : But 
aftervvaids perceiving her rmilake and difappoir.cment, (he called her 
next Son Abel, Canity : As it is a common error we are apt to run into, 
in theexcercife of Faith upon the Promifes •, we are apt to ante-date the 
time of performance, which is from a fecret mixture and working of 
unbelief } for he that believetb fhaU not make hafte, Ifai. 28. i<5. 

2. To this promife the Lord added fome outward and vifible Signs and 
Tokens for the farther help of Faith. In all times ever fince God made Man, 
he hath given him fome outward and fenfible things, to be Signs and 
Reprefeiitations of fpiritual things, as being fuitable to the Nature of 
iuch a Creature, Man confifting both of Soul and Body. Even b fore 
the tall there were two Sacramental Trees, the Tree of Life, arc' :he 
Tree of Knowledge of good and evil : And now under the Gofpd, we 
have two Sacraments, Baptifm and the Lord's Supper. 

So in thefe firft times after the Fall, they had fomething of the like 
nature : The ilgnal inftance hereof is, the Sacrifices, or the flaying of 
clean Beads, and offering them and other things up to God to make 
atonement. For it is exprelTed that Cain and Jbeldid it, Gen, 4. 3, 4. 
and Noah afterwards. Which to have done without Order from God, 
had be^n deteftable and abominable. Therefore there is no noubt, but 
as they were taught by their Parents ^ ib their Parents were inflrncled 
from the Lord about it. And in Noah's time, we find there was a 
dtftinclion of Beafts into clean and unclean, Gen. 7. 2. that is, clean for 
Sacrifice. For it doth not appear, that any of them were ufed for Food 
before the Flood. 

What this aimed at, the Scripture is plain, FJeb. 9. 22 Without 
(bedding of Blood, there vs no Remijfion of Sins : and Chrift is f iid to have 
given him felf a Sacrifice for us, Ephef. 5. 2. therefore they dkl look at 
Chrift. Before Sin there was no need of any Sacrifice for Expiation of 
Sin. Hence among the Gentiles they had a cuirom of facrificing, from 
fome (lender Fame remaining among them of fuch an InffitULJon: For it 
was no part of the Light of Nature -, tho they were ignorant of the true 
God, the true Objeft to whom to prefent their Sacrifices 

Hither a lfo fome refer that r ltage, Gen. 3. 21. "onto Adam alfo. and 
to bvs Wife, did the Lord God maze Coats of Skins, and clothed tk&n 1 u i- 
is thought to have a further Myftery included and aimed at in ic. f >r 


2 4 The Gofpel Preached under the Old 

there is a fpiritual Clothing often fpoken of in Scripture. As they were 
under a double Nakednefs both of Soul and Body *, their Souls diverted 
of Gods Image and original PJghteoufnefs, and their Bodies overfpread 
with Shame : fo the Lord provided a double Clothing for them: He did 
not cloth their Bodies, and leave their Souls naked ; but he gave 
them both the upper Garment of Jujlification and imputed Righteouf- 
nefs, and the inner Garment of Sanclificaton and Grace inherent. 

This may be confidered alfo under another Notion, as one of the 
Favours of providence unto thofe firft: times of fallen Mankind •, that now 
was the Invention of many ttfeful Arts and Sciences. As God himfelf 
vouchfafed to teach them how fo make Clothes : So We read alfo in Gen. 
4. of fundry other Arts and Occupations, as ver. ao. Jabal was the 
Father of fitch as dwell in Tents, and of fitch as Lave Cattel. The meaning 
of it is well explained in the Margent, the firft Inventor of Tent- 
making, and of Paftorage and keeping Cattle. Aad his Brothers Name 
was Jubal: He was the Father of ail fuch as handle the Harp and Organ , ver. 
21. the firft Inventor of Mufick : I mean laftrumental Mutkk; For Vocal 
Mufick, Nature it feUteacheth. And ver. 22. The working of Mettals, 
by Tubal- Cain, an Inflrucltr of every Artificer in Brafs and Iron : whence 
arofe the Heathenifh miftakes and fables of Vulcan. Thefe were great 
Mercies, and gave fome further Difcoveries of God to thofe, who had 
Eyes and Hearts to fee him in his works. For all lawful Arts and 
Sciences, and all the Rules thereof, are Beams of Gods Wifdom, and 
Gifts and Operations of his Spirit, Prov. 8. 12. I Wifdom dwell with pru- 
dence, and find out Knowledge of witty Inventions. So Bezaleel and Aholiah y 
Exod. 31.3. I have filled him with the Spirit of God in Wifdom^ and Vnder- 
flanding, and in Knowledge, and in all manner of Workmanjhip : and ver. 6. I 
have given with him Aholiab. Thofe mean Trades and Occupations,//**/. 
28. are the Gifts of God — The Lord teacheth the Husbandman how to. 
threlh his Corn, and to beat out the Cummin. 

3. There was fomething alfo of Church DifcipMne ex ere i fed in thofe firft 
Ages of the Church. A iignal Inftance hereof we have in Cain, Gen. 4. 
12. A Fugitive and a Vagabond (halt thou be in the earth. God himfelf 
pronounceth Sentence upon him : ver. \6. he is fent forth loaden wirh 
the Curfe of God from the Fellow (hip of his people. This is thought 
to have been about the hundred and thirtieth year after the Creatioivof 
the World. For probably Eves next Sort, 1/vas the next year after ji'oeVs 
Death, and then Aiam was one hundred and thirty years old, Gen. 5. 

Moreover it is noted, that in Enos his time there was a Reformation 
of things, Gen. 4. 26. then began men to call upon the. Name of the Lord^ 
which feems to be meant of a Segregation of the precious from the vile. 

(!) It 

Tefiament^ in divers Manners. 2 5 

(1.) It cannot be meant, that now men began to profane the Name 
of the Lord. For the Apoftacy began before in Ca\n y and his Crew, 
which was before the Birth of Enos one hundred and fix years. 

(2.) Neither can it be meant, that now there was the firft Religious 
Worlhip of God. For that had been long before by Abel ^ and by Adam 
and £z/e,and others of the Godly in thofe times. 

(3.) Therefore it feems clearly to be meant of fome new Reformation 
of Religion : The wicked party being grown by this time very numer- 
ous ^ the godly, as it feemeth, withdrew from them ^ before, when there 
was but one Cain that had fallen off, Reformation might be attained 
by thrufting him out from among them. 

(4.) But now, fo great a number, and perhaps tine greater part being 
corrupted, the Godly might not continue and mingle themfelves with 
them j nor could they £aft them forth. For this, a minor part could 
cot do to the greater part. 

(5.) Therefore they could do no more but withdraw and walk- by 
themfelves ; and fo they came to be called the Sons of God, that is, 
Profeflbrs of the true Religion ; who were called by this Name \ and the 
other were but Sons of Men. 

From all which, it is matter of admiration, that there fhould be fo 
much of oppofition and averfion in the Minds of fome, unto all manner 
of Church-Government and Difcipline at this day, in this height of 
Gofpel- Light : The outward Signs and Ceremonies of Religion hav- 
ing been connected with Difcipline in all Ages, from the firft Manifefta- 
tion of the Gofpel, even until now. 

4. The Lord did in thofe days infpire, and raifenp fome to be Prophets 
and Preachers of Rigbteoufncjs befides the Inftructions of all the godly 
Parents to the Children. There were fome perfons peculiarly eminent 
amongft them : as Enoch \ he prophefied that there was a day of Judg- 
ment coming, Judc 14. which was partly fulfilled in Noahs Flood ; but 
fliall be more fully and perfectly at the great Day. The Name of his 
Son Methufelah was a predi&ion of the Flood. For it fignifieth Mortis 
Gladius, the Dart of Death % or when he isdead,God will feud his fword, 
his Dart and Arrows of Divine Wrath and Vengeance againft a wick- 
ed World. And Noah was a Preacher of Righteoufnefs, he lived a- 
mongft them fix hundred years before the Flood, and he preached and 
prophefied of the Flood for a hundred and twenty years before it came. 
Of whom we (hall fpeak further by and by. 

Now this firft Difpenfation of the Lord unto his Church continued 
from firft to laft about fixteen hundred fifty fix years. For fo long it 
was from Adam to the Flood ; as you will find, it you compute and put 

£ together 

a# The Go/pel Preached under the Old 

together the Lives and ages of thofe ten Antidiluvian Patriarchs record- 
ed in the fifth Chapter of Genefts. 

But there was an Apoftacy, a falling away from God under this 
Difpenfation. It began in Cain, and his Unbelief of the Gofpel. For by 
Faith Abel offered a more acceptable Sacrifice than he, Heb. 11.4. therefore 
the others wanting Faith, made his unacceptable: At laft he kills his 
Brother, and being dealt with by God about it, he repented not, Gen, 4. 
But in time, the Apoftacy grew to its height • that all Flejh had corrupted 
his way upon the earth, Gen. 6. 12. and there "was a general Atheiftnand 
prophanenefs, Job 22. 16,17. The Apoftafie under this Adamical 
Difpenfation of the (Jpfpel (for I know not what fitter term toexprefsit 
y) confided chiefly in three things. 

1. Senfuality and brutifh Lufts-, they took their fwinge in their Lufts, 
This is mentioned in Gen. 6. 2. and Matth, 24. 38. The Sons ofGodfaw 

the Daughters of Men, and took them Wives Hence arofe all the 

Healhenifh Fables of the Adulteries and Whoredoms of their Gods. 
For the old Pagan Gods were indeed no other, but thofe old Gigantine 
Rebels and Sinners againft the Lord in the firft times and ages of the 

2.Viok?ice and Opprejfion, Gen. 6. 11. The Earth alfo was corrupt before 
God, and the Earth was filled with Violence. Being men of great Strength, 
and many of them no doubt Gyants,they did whatfoever they lift. 

3. Sinful Mixtures and Confufion between the Church and the world, 
Gen. 6.2. The Sons of God, that is, the profefibrs of Religion, married' 
with the Daughters of Men, that is, Profefibrs with fuch as were prophane. 
The Sons ofGod cannot bemeant of the Angels, for they were not capa- 
ble of bodily Lufts, they could not fall in love with Women. 

Hereupon the Lord brought in Defolation, and cut them down with 
a Flood : as Job 12. 16. and fo put this Adamical Difpenfation to an end : 
But brought in another, and a new Difpenfation of himfelf, viz, 

1 To Noah and hisPofterity.This was the Lord's fecond Difpenfation 
to his People. For the Lord would not yet caft ofFhis Care of wretch- 
ed Man \ but recover him, and fet him up again once more. Now 
unto all the former Difcoveries there were feveral Additions. For that 
great Gofpel- Promife, that a Saviour fiiould come, and that the Seed of 
the Woman fhould break the Serpents Head •, they had that, and did live 
upon it ftill -, they had alfo Sacrifices, and Cloathing, and Church Dis- 
cipline but new Difcoveries were added : The Lord fpake fomething 
more of his Mind unto them. There were fome farther Beams of Light 
appearing and mining forth upon them, 

1. He 

Tefta?nent, in divers Manners. 27 

1. Hefaved them by Water in the Ark. The Story whereof you have 
in the 6% 7, and 8. Chap, of Genefis, remembred 1 Pet. 3. as a Type of 
Baptifm. And (by the way) this could not but be of great ufe to all 
Pofterity. For tho' Nature would teach men the ufe of Boats, and lef- 
jer Veffels, to pafs the leffer Brooks and Rivers : Yet that they, had any 
great Ships before the Flood is not probable : So that here it feems W3S 
the beginning of the Art of Navigation and Shipping! 

2. He renews bis Covenant with them, with Noah and all his Seed, e- 
ven all mankind ; and gave them the Rainbow for an out- 
ward Sign and Pledge thereof, Gen. 9. 8, 9, 12. to 18. This n? 1^ 

is the firft inftance where the word Covenant is ufed con- 
cerning the Tranfa&ions between God and Men. The Rainbow was 
the Sign thereof, (the horns downwards, and the* back upwards to 
Heaven, intimating that the Lord will not ihoot out of his Bow the 
Arrow of another Deluge) which, whether it were there before, and 
now only made a Sign of the Covenant, or that now it had its firft Ex- 
iftence is difputable. But it is probable enough, that it might be alto- 
gether new : Yea, tho' we fuppofe the Rainbow to arife from natural 
Caufes. For a years Deluge could not but caufe a great alteration in 
all the Elements, and in the Clouds, and in the Air, whereby there 
might be new Phenomena, new appearances in the Heavens, which ne- 
ver were before. Moreover, it might be produced by a new creating 
Power of Providence, beyond the force of any natural Caufes, and al- 
io inftituted for a Sign of the Covenant. It could not have afforded 
any great affurance to them, if they had only the feeing and beholding of 
it, ( which was all that was to be done in this Sacrament, ) to fee no- 
thing but what they had feen before, could yield but fmall comfort and 
aflurance to that new World. 

And that this Covenant had a further Myftery in it, than meerly 
outward Prefervation from another Deluge ; See Ifai. 54. 
p. For this is as the Waters o/Noah trntome— The Cove- ^jf*'* 1 ** 
nant of my Peace /hall not be removed. The Rainbow " : 
therefore was a Sign of the Covenant of Grace. Hence Revel 4. 3. 
Behold a Throne was fet in Heaven, and one fate on the fi 

Throne and there was a Rainbow round about the ?^ r Qf °^ ^ s 

Throne, Revel. 10. 1. Chrift the Angel of the Covenant a perfonal Type, 
is defcribed, as having a Rainbow upon his Head. 

3. He inlargeth their Provifton of Food, by giving them a CommifTion 
to eat the Flelh of the Brute Creatures, Gen. 9. 3. At firft there is no 
mention of any other Provifion, but the Fruits of the Earth, Gen. 1. 
29. But now there was need of fome further fupply • becaufe it is pro- 

E 2 bable 

•i .8" The Gofpel Preached under the Old 

bable, that the Vigor of the Earth, aDd the Virtue of the Herbs 
Plants, and Fruits thereof, could not but be fomewhat impaired and* 
decayed by that whole years Winter. 

Therefore, for men upon a Religious account to forbid the eating- 
of fomc Meats, as the Fapifts forbid Flefh in Lent, it is a fuperftitious^ 
Infringement of the Liberty here granted, and given by the Lord unto. 
all the Sons of Noah. 

4, The Blood was wholly re ferved and excepted, Gen. 9. 4. But Fie fh with 
the Life thereof \ which is the Blood thereof , flwll ye not eat. This feems to* 
be done partly upon a Moral, and partly upon a Ceremonial account. 

Moral-, for mans Health, and to prevent that Ferity and Savagenefs 
which Mankind is fo apt to degenerate into : As in fome barbarous' 
Nations,, they would drink the living Biood out of the Horfe they rode 
upon, opening a Vein with an Inftrument when they were *hirfty. 
This is Barbarous and Savage ^ and this Prohibition here given, ex- 
cludes and forbids fuch' a Practice. Thofe Gyants of wickednefs before 
the Flood, it is not improbable, but that to other barbarous and raging 
fins* they might add the eating of living Creatures alive ; therefore the 
Lord doth fo dire&ly and exprefly interdict and forbid it. And it is 
the Judgment of fome very learned men, that the eating of Blood 
cold, anddreftas other Meat, was not at all forbidden : For the Pro- 
hibition lies- not dire&Iy againft Blood, but againft the eating of living 
Fiefh, Flelh animated with the living Bloody the Blood being theSeat, 
and Chariot of the Life and Vital Spirits. 

Some think it was done upon a Ceremonial account. The Blood was 
refetved as a facred thing unto the Lord, till fuch time as that preci- 
ous Blood was fhed, which hath put an end to all Types and Shadows. 
This is exprefTed, Levit. 17. 1 1. / have given it to yon upon the Altar z 
to mah an atonement for your Souls : For it is the Blood that makcth ana- 
tenement for 'the Soul: As the former moral Reafon is exprefTed, v. 14. 
It- is true, the Ceremonial Law came by Mofes • but the meaning is not, 
that there were no Parts at all of it before his time y for there were Sa- 
crifices from the Fall of Man : But the meaning is, that Mofes did in- 
corporate and fumthem all up together, with many divine enlargements 
and additions, into that great Body of Ceremonial Laws by him efta- 
blifhed and fetled in that Church and People of JJrael. Therefore 
there might be a Ceremonial Prohibition of Blood even from Noab*s 

5. The Lord now gave unto Mankind that great Ordinance of Magi fir a' 
:y r Gen. 9.6. Whofo fheddeth Mans Blood, by Man (hall his Blood befhed. 
Qf which Divines fay truly, that it hRemedirtm corrupt* Nainra. Bet 


Teftanienty in divers Manners. 29 

yet corrupt Nature, fo far as appears out of the Sacred Hiftory, never 
had the life and benefit of it till novo : But rather on the contrary, the 
Lordfecures Cam, as it were, by fpecial Difpenfation, Gw. 4. 15. The 
Government of the World before feems to have been only domeftical- 
and paternal ; which might eafily be •, Parents then living fo long a* 
to fee whole if owns and Cities of their own Children and Pofterity ; 
But this paternal way of Government was fo mild, that it was not effe- 
ctual and fufficient to reftrain Vice and Wickednefs ; which grew to 
fuch Gigantick ftrength and height, that there was a neceflity to cut 
the wicked down with a Flood. 

But therefore now to prevent the like Degeneracy and Deftrudhon, 
the Lord puts a Wronger Bridle and Reftraint upon the outragioos 
Wickednefs and Corruption of mans Nature^ namely, this of Magiftra- 
cy or Civil Government, whereby Some are intruded with the Power 
of the Sword, to take away the Lives of others in grolTer cafes, efpeci- 
aily that of Murther. 

6k- God divided the World among them, Gen. 10. which confided of 
three parts then known, tho' not by thefe names, to wit, Afta, Africk, 
and* Europe^ whereof Stems Pofterity dwelt chiefly in Afta, Cham's in 
Africk, and to Japhet's Pofterity Europe fell, known in Scripture by 
this Name, The Ifles of the Gentiles, Gen. 10. 5. of whofe Pofterity we 
our felves are. 

And now one would think Mankind was happy, when God thus fets 
them up again, begins with them upon a new fcore as it were. But 
there were four things efpecially that did ruine all, and brought this 
Difpenfation to an end. 

t. The Jpoftacy o/Cham and his Pofterity f Gen. 9. 22. an unnatural 
Sin, to defpifeand difhonour his Parents, andhimfelfnot a 
Child when he did this, but above a hundred years old, witilxirtor. 
ver. 25. the Curfeis thundred forth againft Canaan: So the 
Punifhment anfwers the Sin. Cham is an ungratious Son to his Father, 
therefore he hath a curfed Son. And perhaps Canaan might be prefent 
and Partner in his Father's Sin, orthemoft delightful of his Children, 
being the youngeft 5 and fothe Curling him would be moft likely to 
pierce and grieve his Fathers hard Heart. And it may be fo exprefs'd 
for the greater comfort of the Ifraelites ; that the Nations they were to 
expel, were a Generation oftheCurfe of God; But certain it is, that 
Cham himfelf was intended, and curfed in that Curfe. This fell out a- 
bout forty years (as fome reckon) after the Flood. 

2y That. -impious attempt of building the- Tower of Babel, Gen. 1 :. 4,. 
whether to fecure themfelves from another Delude, through their unbe- 

go The Gofpel preached under the Old 

lief and diftrufl of God's promife} or thinking to climb into Heaven, a 
mad Projeft, but Sinners a& fometimes at a ftrange race of Madnefs, not 
knowing what they do; or that they were moved and a&ed by Pride 
and Vain glory, to get them a Name : This the Text expreflfetb, being 
probably the end mod generally aimed at by them ; tho' it is like they 
had various motives 3nd inducements, and thofe very foolifh and wick- 
ed. This Defection was from that of Chams, about fixty two years, 
as fome compute. 

3. There was a ruining Judgment came upon them for this fin, vie. 
the Confufion and Divifion of Tongues ; a juft and fevere puni(hment (the 
Hebrew being retained among the godly Seed of Heker : Which was fo 
denominated from him, becaufe his pofterity were the chief prefervers 
of it) which was a punifhment that did increafe the Apoftacy : For it 
made the Communication and Propagation of the Light and Know- 
ledge of God amongfl: them more difficult. 

4. That provoking fin ofldolarty. 1 mean that groffer fort of it, wor- 
fliipping the Creatures and Images. That the rife of this Abomination 
was in this Period, may appear thus. 

If it had been before the Flood, doubtlefs the Lord would have 
mentioned it amongfl: the Caufes of that DeftruSion: He mentions 
other leffer (ins, but not this : 

Moreover it was amongfl: Abraham's Anceftors when they dwelt be- 
yond the River Euphrates, Jojh. 24. 2. The place where this Delufion firft 
arofe, feems to be Babylon, which is called the Mother of Fornications, 
which is meant of Idolatry, and Spiritual Fornications, as well as 
bodily, Revel. 17. 5. 

And Chaldea is called the Land of graven Images, Jer. 50. 38. therefore 
it is likely, the firft rife of this fin was at Babel, not long after the 
building of the Tower of Babel-, It being an ufual ftratagem of Satan, 
when his Kingdom hath received fome deadly ftroke in one form, to find 
cut fome new Appearance, fome new Device to appear in, to recover 
his Lofles, and to feduce corrupted man again, as Revel. 12. when the 
Dragon was caf down, when Paganifh Idolatry was deftroyed, then he 
raifethup Topfh Idolatry, chap. 13. Beaft-worfhip inftead of Dragon- 
worfhip. So here, Atheiftical Prophanenefs being teftified againft by 
God from Heaven by the Flood, and then again by confounding the 
Builders of Babel-, Satan betakes himfelf to this ftratagem ', that if there 
muft be fome Religion, and fome worfhip among men -, he would de- 
ceive them with a falfe Objeft, and fo feduce them from the Knowledge 
and Worlhip of the only true and living God, by prefenting a multi- 
tude of falfe Gods. 


Teftament, in divers Manners. 31 

But thus this fecond Difpenfation, under Noah, was corrupted and 
loft : Which continued about four hundred twenty feven years, as you 
will find if you compare the Lives of the Patriarchs, Gen. 11. But 
you muft remember in the computing of it, thatTerab was an hundred 
and thirty years o\<\ at Abraham's Birth, as appears cut of cap. 11. 32. 
compared with cap. 12 4' For Abraham was but feventy five when his 
Father Tcrahdkd, being two hundred and five. Now if feventy five 
be deducted out of two hundred and ^q, there remains one hundred 
and thirty. In the reft of the Computation and Chronology there is no 

3. And fo we come to the Lord's third Difpenfation ; when he fets his 
Church and true Religion as it were upon a new Bottom in Abraham 
and his Seed. Wherein the Lord fpake forth fomething more of his 
mind, than ever formerly. There were now brighter Beams of Gof- 
pel-Light fhining forth upon the Church of God than ever before. I 
fhall inftance but in four particulars. 

1. The Lord calls him forth out of his own Country, and from hi3 
Fathers Houfe, and fo plucks him like a Brand out of the Fire, from the 
midft of Idols and Idolaters, Gen. j 1. 31. from Mr of the Chaldees to Ha- 
ran, Gen. 1 2. from Haran into Canaan, Jfai. 41. 2. who raifedup the Righ- 
teous man from the Eafl. 

2. He promifed him a Seed, a blefTed Seed , that of him ftiould come 
that great and blelTed Seed fo much expected and longed for by all the 
Saints ever fince the firft Promulgation of the Gofpel to our firft Parents 
in Paradife : That Seed in whom both he and all the Nations of the Earth 
(hould be bleffed, Genef. 22. 1 8. Till then we do not find any particular 
and exprefs mention of what Family the Meffiah (hould come. But now 
this promife of this Seed is renewed and repeated feven or eight times 
over in the Hiftory of Abraham in Genefts : And it is a Promife, not only 
of a numerous Pofterity,and a Church-Seed, viz,, his Pofterity to be the 
only Church of God on Earth; but which is more, a Promife of that 
great and bkfled Seed. 

3. He promifed him alio the Land of Canaan for an Inheritance unto 
his Seed afcer him, when they had fufTered, and been in an unfetled 
condition as ftrangersand pilgrims four hundred and thirty years, Gen, 

15.13. 1 8. which was a typical Land, and did relate unto another 

and a better Country beyond that, as Hehr. 11. 

4. The Lord gave him Circumcifion as a Seal of this Covenant, and of 
the Righteoufnefs of Faith, Gen. 1 7. 10. Th'vs is my Covenant, which ye fhall 
keep between me and)0H y and thy Seed after thee - *■ Every man child [hall 
be circttmcifed. Rom. 4. 1 I. He received the Sign ofCircHmcifion, a Seal of the 

Right eon fncfr 

3 2 The Go/pel Preached under the Old 

Kighteoufncfs of Faith. The duration of this Difpenfatioo, under which 
Abraham, Jfaac and Jacob, and the twelve Patriarchs and their Pofterity 
continued and enjoyed God, till the Lord provided further Mercies for 
them by the hand of Mofes (of which afterwards) I fay, this Period and 
State of the Church continued about four hundred and thirty years, 
Gen. 15. 13- 

We have now gone through the three firft pieces, the three firft fteps 
and degrees of the Lord's gradual PatefacYions and Manifeftations of his 
Mind before the giving of the Law. Thofe other pieces of Difcovery 
under the Law, we (hall fpeak to (the Lord aflifting) afterwards. Mean 
while let us refled a little upon this that hath been faid, in order to 
fome practical Improvement of it, in fome practical Inferences and 
Inftru&ions from it. 

Vfe. 1. See the Infant ftate of the Church and true Religion, how low and 
weak the firft beginnings of it were. Chrift compares it to a Grain of 
Mhftard Seed, Matth. 13.31,32. in the firft beginnings under the New 
Teftament : It is true alfo of the old times. 

2. We may here fee how prone Mankind is to degenerate, and fall from 
God : God no fooner fets them up again, but they fill again. The Church 
of God had flood but a matter of a hundred and thirty years in Mams 
Family, which included all Mankind ; when Cain falls into open Murther. 
Well, he is turned out, and a matter of a hundred years after things are 
fo. corrupted, that Setb calls his Son Enos, miferable man. Well, about 
three hundred years after, (as fome conjecture, for the particular time 
is. not fee dawn in the facred Hiltory, but it may be fuppofed to be 
thereabouts from Gain's Defeftion and Ejection,) there is a new Refor- 
mation in the time oi-Enojb. How long this reformed ftate continued 
is not certain ; but fureitis, that when the World was but fixteen 
hundred fifty fix years old, there was fuch a general and univerfal Cor- 
ruption of things, that the Lord thought it necefTary to cut them down 
with a Flood : So it appears, that (as fome have exprefled it) all mankind 
is fick of the Falling ficknefs : Or, as the Lord himfelf complains, Hof. 
1 1 . 7. My people are bent to bachfli ding from me, the? they called them to the 
tnoft High ; yet none at all would exalt him : Tho* the Prophets called them 
to repent and turn to the Lord \ yet there was none found, that would 
exalt and fet up God in his heart and life. There is a backfliding hent 
upon the Heart, like the Byafs upon the Bowl, that turns it afide, a de- 
parting Difpofition of Spirit. 

3. Behold and fee the free Grace of God in fo many recovering 
Difpenfations, and renewed Difcoveries and manifeftations of himfelf. 
Oh the Love of God to worthlefs Man ! He was loth to gire up fuch 


Teftament, atfundry times. 33 

& loft .Creature. This is that Divine Philanthropy, whereof the Apoftle 
fpeaks,T*f. 3.4. 

4. Thefe old things being paft and vanished away, do not /it down with 
attainments of [neb low Difpenfations, but labour for fuch degrees of Light 
and Grace, and Communion with God, as becometh Saints under the 
New Teftament Adminiftrations. Beloved, the Difpenfation of the 
Age wherein we live is. high and glorious ; But it may be thy particu- 
lar Difpenfation is low, thy own perfonal attainments come very fhort : 
Thou art but like a Believer that lived under Adarn^s, under Noah's , 
under Abraham's, Difpenfation. 

Signs of a Chriftian under alow Difpenfation. 

1 . When there is an inordinate affecting, and a lulling afcer outward, 
and vifible, and extraordinary Appearance, and Operations, fuch as they 
were wont to have in thofe childifh times : Such rnay be Christians, £nd 
may have the root of the matter in them ^ but they are Chriftians of the 
lowed form. There is a lulling in our hearts, by nature, after fuch 
things, after extraordinary Operations which God is wont to crofs, as 
he did in Naaman, 2 King. 5. 1 1. fo wi ;• Chriftians linger much after, 
and lay much weight upon Dreams, a Villous, and extraordinary. 
Raptures, and Ravifliments of Spirit .• Or it may be look after Mira- 
cles, if they hear of any vain pretender thereunto. 

/ had rather have a little [olid Comfort in that good old plain Scripture way 
of Faith and Repentance, and labouring with my own Heart to apply the Promt* 
fes-, and lvalue this more, than if an Angel fhould appear to me out of Hea- 
ven, to tell me, that I am a Child of God : For if an Angel fhould appear to me 
with fuch a Meffage, I profefs, 1/kould not know whether to believe him or not ; 
but I am fare, that if I walk clofe with God, if 1 exercife my felf unto Godli- 
nefs, and unto Communion with him in Faith and prayer, and in ft eking of him, 
and humbling my felf before him daily, I am fare, that in this way 1 cannot mif- 
carry, if the Gofpel be true, 1 amfafe, the Lord keeping me in that way. 

I would not advife Believers utterly to reject all Evidences and 
Comforts, where there is poffibly fomething of Enthufiafm intermixt, if 
there be a fuitablenefs to their condition in the Promifes brought to 
hand in fuch a way •, and if there be a fpiritual Savour in the Heart, 
and a relifh of the Gofpel, and the Promifes and Bleffings of it. 1 fay 
then, receive them which way foever they be brought to hand, though 
; be by a Dream. 

But I would exhort you not to reft in fucfa a way -, but labour for an 
higher, more folid and fpiritual way of Comfort, and Communion with 

F 2. Art 

54 The Goffel 'Preached under the Old 

2. Art thou afted by a fpirit of Light and Love, or Darknefs and fear ? 
Hall: thou a dark or clear Light? It may be thy Candle gives but a dim 
Light, and (mokes in the focket, as if it were going our : Thou art dark, 
as to the Light and Work of this age. This is a fign thou art bin low 
in thy attainments. Art thou afted by Fear or Love ? If by Fear only 3 
this is low and legal: If by love alfo, this is Gofpel-like. The Law 
genders unto Bondage, G'dl. 4. 24. It was delivered Heb 12. 18. with darknefs 
and t^mpeft : But the fpirit of the Gofpel is a fpirit of Faith and Love, not 
of Fear and terror. 

3. Where there is an aptnefs to ba^kflide and fall off from good 
beginnings, and to fall again after recovering Difpenfations. This is but 
a weak and infant ftate-, as little Children when firft they begin to go, 
they catch many a fall. 

4. Confider of what Handing thy Profefllon is: at firft all Believers are 
but low and weak j but for an old profeflbr to be fo, this is fad. It 
may b« thou haft made a Profefllon of Religion ten or twenty years. It 
is time for thee to pus away childi(h things, Heb. 5. 12. you might 
have been for the time fetled and eftabliihed Chriftians, allured of Gods 
Love; Bntyou are yet under the power of finful corruptions, of Pride, 
and Peevifnnefs, and pafiion ^ yet under darknefs and prevailing doubts 
about your Intereft in God-, and this after many years profeflion of 
Religion : This might better become the Sons of God under thofe old 
Difpenfations, than one of thy years and Sanding. 

We have briefly gone through the feveral pieces of Difco- 
4 |"^' very, the feveral Be^ms of Gofpel-iight that fhone forth before 

7 * the Law, during that firft period from Adam to Mofes. 

The fecond grand period is that under the Law, from Mofs to the 
Meffiah. This we are now to fpeak unto ; We may call it the Legal or 
the Mofaical Dtfpenfition. In this feafon there were further, clearer, and 
more plentiful beamings forth of Gofpel-light upon the Church, above 
what had been before. Now might the Spoufe fay, The Voice of my 
Beloved, behold he cometh leaping upon the mountains, skipping upon the HiUs^ 
&c. Cant. 2. 8, 9; The Worlhip of God, and the true Religion and 
Church of God was now reduced to abetter confidence and fettlement 
in the world than ever before. 

There were two things efpecially which were the peculiar advantages 
of this Difpenfarion under the Law, wherein it did excel the former, 
which was before the Law. 

1 . That now the true Religion was prefcrved and propagated by Writing 
to $ofterity> which had been done before only or chiefly by Oral Tradition, 


Te/lament, at fan dry tunes. 35 

which might indeed be more eafily done, when men lived fo 
many hundred years : For fome have well obfei ved,tbaU/jm?pa- ^ ct '* 
triarchs, for the fpace of two thoufand years an J more, from e ' 9 
the beginning of the World to Ifaac 7 might fuffice to propagate true 
Religion. Adam to Metkufelab t who lived with him two hundred forty 
two years: Methnfelak 10 Sem • for Methufelah lived almoft an hundred 
years after Sem was born ; and then Sem to Jfaac - 7 for Sent lived five 
hundred and two years after tncFlood, which reached to the fiftieth year 
of Jfaac. And during moft of this lime all the world had but ono 
Language, whereby they could fpeak and communicate their thoughts 
to whom foe ver they would. Ye? as to the generality of mankind the 
knowledg of God was quite loll and forgotten by fome, and by others 
corrupted with Fables and Superftitions. Moreover, the Lives of men 
came now to be much Ihortened : Fo< before the Flood they lived eight 
or nine hundred years; after the Flood but four or five hundred years. 
About the time oiTeUg, when the Tower of Babel was built, there was 
a further decurtation of mens Lives unto two hundred years or therea- 
bout. And la(Uy,in Mofes his time, unto threefcore and ten or therea- 
bout,and there it hath flood ever fince. Moreover there was a confufbn 
of Languages, which did much increafe the Darknefs, and obHruct the 
Communication and D.itufion of Light among them. 

The way of Oral Tradition is a very inefficient way, and found by 
experience fo to be, as upon other accounts, fo upon thefe occurring at 
this time. 

i- In general, The Knowledge of God in a manner loft. 

2. The Shortning of mens -Lives. 

3. The Ccnfufion of Tongues. 

Upon all which Occurrences the Lord thought ft 6t to intruft his 
Truth no longer wkh the frail and carelefs Memories of men$ but to 
leave it upon Record in Writing, a much fafer and furer way for the 
Prefervation and the Propagation of it. 

There is a threefold advantage of this way. 

1. It is an help to the weaknefs of Memory. For if a thing be written, 
there it is, and a man may recall it by reading, when he doth not well 
remember it. 

2. For the further Propagation and Diffufion of the Light: for there 
may be opportunity of writing to perfons abfent, and in after times, 
who may read, when they have not opportunity of hearing. 

3. To prevent Corruption : In the way of Oral Tradition fome may 
fay one thing and fome another. 

F ?. 2. A 

36 The Gofpel preached under the Old 

2. A fecond Preeminence and advantage of this Difpenfatipn above the 
former, was this, that now the Gofpel, and the true Religion and Worfhip of 
God was fettled in a whole Nation and People by divine promife and 
Inftitution : Whereas before it feems to have been only in Families and 
Congregations, formed chiefly according to the Light of Nature, wherein 
the Ordinances of Worfhip were celebrated by the Fathers and Heads of 
Families ^ but now a whole Nation are made the Teftes & Cuflodes of ir, 
the WitnefTes and the Keepers of it, as a Depofitum Committed to their 
truft, Rom. 3. 2. 

As to the Occafinns of introducing this new Difpenfation, they were 
partly the defeilions under the former j but chiefly the Lords own Love and 
Goodnefs. For he had engaged himfelf by his Promife, and by his Oath, 
wherein he had pawned his Truth and Faithfulnefs to Abraham, Jfaas 
and Jacob, that he would do great things for their Pofterity. Therefore 
he is fa id to remember that Promife in the things he did for Ifrael. See Pfal. 
105. 8, 9, 10. he fhews that God remembred his Covenant with Abraham, 
Ifaac and Jacob. Then followeth a large Rehearfal of his Difpenfations 
towards Ifrael : And then he concludes again ver. 42, 43. For he remembred 
his holy Promife, and Abraham hvs Servant : and he brought forth hvs People 
with joy, and bvs Chofen with gladnefs . 

And there was need of fome recovering Difpenfation, becaufe of thofe 
defec1:ions,that had been from under the Grace and Covenant made with 
Abraham. If yon look back a little unto Abraham's Difpenfation, you will 
find, that fome of his Seed fell off, viz.. Jfhmael and Efau. And the Seed 
of Jacob, when they were in Egypt , they learned too much of their man- 
ners. It is thought their Calf in Exod. 32. was made in 
imitation of the Egyptian Idol Ap'vs, which was an Ox : E e *™\ Nou °* 
TheyfmeUed of the Leaven 0/Egypt, where they faw Calves, ' 3 ' 4 '' 

Oxen and Serpents wor {tripped. See Ez.ek, 23. 8. Neither left fte her Whore- 
doms brought from Egypt : And what is meant by this, is more clearly and 
exprefly held forth Ez.ek. 20. 8. Neither did they for fake the Idols of E* 
gypt : Jofh. 24. I4. pnt away the Gods } which your Fathers ferved on the 0- 
ther fide of the Flood, and in Egypt. Hereupon it was time for God to 
work, that he might not lofe his People, and to put things into fome 
better way : And fo he brought in another great Difpenfation, viz., 
that which was under the Law. 

And as we fubdivided the former Difpenfation before the Law into 
three leffer pieces and parcels, namely, Adams\ Noah's and Abraham's 
Difpenfation : So we mull; fubdivide this alfo into fome lefler pieces. 

This whole Difpenfation under the Law may be fubdivided into four 
particulars, under each of which there were remarkable Changes made by 
G©d in v.*e $ate of Religion, and of his Church and People, x. 

Teftament, at fundry times. 37 

i. The Difpenfation of the Tabernacle and the Judges. 

2. The Difpenfation of the Temple and the Kingdom, 

3. That fad Difpenfation of Captivity in Babylon. 

4. The Difpenfation of the fecond Temple after their Return, 
The firft of thefe was from Mofes to the Temple. 

The feeond from the Temple to the Captivity in Babylon, 

The third from the Captivity to the Return. 

The fourth from the Return to the Mefliah. 

1. The fir ft fart of the Lord's Difptnfation to his People under the Law was 
from Mofes to the building of the Temple : Moft of which time they were 
under the Government of Judges. What the Lord did for them, and 
how, and what he fpake •, what further Difcoveries of bimfelf he gave 
them during this Period, you may fee in thefe five particulars. 

1. The Lord, in remembrance of his ancient Promife, delivered them 
out o/Egypt with a high Hand, and with an outftretched Arm, with great 
Signs and Wonders, and Plagues upon Pharaoh^ and all his Hoft, and all 
his Land, dividing the Sea before them : The Hiftory of all which is 
recorded in the Book of Exodus in the firft fifteen Chapters of that Book, 
and fo often celebrated with triumphing Praifes in the Pfalms and 
Prophets^ who often fpeak of all his Wonders in the Land of Egypt, 
which it is thought were within two months before their departure : 
And of his dividing the Sea of Edom^hzx. his redeemed might pafs thro* 
upon dry ground: All which was a Type cf Spiritual Redemption alfo -, 
and therefore it was a Difpenfation of much Mvftery and Glory. 

2. He gave them his Law • By Word of Mouth from Heaven, and -in 
Writing in the Tables of Stone, and in the five Books of Mofes : Both 
the Moral ^Judicial and Ceremonial Law. For the Moral Law, The Lord 
came down upon Mount Sinai in much Majefty and Terror with an 
Hoft of Angels } and thundred forth with an audible voice from Heaven 
thofe Ten Commandments , Exod. 1 9. 9. that the people might hear ; and cap, 
20. 22 Joe talked with you from Heaven :■ And he wrote them in two Tables of 
Stone , and in the five Booh of Mofes. The Ceremonial and Judicial Laws 
were delivered in this lad way, viz* by Writings being left upon Record 
in the Books of Mofes. 

This is celebrated as- a choice Mercy, Tfal. 103. 7. He made known hk 
ways, unto Mofes, his Ails unto the Children of Ifrael : yea as a peculiar and 
diftinguifhing Mercy, Pfal. 147 2. lad v. Hefheweth hit Word unto Jacob., 
hvs Statutes and Judgments unto Ifrael, he hath not dealt jo with any Nation, 

And now feems to have been the firft Invention of the Art of Writings 
The firft mention we find of it v is in Mofes his time. In Jacob's time U 
may feem they had noknowledgof it - ? becaufe in the Covenant between 


The Gofpel Preached under the Old 

him and Laban, inftead of any Articles in Writing between them, or 
figning or fealing of it, they only ere& an heap of Stones, as Monuments 
of remembrance of it, Gen, 31*45 &c. And the Invention is fo admirable 
that it feems to tranfcend all humane Wit and Induftry. The reducing 
of all audible and articulate Sounds unto vifible Marks- and that info 
familiar and (horta way, by twenty or thirty Letters, without any further 
load to the Memory : We may well afcribe it unto God himfelf, as the 
blefled Author and Inventor of it ; to help his poor People to, and in 
theknowledg of himfelf : According to that in Pxov. 8. 12. IWtfd-m 
dweHivith Prudence, and find out knowledge of witty Inventions. ■ 

3^ 'the Lord accented the whole Nation to be his own peculiar People, erect- 
ing a glorious Frame and Fabrick of Church and Common-wealth a- 
mongft them } wherein the Lord himfelf was King, and did immediately 
pre fide \ and therefore it hath been fitly called a Theocracy : fo Gideon 
J'udg. 8. 23. The Lord fljall rale over you : Ifai. 5 ?. 16, that I may plant the 
Heavens, and lay the Foundations of the Earth, and fay unto Zion, thou art 
my People. 

4. He gave them glorious and vifible Symbols and Tokens of his Prefence 
amongji them, walking before them in a Pillar of Cloud and tire, Exod. 1 3. 
21,22. which Pillar retted upon the Tabernacle afrer it was Built 
Exod. ult. ult. which alfo was a Symbol of his Prefence with them: And 
fo was the Ark, and the Manna from Heaven, Exod. \6. 14, 15, with 
the Rock that followed them, Exod. 17.6. 1 Cor. 104. 

5, The Lord himfelf conducted and led them through the Defarts of 
Arabia by the Hand oiMofes-, and into the Land of Promife by the 
Hand of Jo/buah, drying up Jordan for them,.iubduing the Inhabitants 
before them, raifing up Judges and Rulers for them j and finally training 
them up by many inftrufting Providences to fit them for the further 
Mercies he had yet in ftore for them. 

One would think all things were now well fetled^ but there were two 
or three things, partly defecls in this Difpenfation it felf,and partly fome 
provoking evils on their part under it ;by reafon whereof the Lord brought 
in a further and an higher Difpenfation afterwards. 

1. There had been ftrange Rebellions and Provocations in the 
Wildernefs, which have had an influence into all the forrows and troubles 
that have befallen them ever fince. Murmuring againft God. Mutinying 
againft Mofes and Aaron, which the Lord took very hainoufly ^ and 
therefore deftroyed Corah, Dathan and Abiram by miracle. Fortodifobey 
the juft Commands of a lawful Magiftrate, is to rebel againft God himfelf. 
And above all, Idolatry - 7 Exod. 32. 34, 3 ^. In the day when I viftt, I will 
Viftt their Sin upon them, and the Lord plagued the people, becanfe they made 


Teflament, at fun dry times . 3 £ 

the Calf which Aaron made. From whence the Jews have a Proverb, 
that in every af}]i&ion,in every calamity that comes upon them, there be 
fome grains of the Molten Calf in it. 

There were frequent Degeneracies and Oppreffions under the Judges 3 

3. The Tabernacle was unfixed. 

Upon ail which accounts the Lord had not yet fatisfied himfelf, in the 
expreffions of his own Love towards them \ but his Heart was full, and 
he was refolved to do yet more for them, and fo to try them to the 
utmoic. Therefore he was pleated to put a period unto this Difpenfation, 
which began about the year of the World two thoufand five hundred and 
thirteen, and lalied about four hundred eighty feven or eighty eight 
Years, 1 Kings 6. 1. 

•2. The Lord's fecond Viffenfation under the Law, was from the Temple to 
the Captivity in Babylon. In this Period the Glory of the Legal Difpenfa- 
tion rofe up to the greateff. height and fplendor ; and that chiefly ia 
two particulars, the Glory of the Kingdom ^ and Temple. 

1. The Kingdom was [exled in the Houfe of David, as the Type and 
Progenitor of the Mtjfub. And in his days and Solomons it extended to 
the utmoff. bounds, that God had fpoken of to Abraham : tho* afterwards 
for their own fins they were cut (hort^ the neighbour Nations making 
ofjthe yoke, and the Kingdom it fslf divided into two parts- two Tribes 
only left to Solomon's Poiterity. The Lord had promifed Abraham, that 
his Seed fhould pojllfs all the Land to the River Euphrates, Gen. \ 5. 18. 
And ic was performed in DdvicTs time, and in Solomons, 1 Ktng. 4. 21, 
24. 2 Chron. 9 16. And this Kingdom was a Type of the Kingdom of 

1. The other piece of their Glory Wtethe Temple. Before God had 
dwelt in Tents •, but now he had an Honfe built unto his Name. The 
Lord turned his flitting Tabernacle into a fixed Temple - 9 for which 
David made plentiful Preparation • Solomon did erect and fet it up He 
did it in feven or eight years time, or more precifely feven years and an 
halt : For he began it in the fecond month, and finifiied it in the eighth, 
1 King. 6. 1, and nit. and he began it in the fourth year of his Reign, and 
finifhed it in the eleventh ; Moreover he began it in the 480th year 
after the coming out of Egypt, and dedicated it feven or eight years after, 
which fell into the year of the World three thoufand, or three thoufand 
and one, as you will find, if yon take the pains to cemputeand put al] 
the former Periods together. And their Kingdom and Temple Hood 
in fome degree of outward Glory about four hundred years, from the 
finifhing and dedicating of ic, to the beginningof their Bondage under 
ihtYokc of Babylon. 

A ad 

40 The Oofpel Preached under the Old 

And now one would think they had been fettled in filch a conditioa 
as might have flood for ever. But the Apoftacies were very great, which 
brought this high and profperous Difpenfation to an end, to a fad end. 

i. The Peoples hearts being not fo with God as became a people 
crowned with fuch Glory, God left them and their Princes, the firft and 
wifeft of them, the very Founders of their Kingdom and Temple, unto 
very great and enormous tranfgrefiions. David committed Adultery 
and Murther,a very unparallei'd cafe^ for which the Lord threatneth, 
the Sword fhould never depart from his Houfe. Solomon was left to the 
toleration of the pubiick exercife of Idolatry, for which God rent away 
the Ten Tribes from his Pofterity : all which came to pafs, as for other 
Gaufes, fo for the Sins of the People. As is faid in a lefs tranfgrefllon 
of David ^ 2 Sam, 24. T. And the Anger of the Lord was kindled againfl 
Ifrael, and he moved David againflthemjofay, Go number lfrael and Judah. 

2. The ten Tribes under Jeroboam forfook the Temple and the Houfe 
of David; which, tho' as to God's Province, it was a righteous 
Judgment •, yet on their part it was a grievous fin ; it was a complicated 
Sin, many Sins involved in the bowels of it ; for it was both Rebelli- 
on, and Schifm, and Herefie j Rebellion againft their lawful Prince, 
Schifm from the true Church and Worfhip: yea fundamental Herefie : 
For as they fay,Ioofc to thy Houfe O David : fo in rejecting Davids Houfe, 
they rejed the Mefliah, who was to come of him, 2 Chron. 10.16. 

3. There were continual Backilidings to Idolatry, even in Juda\ as 
well as lfrael; yea when they faw the Ten Tribes carried away before 
their eyes for this Siir, yet the other would not take warning and reform, 
Ez.ek. 23. 10, 1 1 — Aholah fignifiesa Tent-, this was the Houfe of Jfrael^ 
who were a corrupt Church : Aholibah fignifics, my Tent is in her ; this 
was Jadah, which were the true Church of God •, but they declined and 
departed from God fo far, that he fent them away to Babylon. 

3. And fo we come to the third Difpenfation under the Law, namely, the 
time of their Captivity and Bondage under the Yoke of Babylon. 
There were three Deportations. 

1. Jehoiahms, in whofe time Daniel 1 

2. Jecboniahs, in whofe time Eze\iel> was carried captive. 

3. Zedekias, in whSfe time Jeremiah J 

They had now an experimental knowledge of the truth of all God's 
Threatnings. Yet during the time of this Affliction, the Lord did not 
call off his care of them ; but gave forth many Evidences of his 
unchangeable Love and Faithfulnefs toward them, under this fad 

1. In 

Tefiament at fundry times. 41 

1. in that he did preferve them from utter Deflruttion \ yet not leave 
them altogether unpunifhed, nor make a full end of them, Jcr. 30. io, 
11. He reftrained the Enemy from wholly rooting out the Nation, 

Pfal. 105.46 gave them Favour in the fight of them that carried 

them captive. 

2. In that-he did convince them, and left an everlafiing Conviftion in the 
Heart of that people againft the grofTer fort of Idolatry : fuch an indelible 
Conviftion as hath never been blotted out to this day. Inforauch, that 
their great {tumbling Block at this day againfl the Chriftian Religion is f 
the Idolatry of the Popilh Chriftians : For the poor blind Jewsconfider 
the Chriftian Religion no otherwife, but as corrupted with thofe 
Antichriftian Abominations and Idolatries: And therefore their 
Converfion and Return is not to be expefted till Antichrift, that great 
Humbling Block, be removed out of the way. 

3. The Lord gave them further and glorious Difcoveries, by raifing 
up excellent Prophets to them : as Ezekiel, Daniel, Jeremy, Tome part of 
his Prophefies were after the beginning of their Captivity and Bondage 
to the Babylonians. 

This fad affliftive Difpenfation continued about feventy years, Jer. 
29. 10. 

• 4. The fourth and lafl of all the Old Tefiament Difpesfations is that of the 
fecond Temple, from the time of their Return out of Babylon, till the Meffiahs 
coming. And herein there are thefe remarkable paflages. 

1. The Lord breaks the Yoke of Babylon, that his people might be 
delivered by the Hand of Cyrus, prophefied of by name fome hundred 
years before his Birth, Ifai. 44. 28. And as they were carried away at 
feveral times, fo they returned alfo at feveral times, and by degrees. 
Firfl: Zerubbabel, Ezra 1. and a great company with him : Afterwards 
Ezra, Ezjr. 7. 1 . after thefe things «t Laftly, Nehemiah. 

2. They built the Temple and the City of God again, Ezjt. 3. Nehem. 
1, and 2. They met wifh many Difficulties and Obftruftions in the 
Work j but yet at lad it was done *, both begun and finifhed by 
Zerubbabel, Zacb. 4. in forty fix years, Job. 2. 20. feven weeks, Dan. 9. 
25. that is, forty nine years • wt. from the Edift of Cyrus : after which, 
we may well allow one year of preparation for their Journey,another year 
for their Journey,and a third year for preparing Materials for theTemple, 
wherein David and Solomon fpent fo many years : And if we deduft three 
out of forty nine, the remainder will be but forty fix, as John 2. 20. 

It wanted fomewhat of its former Glory. As to the Strutture thereof - 
Che old men wept to fee how much Zernbbabels Temple fell (hort of Solo- 
moris Temple, in Etj % 3. 12. As to the Vtenfils belonging to it ^ the 

G Ark 

42 The Gofpel Preached under the Old 

A'\ was wanting, with the things contained in \tjhe two Tables of Stone, 
the Rod of Aaron , the Pot of Manna ; alfo the extraordinary and mira- 
culous tokens of God's Prefence, as Fire from Reaven, &c. The Lord 
would have them now to be more Spiritual, to fee his Prefence by Faith, 
when they could not feci it with their eyes. Yet Haggai faith, it had a 
greater Glory, that is, in regard of the Mejfiahs bodily prefence in. it, 
which Solomon's Temple never had. 

3. They renewed their Covenant with God, Nehem. 9. nit. and cap. 
jo. you have the Articles of this foiemn League and Covenant. 

4." The Lord guides them to the reforming of fundry Corruptions 
which had crept in amongfl: them, and raifeth them up to an higher pitch 
of Reformation than ever. Crofs Idolatry they forfook for ever ^ of which 
we fpake before. The Preaching of the Word was reftored and renewed 
among th€m,iVe&. 8. 1. — 8. ftrengthened by the prophefying of Hag- 
gai$nd Zacbary, T.z*. <$. 1. And the Hiftories of the Church in thofe 
times report alfo how there was great care to get true and peyfttt Copies 
of the Scripture, and to review the Copies they had. 

And hither (as 1 fuppofe) belongs that famous work of the Fmttation 
of the Hebrew Confonants. Much Difpute there is among learned men 
about it. That it is of a Divine Original and Authority is unqueftionable, 
if we do but grant the Divine Authority of the Scripture. Forotherwife 
the Senfe will be vagus iy incertm^ wandring and uncertain. Some 
think, it was as ancient as the firft Invention of Letters, which is referred 
to Mofes. But if we fuppofe that Writing (as all other ufeful Arts are 
ufually) was brought to perfection by degrees •, and that the Confonants 
might fuffice, while it was a Mother Tongue of fo great a People, and 
they in fuch a flourilhing condition, notopprefied nor mingled with ci- 
ther People and Languages *, than poffibly the Points might be added 
afterwards. For when tbey fell under the Yoke of ftrangers, this help 
became neceffary to be added : The Lord therefore did by Ezra and 
others, who were divinely infpired, now at leaft add them For to refer 
it to an humane Original, is to overthrow the divine Authority of the 

Yea the Lord raifeth them to an higher pitch of Reformation than 
ever, Nehem. 9. They kept the Feaft of Tabernacles fo as it had not 
been kept from the days of Jofhtta. Doubtlefs David and other 
reforming Kings had kept it ; but that part of the Ordinance, the 
dwelling in Booths had been, as it may feem, omifed and negle&ed by 
them. Another Corruption which was reformed, was the mixture of 
the Church with Heathens by ftrange Marriages, Ezx. 9, and Nehem. 
10. And the Samaritans^ thofe Mongrels, would have intruded ^ but 


Teflament, at fundry times. 43 

were reje&ed, Ezra. 4. Thus. they purged and reformed themfelves 
from thefe corrupting mixtures in the matter of the Church. 

5. And laftly, the Old Teftament was concluded by the Prophet 
Malachy, who was the laft of all the Prophets. The Lord would have no 
Prophet beyond the firft times of the fecond Temple ^ nor any Writings 
of men in the age immediately after the Apoftles, immediately follow- 
ing the Gofpel's Promulgation. That it might manifeft it felf more 
clearly by its own Light to be fupernatural. 

This Period, viz % that of the jecond Temple, continued four hundred and 
ninety years, Dan. 9. 24, fevency Prophetical Weeks is four hundred and 
ninety Solar Years. 

Now fuch a People thus delivered and reftored ; twice delivered out 
of Bondage ^ firft out of Egyfc and then a fecond time out of Babylon : 
one would think they would have abiden with the Lord for ever after. 
And one thing they did learn, viz. to forfake grofs Idolatry, and this was 
all. But they grew more rigidly formal, and exquifitely hypocritical than 
ever: And Religion ran out into Sedb and Parties and Factions amongft 
thern. There were Pharifees and Sadduces and Galilaans and Herodians 
amongft them, Names which the Scripture mentions -, and Hiftories 
fpeak of another Se&, called the Effenes. 

And thus it was with them, when our Lord Jefus came in the Flefh : 
The inward and fpiritual part of Godlinefs, and the Practice of that 
which is truly fo, was in a very great meafure loft amongft them ; being 
eaten out partly by their Seels and Divifions, partly by their rigid 
Formality and Hypocrifie : And thence at laft the Lord fending his 
Son their Mejfiah, fo long promifed to, and longed for by them, they re- 
ject and crucifie him. So the Lord having, by all thefe various Difpenfa- 
tions and turnings of his hand, mended the old Houfe, as it were, feven 
times over } he refolves now at laft to pull it down : For all thefe legal 
Difpenfations were but the mending,as it were, and repairing of the old 
Houfe : But the Gofpel pulls it quite down, and builds a new one. 

Thus I have led you through the fever al times and feafons^ wherein the 
Lord fpake unto them of old : You have feen the gradual progrefs of the 
Light and Work of God among them, in thofe feven pieces of the 
Old Teftament Difpenfation, which have been briefly run 
through. That which follows next to be fpoken to, is the \fi£.? 
Reafons of the Point, why the Lord fpake and revealed bis mind 
in fuch divers ways and manners, and in thefe fever al pieces and parcels ^ nei- 
ther in one way only, nor at one time. 

Qnefl. What may he the Reafons of the Poyit ? The Lord could have 
fpoke his whole Mind at once, in one way, and at one time ; therefore 

G 2 why 

44 The Gofpel Preached under the Old 

why did he fpeak in fuch divers manners, and in fo many feveral 
pieces and parcels ? 

Anfw. Although it is a fufficient general account, to fay, that this or 
that is bed, becaufe God wills it : For he doth all things well, and his 
Will is the Rule of Goodnefs *, and it is not for us to call him to an 
account of what he doth : Yet we may humbly and modeilly inquire into 
the reafon of things, not to contend with him for doing fo • for that 
were Prophanenels •, but to underftand fomething of his Wifdom there- 

The Reafons therefore may be referred to two heads. 

i . In regard of our Weaknefs. 

a. For his own greater Glory. 

I (hall fpeak briefly unto both thefe, adding but a little unto what 
others have faid upon this Subjeft. 

Retfi. i . In regard of oar Weaknefs. The Lord herein condefcends, and 
accommodates himfelf unto us. You may fee his Condefcention in four 

i. In that we are du% and flow of under fianding to apprehend the 
Truth. Therefore the Lord illuftrates the fame things feveral ways : 
like the Light fhining into the Houfe at feveral Windows, that in fuch 
aplenty of Light, fome of all thofe Beams may fhine into our Heart?, 
Luk. 24. 25. we are flow of Heart to believe. 

2. We are but narrow-mouthed Veffels, not able to receive much at once. 
As we are flow to receive any thing at all, fo we are uncapable to receive 
much at once. Therefore the Lord Eeacheth us here a little and there a 
little 5 a little to Adam, a little more to Noah, and a little more to 
Abraham, and yet more fully and copioufly to Adofes ; leading men on 

by degrees, as they were able, that fo men in feveral ages 

inToT mi ? ht knaw what their Fathers did > and Something more, 

Ifai. 28. 9, ic, 13. They mufthave one thing oftentimes 

3. By this various and gradual proceeding God did prepare and fit his 
People, by weaker and lower Difpenfations, for further and higher Difpen- 
fatiom-. As a Child by learning his A. B. C. and his Primer, is fit- 
ted to go into an higher, harder Book : So the Church of God uy thofe 
immediate Revelations and Vifions, &c. fo frequent in thofe firft: times, 
when they wanted the written Word, was fitted to receive the Scrip- 
tures with the more Defire, Reverence, and Faith, Exod. 19. 9. Lolcome 
unto thee in a thick Cloud, that the People may hear when I fpeak with thee? 
and believe thee for ever. And they did believe him ever after: fojoh. 
ft 29. We know that Godfpah mto Mofes. So the Church of God be- 


Teftament, atfimdry times. ^ 

ing exercifed under the Mofaical Pedagogy fo long together, they were 
thereby prepared to welcom the Goipel more gladly when it came. 
How glorioufly and joyfully was it entertained, when they had waited 
for it about four thoufand years ! With what Triumphings in God ! That 
now they faw that which Kings and Prophets and righteous men have de fired 
to fee, but it had not been granted to them. See Luke 10.23, 24. That winch 
all the Pfophets had fpohen of fine e the World began ^ Luke 1. 70. A&. 3. 24. 
The My fiery that had been hid from Ages and Generations, Col. 1. 16. 

4. A fourth Condefcention of the Lord herein is this. By thefe varie- 
ties of Difpenfation the Lord provides to have his Truth fet en with aU kind 
of Argument ;, yea with Arguments of peculiar concernment and fuitable- 
ntfs to take with us. As Mofes to the jews. The Lord made not this Cove- 
nant with our Fathers but with us, Deut. 5.3. And Manna which thy Fathers 
knew not, Deut. 8, 16. So Chrift, Joh. 2. i^Anew Commandment give I 
nntoyou. And the Apoftle 1 Joh. 13. 8. A new Commandment I write unto 
you. it was an old Commandment, but fet out in a new drefs, given forth 
in a new manner. The Lord adorns his Truths with new Ornaments, as 
it were, that men may be excited to inquiries and Affections fuitable. 

Hence in every Age there be in one refpeft or other new Difcoveries,ov 
new Difpenfations and Dealings of God with his People. Or if men be 
taken with Antiquity, 1 Joh. 1. 7. I write no new Commandment - but an 
old Commandment for the fubftance of things : The good old way of Faith 
and Holinefs remains , which all the Saints of God have gone to Heaven 
in, Heb. 1 1. he (hews, the fame Race, which he fets before them, had 
been run by all the Saints,from Abel, cap. 1 2. 1. being compajfed about with 
fo great a Cloud ofWitneffes, let us run cur race thai vs fet before us : as if he 
Ihould fay •, 1 exhort you to nothing, but what all thole Saints of old have 
done before you : and yet ver. 40. he profefTeth God hath better things 
for them, an higher and better Difpenfation : and cap. 12. 1 8. Ye are not 
come to Mount Sinai *, but ye are come to Mount Sion, ver. 22. here he fetches 
an argument from this variety of Difpenfation, and from the prehe= 
minence of that which they were under above former times. 

Reaf 2. For his own greater Glory. And under this head many things 
come in to be conddered. This various and gradual Difpenfation tends 
to his greater Glory divers ways. 

1. That there may be an harmony between this and the other Works 
of God. 

2. To (hew the ineftimable Worth and Glory of the Myftery of the 
Gofpel of his Son. 

3; To manifell: the variety of his Wifdom, 
4. His abfolute Liberty,. And 3 

«. Eh 

46 The Gofpel Preached under the Old 

5. His peculiar Goodnefs. 

1. That there might be an harmony between this and the other Worh of God. 
It is To in other works of Gods, as well as in his fpeaking and revealing 
of his Mind. As in the Creation of the World, he could have made ic all 
at once }but he chofe rather to make it in fix days : and he made various 
and feveral kinds of Creatures. Therefore this variety of Adminiftration 
in the Difcoveries of himfelf and his Gofpel, is fuitable to all the reft of 
his Works, wherein he ever delights, with Unity to mix Variety, with 
Identity Diverfity, and Difagreement in fome refpe&s, with Confent 
in other. 

So we fee in the outward Lineaments of mens Faces : fo in the inward 
abilities and difpofuions of their Minds, both in the common and faving, 
in natural and fpiritual endowments-, what a wonderful Compofition 
there is, and how great variety : And fo indeed in every Creature and 
Work of God. Though in conclufion, Omnia fiant ab tmo ad mum. 
God is the Author and the End of all. So in the Church, t Cor. 12. 4, 
5, 6\ there are diver fities of Gifts , differences of Adminifirations, diver ftties 
of Operations^ but from the fame Author. Symmetria Ecclcfia 
Calv. in loc multiplier tit ita loquar unitate confiat } the Symmetry of the 
Church confifts, as I may fo fay, in a manifold Unity. 

2. To manifefi the inefiimable Worth and Glory of the My fiery of the Gofpel 
of his Son: Which appears,inthat it was attended wi'h fuch a multitude of 
means of divers kinds for the Difpenfation of it. That fo many Or- 
dinances, Providences, Perfons and things in feveral ages of the World 
fhould all be fubfervient to the Exhibition of this one Myftery of Chrift, 
and Redemption by him : This (hews the Glory of it, Col 1. 27. 

3. To manifefi the variety of his Wifdom. that UoKv-nltm^oi ^%A^ariegata 
fapientia. It is like a party coloured Garment, Ephef 3. 10. As in the 
works of Creation and Providence : So it is in the Difpenfations of his 
Grace : the Wifdom of God cannot be fufficiently manifefted in any one, 
or in a few things • or in one manner of working : And therefore it 
refra&s it felf into many parcels, and fcatters its Beams every manner 
of way : that ail put together may argue unto Man the inexhauftible 
depth and infinite largenefs thereof: Hence he hath found out many 
ways and means to convey the fame Grace .- and every feveral manner 
hath fome peculiar Beam of Wifdom and Worth in it. 

This great variety and change of his Difpenfations was not becaufe in 
procefs of time God found out a better way/ and fo relinquinYd the old : 
As in the work of Creation, he did not profit by Experience, though 
he made Man laft, the moft perfect Creature laft. For the Inequalities 
and Degrees of things came from the Wifdom o£God,as well as the divers 


Tejlament, atfundry times. 47 

kinds of them • and every thing is belt in its place , and kind, and propor- 
tion to the who^e, though not fimply and id it felf. It is bell than 
in a body there fhould be a Foot, as well as an Head, though fimply, 
and in it felf the Head be more excellent. The Wifdom of God appears 
not only in the individual natures of things ^ but in their references and 
proportions to other things, and to the nhule 5 whereof they are parts : 
fo it is better, and the Wiftiom of God appears more, in that there was 
both a Legal and a Gofpel Difpenfation of Chrift and his Benefits, though 
the Gofpel Difpenfation be in it felf far the more excellent. Therefore 
this is a -third Beam of his Glory that (bines forth herein, viz., his 
manifold Wifdom. As there is infinite Wifdcm in every thing God 
doth, fo he would have us fee it. 

4. This variety of Difpenfation manifefts the Lords abfolate Freedom^ 
and Liberty, and Sovtraigntyin the ufe of Means and Inflruments, that he 
is not tyed to any of them : He can work by little or by great means, by 
few or many. He can difpenfe the fame Grace to his Church either in 
a Family-way, or in a Nation, or in all Nations. For the Church of 
God was fir ft a Family, then in populo Ifraelitico, and now in poptdo 
Catbolico. He can reveal himfelf either by ordinary or extraordinary 
perfons} either in a more immediate way, or in a mediate way. He hath 
not limited himfelf to one way, or time, or manner of fpeaking, left we 
Ihould afcribe the Glory to the Means, to the Tools, rather than the 
bleffcd Workman and Author. Therefore he is pleafed ever and anon 
to change the Means, to break his Tools, as it were, and throw them 
away, and make new ones. Hence, if men begin to think that a Temple 
at Jerufalem hath jiny Silvation in it, he will burn it up, and be worship- 
ped infpirit and truth in every Cottage ; as Job. 4. pure hcenfe every 
where, Mai. 1 . 1 1 . 

5. The fifth Beam of Divine Glory that (nines forth in this variety of 
Adminiftration is the Glory of peculiar G 00 dnefs, which the Lord will receive 
by this means from every Saint of his, according to his peculiar dealing 
with hiiji. Some will blefs him for Multitude and Excellency of Means, . 
others will admire his Power and Grace in working by fmall and weak 
means : Some will praife him for c>e kind of Difpenfation, others for 
another kind. As for inftance. A New-Teftament Saint will praife 
God, tbat he caufed him to live in the Noon-day, and under the higbeft 
Meridian of Gofpel - Light 5 when the Earth was full of the Knowledge of 
the Lord. Oh, what fhould I have been, if my lot had fallen under 
former tiroes of Ignorance and Darknefs. But another in thofe former 
dark times, (as for inftance, Abraham) he will admire and wonder at 
God's Mercy, that when Darknefs was round about him ; yet the Lord 


48 TheGoJpel Preached under the Old 

opened his eyes, to fpy the Sun of Righteoufnefs peeping up; and caufed 
him then to rejoyce to fee Chrift's Day ; That his Fleece was wet, when 
the reft of the Earth was dry ; his Heart drawn after God and Chrift, 
when the means were fo fcantand final]. 

One Believer will blefs God, that the Lord was known to him by his 
Namzjehovah : Another will admire that he did enable him to believe 
on God Almighty. Some will Mefs him, that they have ^a the 
Accomplifbtnent of his Promifes andePrediftions ; and not one thing hath 
failed of all the Good that God hathfpoken, as Jojh. 23, 14. Another under 
former Difpenfations will admire.that his Heart was wrought to embrace 
the Promifes afar off", and that the Lord made Faith to him, to be the 
fubftance of things not feen. 

Beloved, the Lord makes his Goodnefsypm^/ and peculiar , by variety 
af Difpenfations, even to Believers living in the fame age, and in the 
fame place: that though in general they be all alike made partakers of 
the fame common Salvation ', yet fuch variety there is in the Lords 
dealings with them, in regard of Circumftances ♦, that in one refpeft or 
other, in regard of one circumftance or other, every one hath experience 
of peculiar loving Kindntfs, fingular ftrains of Mercy -, that he can fay 
with Paul, never fuch a pattern of Mercy -, I have more to blefs God for, 
than any other in all the world befide. It is fo, much more in feveral 
ages: So that look as that variety oiWifdom, in fo many feveral things 
before noted, did declare the infinkenefs of God's Wifdom : So in like 
manner thefe various kinds and ways of Goodnefs, being all laid together, 
will yield the luftre of infinite Goodnefs, fo far as finite Creatures can 
contain or conceive it. I fay, when all the particulars are computed, 
and put together in one fum Total (as they (hall be, when that general 
Aflfembly of all the Saints and Angels (hall meet together at the great 
Day, when they fhall all compare Notes as it were.) It will then ap- 
pear, that there is no channel wherein Mercy hath not run, no ex- 
prefiion of loving Kindnefs that hath been omitted ; So manifold. have 
his Difpenfations been, that every Age, and every Perfon (hall be able 
to bring in their feveral and peculiar portions into the common Trea- 
fury of God's Mercies and Praifes ; and they (hall all fay and fing to- 
therthat Song of Praifesin Pfal. 40. 5. Many, O Lord my God, are thy 
wonderful Works which thou haft done, and thy Thoughts which are to us- 
rvard : They cannot be reckoned up in order unto thee : If I would declare and 
[peak of them, they are more than can be numbred. 

I (hall conclude, for the prefent, with three words of life both from 
what hath been faid to day, and in the laft Difcourfe upon this Sub- 

1. We 

Tefiament, atfundry times. 49 

r. We may gather fome Chronological Light. 

2. We may fee the rife of all the old Heathenifti Superftitions. And, 

3. See the Glory of the Myftery of the Gofpel. 

Vfe 1. Here is fome InftrudUon and Light may be gathered as to 
that Queflion which may eafily arife in your thoughts, namely, how 
long this Old-Teftament Adminiftration lafted ? 

The Anfwer may be gathered from all that hath been faid upon this 
Subject, that it lafted precifely four thouf and years. This will appear, 
if you compute and put thofe feven Old-Teftament Difpenfations to- 
gether, which were formerly fpoken to. 

The firft Difpenfation/hw* Adam to Noah wasfixteen hundred fifty fix 

Thefecond/row Noah to the Promife made to Abraham, was four hun- 
dred twenty feven years. 

The third from Abraham to the coming out of Egypt, was four hundred 
and thirty years. 

The fourth/row the coming out o/Egypt, to the Dedication of the Tem- 
was four hundred eighty feven years. 

The fifth from the Temple to the Captivity, was four hundred years. 

The fixth, namely, from the Captivity to the Return, was feven ty years. 

The laft Old-Teftament Difpenfation /Vow the Return to the Mejfiatfs 
Death, was four hundred and ninety years : And from the Death of Chrifl 
to the Deftruttion of the Temple, and City, and Nation, whereby the Lord 
did put all that Old Difpenfation to a full end was forty years : Ail 
which Sums put together, amounts exactly to four thou f and years : So 
long did that Old Teftament Difpenfation laft. 

Vfe 2. We may here fee the rife of all the old Heathenilh Superfli* 
tions. They were the Corruption of Old-Teftament Difpenfations. 
As Popery is nothing elfe but Chriftianity corrupted by a curfed mixture 
of Pagaflifm and Judaifm with it \ fo in like manner Turcifm is. 

Vfe 3. We may learn from hence the Glory of the Myftery, yea the 
Richesof the Glory of the Myftery of the Gofpel -, in that it was fo long, 
and with fo great variety of Difpenfation held forth to the Church of 
God of old. Surely it was no fmall matter, which the Lord made ufe 
of fuch various Providences and Difpenfations to reveal : For they did. 
all tend to, and aim at this, Col. I. 26. The Myftery which hath been hid 
from Ages, and from Generations -, ver. 27. the Riches of the Glory ofthti 
Myftery. Therefore learn to prize the Gofpel according to this worth, 
and this value, that God hath put upon it. To flight it, is to flight ail 
'die Glory, and Glorious Difpenfations pf God from the beginning of 

H the 

50 The Gofpel preached under the Old 

the World to this day. For this they did all look at. A Man acknow- 
ledges the Glory of the Myftery in two things. 

i. When he believes it for himfelf, with application to himfelf in 

2. When he walks worthy of it. 

But to disbelieve the Promifes, and to disobey the Commands of it, is to 
defpife the Gofpel, 2 Theff. 1. 8. And to do fo under fuch a clear Dif- 
penfation of it, as in New Teftament times, certainly the deepeft place 
in Hell will be their Portion. Wo unto thee Chorazin, wo unto thee Beth- 
faida. For if the mighty Works that have been done in thee, bad been done 
in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented in dufl and afhes. May we 
not fay, wo unto thee, O London, wo unto thee, O Dublin. For if the 
Preaching that hath been preach'd in thee,had been in Rome., they would 
have been convinced, they would have repented before this day. 

Vfe 4. Let me repeat a little, and reinculcate thefe things upon you 
which have been delivered as Reafons, but might have been handled as 
Ufes of the Point. 

1 befeech you, give unto God the Glory due unto his Name in all his 
Difpen fat ions. 

Praife him for his Condefcention to our Weaknefs. 

Obferve the Harmony that is among his Works. 

The Glory of the Myftery of the Gofpel. 

His manifold Wifdom. 

His abfolute Freedom and Soveraignty. 

And laftly, and above all, his peculiar Goodnefs Labour to get your 
Hearts up to this. As a Man is never humbled enough, till this Convi- 
&ion pierce his Confcience, that he is the chief of Sinners : So a Man is 
never thankful enough, till he look upon himfelf as the greateft, ftrangeft 
Ob]ett of free Grace in all the world \ till he can fay, Never fuch a pattern 
of Mercy as my felfl 

And now, having mewed that the Gofpel was preached tothem of Old, and 
that in divers manners, and at fundry times (one figrfal Inftance whereof 
is the Types and Ceremonies) I have in thefe preliminary Difcourfes 
made way for what I have promifed to fpeak unto, namely, the Types 
and Shadows of the Old Teftament. 

That which next remains is, that we fpeak to them more particular- 
ly, which we fhall proceed unto hereafter, the Lord atfifting. 


Tbe Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 5 , 

i8J*fy, 16*7. 
Romans 5. 14. 

■Adam, who was the Figure of Him that was to come. 

THAT tbe Gofpel was preached to them under the Old Teftament, 
as well as to us under the New - 7 and that it was revealed to them 
in feveral ways and manners of Difcovery - 7 and in a gradual way, in fe- 
veral pieces and parcels, hath been formerly (hewed. One fignal In- 
ftance we gave of thofe divers ways and manners was this, Thai tbe 
Gofpel was preached to them of old by legal Types and Ceremonies. Now 
concerning thefe (n°t to infill upon the Analyfts of che Chapter) the 
Text gives you this Do&rine. 

Dottr. That the Lord was pie a fed in his infinite Wifdom to defign and or - 
dain certain perfons under the Old Teftament, to be Types or Figures of the 
Me{f\ah y who was to come. 

It will berequifitehere, 

1 . To explain the Nature of a Type, to (hew you what a Type is. 

2. Tbe Reafons why the Lord fpake in this way. 

3. To come to a more particular Diftribution and Enumeration of them. 
i. For the Nature of a Type. For the opening of this, becaufe it is 

a Subject both difficult and ufeful to be rightly underftood, and will 
give light to all that follows to be fpoken upon the Types • I fhall there- 

1 . Give you a brief Defcription of a Type. 

2. Some Rules for the better underftanding of them. 

3. The Differences and Agreements between a Type and other things 
of like nature. 

4. The Names and Tbrafes by which it is expreffed in Scripture. 
1 . For the Defcription of a T'ype^ what it is. 

I fhall content my felf with the Apoftles Definition of it : That a 
Type is a Shadow of good things to come, Hebr. 10. 1. Tbe Law having a 
Shadow of good things to come^ Col. 2. 17. Which are a Shadow of things t* 
come, but the Body is ofCbrift. 

There be three things included in this Defcription. 

1. There is fome outward or fenfibk thing, thaueprefents fome other 
higher thing, 

H 2 fe There 

5 2 The Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 

2. There is the thing represented thereby, which it good things to come ^ 
which we call the Antitype, 

3. There is the nork of. the Type, which is to fhadow forth or repre- 
fent thefe future good things. 

1. There is in a Type fome outward or fenfihle thing, that reprefents 
an higher fpirkual thing, which may be cajled a Sign or a Refemblance, 
a Pattern or. F/£^, or the like. Here is the general Nature of a Type ^ 
it is aShadow. It hath been theGoodnefs and Wifdom of God in all 
times and ages, to teach Mankind Heavenly things by Earthly ; fpiritual 
and inviftble Things, by outward and vifible; as Joh. 3. 12. 

2. There is the thing fhadowed or reprefented by the Type, And 
what is that? Things to co me, faith the Apoftle, Col. 2.17. and ^ood 
ffc/agj £0 aw?e, Heb, 10. 1. The good things of the Gofpel, Chrift and his 
Benefits • fort ffo 2?0^ » 0/ Chrift, as Co/. 2. 1 7. This we call the Corre- 
late, or the Antitype ; the other is the Shadow, this the Subftance : The 
Type is the Shell, this the Kernel ; the Type is the Letter, this the Spi- 
rit and Myftery of the Type. This we are ftill to look at, and to fearch 
into in every Type •, we muft look beyond the Shadow, to the Sub- 
ftance, to the Truth and Myftery of it : And this is Chrift and the Gof- 
pel, as future, and hereafter to be exhibited. This may be called the 
Prototype, or the Pattern, out of which, and according to which the 
other is drawn •> as Pidtures from the Man, whofe Vifage they repre- 

3. This Defcription holds forth the Work of the Type, which is to 
fhadow forth the Antitype. 

But what is this (hadowing ? And how do Types fhadow ? 

It is a metaphorical expreflion. A Shadow reprefents the proportion 
of the Body, with its anions and motions -, though it doth it but obfcurely 
and darkly. So the Types had fome dark refemblance of Chrift and his 
Benefits, and did fome way adumbrate and reprefent them, and hold 
them forth unto his People, to enlighten and inform their Underftand- 
ings, and to ftrengthen and confirm their Faith in him : The Types had 
this Voice and Language ^ Such an One lhall the Mejftah be, He is thus to 
a#, and thus to fuffer for you. 

Thus you have the Defcription of a Type. It is a fhadow of good 
things to come: Or if you would have it more at large, you may take it 
thus, A Type is fome outward or fenfihle thing ordained of God under the 
Old Tefiament, to reprefent and hold forth fomething of Chrift in the New. 

It may be otherwife worded. But the Defcription, if it be true, 
muft be to this effeft -, as if we fay,that a Type is an inftituted refemblance 
of Gofpei-Truths and Myfteries 3 or that it is a Sign holding forth 


The Go/pel of the perfonal Types. 5 3 

Chrift:, or foraething of Chrift in the New Teftament. You fee it comes 
all to one fcope •, and indeed all the Defcriptions that our Divines have 
given of it, are to this effect, they are all to the fame fcope witb this of 

the Apoftle ; a Shadow of good things to come, 

* 2. For Rules for your further underftanding of them, take thefe four. 

Rule 1. That God is the only Author of the Types. They belong to the 
fecond Commandment, as matters of Inflitution. Therefore Calvin^ 
excellently and judicioufly harmonifing the Books of Mofes, referreth 
the Ceremonial Laws to the fecond Commandment. There is fomething 
of Chrift ftamped and ingraven upon them by Divine Inflitution ; They 
are notmeer natural or arbitrary fimilitudes ■ but they were instituted and 
and fet apart by God for that end, Htb, 9. S.The Holy Ghoft thvs ftgnifying. 

Hence that Sacramental phrafe and manner of expreflion, That 

Rod was Chrift, 1 Cor. 10. 4. like that in Exod. 12. The Lamb vs the 
Faffover. As the Church under the New Teftament hath not power to 
make Sacraments to themfelves : So they of old could not make Tyfes 
Acl. 7. 43. The Types which you made to worfhip them, T ^ TO v«V- «*- iTn&wn • 
rjtyvwv"* aunt*. Amos 5, 26. Images which you made to your [elves con- 
tra ver. 44. of Acl 7- ■ the Tabernacle which Mofes made, as he had ap- 
pointed. And itfeems, by thefacred Hiftory, that the Jews had fome- 
thing of the notion of a Type, in their heads in that Invention, Exod. 32. 

I. 5. For they {ay, Make us Gods that may go before us ', and they proclaim an 1 
Holy day to Jehovah -, therefore they intended the Calf to be an outward 
and vifible Sign to them of his Prefence. 

Here arifeth a Qpeftion. How may we know when a thing is a Type, and 
that the Lord did ordain and defign it to that end and ufe * 

The Anfwer is. We cannot iafely judge of this but by the Scrip- 

1. When there is exprefs Scripture for it. As Adam here in the 
Text is called a Type of him that wot to come: So the whole Ceremonial 
Law is faid to have a Shadow of the good things to come under the Gofpel, 
Heb. 10. 1. The Buildings and holy Places of the earthly Temple are 
faid to be Figures of the true, even of Heaven itfelf Heb. 9. 24. The Land 
of Canaan, was a Figure of the Country that Abraham and the Fathers- 
fought for, it is faid, they defire a better Country ,. that it, an heavenly^ Heb^ 

II . 1 6. 

2. When there is a permutation of Names between the 7)^ and the? 
Antitype, this is a clear Indication of the Mind of God. As for inftance 5 
Chrift is called David, Ezek. 34. 23. and 37. 24. Hof. 3. 5. this fhews ? 
that David was a Type of him, and Chrift was the true David, 

So Chrift is called Adam^ the fecond Adam, Cor, 15.45, 


54 The Gofpel cf theperfonal Types. 

So he is called Ifiael, Ifai. 49, 3. 

He is called that Lamb of God which taketh arvay the Sit* of the Worfd, 
Joh. 1. 29. and our Pajfover that vsfacrificed for us 9 1 Cor. 5. 7, this fhews 
that the Pafchal Lamb was a Type of him. 

He is called the Bread of Life, and the true Bread from Heaven, Joh. 6* 
32, 35. this (hews, that the Mama did relate to him. 

So the Church of the New Teftament is called Jerufalem, Gal 4. 26. 

tojsrufalem which is above is free, which it the Mother of us aU Rev. 

21. 2. / faw the new Jerufaiem coming down from God out of Heaven. We 
may hence conclude that Je rufalem was a Type of the Church. 

So it is faid, that the Odours or lncenfe are the Prayers of the Saints. Re?. 
5. 8. lncenfe therefore was a Type of Prayer. 

The Gofpel-Church is called Ifrael, Gal. 6. \6. Peace be on them and 
Mercy, and upon the Ifrael of God. Therefore that People were a Type 
of the Church of God under the New Teframent. 

Gofpel- Minifrers are called the Sons of Levi, Mai. 3. 3. the Prophet 
there fpeaking of the coming of Chrift, he faith, He fhall purifie the Sons of 
Levi, that is, raife up a purer Miniftry. 

There is nothing more frequent in the Scripture, than for thz Antitype 
to be called by the name of the Type. And fometimes on the other fide, 
the Type bears the Names and Titles belonging indeed and more properly 
to the Antitype. 

So Mofes is called a Mediator, Gal. 3. 19. 

So when a Sheep or a Goat is called a Sacrifice, and faid to make 
atonement,or to expiate Sin : there the Work of the Antitype is afcribed 
unto the Type. For thofe things could not take away fins, Heb. 10. 4. 
it is not pojfible, that the Blood of Bulls and Goats fhould take away fins : 
They were but a fhadow of a Sacrifice, of Chrift the true Sacrifice. 

3. When by comparing feveral Scriptures together, there doth ap- 
pear an evident and tnanrfeft Analogy and parallel between Things under 
the Law, and things under the Gofpel, we may conclude, that fuch legal 
Difpenfations were intended as Types of thofe Gofpel Myfreries whofe 
Image they bear. In fuch a cafe, Res ipfa loquitur. For the Type mult 
be made like the Antitype, as the Apoftle fpeaks of that illuftrious Type 
Mclcbifedec, Hebr. 7. $.be was made like unto the Son of God. 

As the Deliverance out of Egypt and Babylon, if we read the Hiftory 
thereof in the Old Teframent, and compare it with the Prophefies in the 
New Teftament, concerning the Churches Deliverance from Anti- 
chriftian Bondage, we fhall clearly fee, that it was a Type thereof ; 
there is fuch a refemblance, the one anfwers the other fo remarkably. 
Hence Divines generally make Samfon a Type of Chrift, there is fuch a 


The Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 5 5 

fair and full Analogy in fundry particulars of his Life and Death between 
him and Chrift •, So likewife Jofepb is generally lookt upon as a Type of 
Chrift ^ though there be no Scripture that doth exprefly call him fo : 
But if the Hiftory of J&fepb in Genefts be compared with the Hiftory of 
Jefns Chrift in the four Evangelifts, the Analogy will be very clear and 

The Old Tefhment and the New mould be compared together. The 
Frotafts or Proportion of thefe facred fimilitudes is in the Books of Mofes, 
and in the Old Tefhment ^ but th^^podofts the Reddition orApplica- 
tion is to befound chiefly in the New. 

Sometimes the Types are not fo explicitly taught, but implyed; and 
then a thing may be known to be a Type by diligent obferving and 
comparing the Phrafe of the Prophets in the Old Teftament, and of the 
Apoftles in the New. 

Men muft not indulge their oven Fancies, as the Popilh Writers ufe to 
do, with their Allegorical Senfes, as they call them j except we have 
fome Scripture ground for it. It is not fate to make any thing a Type 
raeerly upon our own fan lies and imaginations -, it is Gods Prerogative to 
make Types. And fo much for that firft Rule. 

Rule 2. The Types were not only Signs, but Seals ^ not only Signs to 
reprefent Gofpel Myfteries unto them ^ but alfo Seals to aiTure them of 
the certain and infallible exhibition thereof in God's appointed time. As 
we fay of our Sacraments ^ Sacrament am eft verbum vifibilefhz Sacrament 
is a vifible Promife, and holds forth the Covenant of Grace to the Eye 
and other Senfes, as the Word to the Ear • So it was with the Types of 
old. ThcTypes were vifible Promifes, and not only Signs, but Pledges 
and Affurances of the good they reprefented. They did reprefent thofe 
great Myfteries not only by way of refembiance to the underftandings, 
but by way of alTurance to the Faith of God's People. 

Keafons to prove this, that the Types were Seals. 

1. The Apoftle faith it exprefly concerning CircHmcifion, Rom, 4. 11, 
he received the Sign of Ctrcumcifson, a Seal of the Righteonfnefs of Faitb, 
And there is a parity of Reafon in this refpeft between Cirutmcifion 
and other Types. 

2+ If they were Signs, which did certainly forefignifie, they were 
Seals : But the Types were Signs which did certainly foreiignifie : 
Therefore they were more than Signs, even Seals alfo : They did not 
(hew what a one the Meffiah might happen to be \ but what a one he 
lhould certainly be : They were fo many Divine Teftimowes to the 
conaing of Chrift. 

3. If 

$6 The Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 

3. If they were not Seals and Pledges to a fur e, it will follow, that 
it would have been no difappointment to God's People, and no refle- 
ction at all upon his Truth and Faithfulnefs, if the Mejfiah had been 
quite another manner of Perfon than the Types held forth. But to admit 
fuch a fuppofition, to fuppofe that the Mefilah might have been quite 
another manner of Perfon, than the Types hold forth, is to take away 
the Analogy between the Type and the Antitype ; and fo by confequence 
to deny that they were Types ; or elfe to make them all Lyes and falfe 
Images. Therefore if it be but granted, that they were true Signs, it 
follows even from thence, that they were Seals, or fure and certain 
Pledges of Chrift, and Gofpel- Myfteries in him. See Calvin in 1 Cor. 
10. 3, 11. Bezain Col. 2. 17. Ex ant enim vera & pro ratione ac modo Sa- 
cramenwum efficacia 2tp««e ac etiam 2p/><^4/«. They were both Signs 
and Seals, and true and efficacious Signs and Seals, after that manner 
of efficacy that is in Sacraments. 

Rule 3. The Types relate not only to the Perfon of Chrifi • but to bis Be- 
nefits, and to all Gofpel Truths and Myfteries, even to ali Nt w -Teft ament '- 

I mention this the rather, becaufe I have obferved, that it doth much 
darken the Thoughts of many, that they Study to accommodate every 
Type directly to the Perfon of Chrift, becaufe we commonly call them 
Ty pes oi Chrift. But that Exprefiion is not meant of his Perfon exclu- 
fwely to his Benefits \ but of both together Chrift and the good things 
of Chrift ; The Types (hadowed forth, Chrift and all the good that 
comes by him. So theApoftle, Heb. 10. 1. they are a (hadow of good 
things to cornel he doth not limit or reftrain them tp the Meffiah's Per- 
fon only. As the Cherttbims were Types 9 not dire&ly of Chrift, but of 
the Angels that ftand before the Lord and minifter to him, and to his 

Hence before the Gofpel, there were no Go/pel Types-, before the fir ft Pro- 
mulgation of it, Gene f 3. there could be no Types of Gofpel Blefllngs : 
There were fome things extant before, which were made Types after- 
wards } but they had not that Schefis, that habitude and relation to 
Chrift and the Gofpel, till there was a Gofpel, or a Promife of Life 
by Chrift, that blefled Seed. 

Yea as they had Types of Chrift's Perfon, and of his fpiritual and 
faving Benefits : So they had Types even of all New-Teftament Difpen- 
fations. Our very Sacraments were (hadowed forth by theirs. As Bap- 
tifm by Circumcifion, and by their paffing thorough the Red Sea ^ and 
the Lord's Supper by their Paffover. 


The Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 57 

Yea they had Types not only of the Bleffingsand Benefits of Chrift, 
but of our Miferhs without him. They had rhcir Ceremonial Unclean- 
cedes •, as the Leprofie, for inftance, was a Type -, of what ? Neither 
of Ch rift, nor of his Benefits \ but of our natural Pollution. So they 
hacl a Type of the Coven avt of Works, viz,. Hagar and Jfhmacl. They 
had a Type of the Church of Rome, viz. Babylov : So Antiochus may pafs 
for a Type of Antkhrift. Doeg and Achitophel of Judas. Pharaoh for 
a Type of the Devil. Sodom and Gomorrah for a Type of Hell. 

For as the Ty[es look chiefly and principally at Chrifl and his Bene- 
fits, in the clear and full Exhibition and Communication of them under 
the Gofpel : So they reprefenc other things alfo, tho' not by way ot 
Primacy and principal intention -, but by way of concomitancy and il~ 
luftratior* of the Principal. Therefore thefe Types of New-Teftament 
evils, it will not be neceffary always to handle them by themfelves 
For the moft of them will come in better under the feveral Types or? 
Shadows of good things, the further illuftration whereof by the con- 
trary was the thing chiefly aimed at in them. 

Rule 4. As there is a Similitude, a Refemblance and Analogy be- 
tween the Type and the Antitype in fome things : So there is ever a dtp* 
fimilitude and a difparity between them in other things. It is fo in all fi mi- 
litudes. It is a Rule in Reafon. There is a mixture of Confentaneity 
and Diffentaneity ; or elfe inftead of Similitude, there would be Iden- 
tity. So here in thefe facred Similies, it is not to be expected, that 
the Type and the Antitype fhould ^nadrare per omnia % that they ftiould a° 
gree in all things. 

Therefore the Apoftle, tho' he makes Adam a Type of Chrifl, whom 
he calls the fecond Adam ; yet he fhews the difparity alfo, and that the 
fecond Adam did infinitely tranfcend and excel the fir ft, 1 Cor. 15. 47, 
the fir ft man is of the Earth earthly, the fecond man is theJLord from Hea- 
ven. So the Priefts of old were Types of Chrifl: ; but Chrifl: did in- 
finitely excel them, and his Priefthood was infinitely more glorious, as 
the Apoftle difputes at large in the 7, 8, 9. and 10. of the Hebrews^ fee 
particularly chap. 7. v. 23, 24, 27. There is more in the An- 
titype, than in the Type. Oportet figuram minus habere qnam fa°Geacf 
veritatem, Chryfoft. For fuch is the Glory and Excellency of 
Chrifl: the Antitype, that no Type could reach it. 

Hence thatDiftinaionofT>pw^m^/, and Types total, mufl: be un- 
derftood with fome limitation thus ; That fome Things or Perfons 
were only Types of Chrifl: in fome one particular thing, others in ma- 
ny things : But there never was any thatdid,or could poflibly refemble 
him perfectly in all Things. 

I So 

58 The G of pel of the perfonal Types. 

^ So Jonas is called a Type, becaufe he fhadowed forth the Mcf- 
fiab in that one thing, his abiding two or iliree days in the Grave, and 
then riling again. 

David, fome call him atotalType, in regard that the whole Hiftory 
of his Lire hath fo great a fhadow and reprefentati :>n of Chrift the true 
David. But yet, if we fpeak rigidly and properly, David himfelf was 
but a partial Type. For he was only a Prophet and a King - 7 he was not 
a Prieft • but Chrift was both Prophet, Prieft and King. 

Mofes indeed was a prophet, a Prieft, and a King ; but his Prieft- 
hood continued only till Aaron was confecratcd, then Mofes laid it 
down. And Mofes did mediate between God and the People as a 7>o- 
pbety tointeipreitheMind of God to them ; and as a King or* Judge 
to Govern them, and as an Interceffor to pray for them ; "but not by 
giving himfelf a Sacrifice unto Death for expiation of their Sins : He 
was a Mediator ob interpret an di & docendt officiant : But not ob fatisfacien- 
di berefi-Jnm, as fome exprefs it. Therefore Mofes himfelf was bni a 
partial Type, a Type only rationereim regard of Redemption and Deli- 
verance ^ buc not ratione modi ; he did not do it by fhedding his Blood, 
and laying down his Life as Chrifl; did. 

Hence we muft take heed of (training the Types too far, to make 
them agree in that wherein indeed there is a difparicy or difagreement : 
If the Type go with us one Mile, or rather with the Antitype one Mile, 
we muft not conftrain it to go twain, 

3. The third thing propounded to be fpoken to, was the Differences 
and Agreements between a Type and other things of like Nature : True fo we 
may diftinguilh and difcern the things that differ. I fliall Inftance here 
only in four Things,that are partly of the fame Nature with the Types, 
but yet not exa&ly the fame. 

1 . The difference between a Type and a Simile. A Type doth belong 
indeed to that Argumentor Notion in Logick : But with this diftincli- 
on, which will fhew you the difference between them } that there is Ty- 
pHs arbitrarius and TypusfixHs & inftitutus. An arbitrary Type is a (imi- 
litude or comparifon. So Marriage is a fimilitude or comparifon, by 
which the Apoftlefets out the myftical Union between Chrifl and the 
Church, Ephef^. But yet Marriage is not a Type For then* we {hall 
make it aSacrament, as the Papifts do : You know it was inftituted for 
another end before the Gofpel came into the World : It is a Sign, but 
not a Sacrament. For by that Argument we fhould have a thoufand 
Sacraments. ■ 

So Riders on white Hcrfes are refemblances ufed in Scripture to fee 
out Chrift and the Acgels j but yet not properly Types of them : And 


The Go/pel of the ferfonal Types. 59 

the reafon is this, becaufe they were never infiituted and defigned by 
God for that enJ, to reprefent Chrift and the Ciofpel • they are only 
occaiionally made ufe o^. 

There is a wide difference between the bccafiottal Vfe of a thing in 
the way of a limilitude or companion, and che Defignment cr Injlitati- 
on of ic for that end and ufe. As if Chrift be compared to a Feaft of 
Bieid and Wine, as in the Parable of the Marriage-Supper. This is a 
very true and fit comparifon.- But for Bread and VVi:e to be defigned 
and fet apart by the Command of God to reprefent Chrift and his Be- 
nefits, this is a thing of an higher Nature, and puts them into a Sacra* 
mental Nature aud relation to him. 

2. The difference between a Type and a Parable A Parable is no* 
thing elfe but a Sacred Similitude : We common!/ take it as the Scri- 
pture doth, for fach a Similitude, wherein not only the Truth and 
Mind of God is the Scope and Matter of it j but whereof Cod bimftff is 
the Author. As in the Four Evangelifts we Read of the Parables of 
Chrift. To call them Fables^ as Grotius doth, bac tabula ittdicaf, &c t 
is a flight and an irreverent Expreffion, A Parable there is the fame 
with a Similitude, only it hath Cod himfelf for its Author. But in a 
Type the Lord doth not only occafionally ufe fuch or fuch a Simile ; but 
fets fuch a thing apirt, fits a Stamp of Inflitution upon it, and fo makes 
it an Ordinance to hoi d forth Chiifr and his Benefits. 

3. What is the dLf^rence between a Type and a Ceremony ? This is 
only that which is between the Genus and Species. For all the Ceremo- 
nies were Types ^ but all Types were not Ceremonies : The Pillar of 
Cloud and Fire was a Type, but not a Ceremony. A Ceremony was 
fome Law, or external t bfirvation pre fcribed unto them, to teach and 
fhadow forth fome Gofpel My fiery : So that a Type is more general, 
a Ceremony is one particular kind or Types. 

4. What is the difference between a Type and a Sacrament ? \ 
anfwer, they differed in the number and multitude of them, they had 
many Ty pes \ we have but two Sacraments. Bat there was no diffe- 
rence in the Nature of them, further than this, that our Sacraments 
are Signs of Chrift already come ; but their Types were Signs of Chrift 
that was to come : Our Sacraments are Signs Chrifli exhibiti - 7 their 
Types Chrifli exhibendi. 

4. As to the Words and Phrafcs by rrhicb a Type is exprejfed. 

Firft, we have this very word Typeufed in the Scripture, not only 
in its Native and proper Signification, Job. 20. 25. «< rh wA> 7»i nxir. 
the print of the Nails : But it is ufed alfo in this borrowed and fpititual 
Senfe whereof we are treating, in the Text, Rom. 5.14. and 1 Cor. 10. 6. 

I 2 tbefc 

60 The Gofpel of the ferfonal Types. 

thefe were Types for us. Tzu-mJi tvmiYi^v Vyin§r*dfr. and i Cor. 10. n 
all tbefe things happened unto them in Types. So the word Tvmi anfwers 
the Hebrew nonn exemplar , figura, forma hXl adifkavit. 

They are called Shadows <rx,ia. Col. 2. 17. a Shadow of things to come, 
Heb. 8. 5. which ferve unto the example andfhadow of heavenly things , Heb. 
10. 1. a Shadow of good things to come. 

They are called figures or Patterns, CmMy^a-m* Hthr. 8. 5. CmfelypaT* 
*J cm, the Example and Shadow, Heb. 9. 23. Patterns. 

They are called S/g»5 trpmf, Mat. 12. 39. ^ Sign of the Prophet Jo- 
nas : So is Qi cumcifion, Rom. 4. if. ffce 5^» of Circumcifion, 

Figure*, or to render it more Emphatically, parabolical Figures •, 
5W£?6o fl. Heb. 9. 9. 4 parabolical Figure for the time. This anfwers to 
the Hebrew word ^IDQ. And fome fo underftand, fftfc. 11. 19, /row 
whence alfo he received him in a Figure. 

They arecilled Allegories, Galat 4. 24. which things are an Allegory. 

They are called Serf/*, *?£*#e/&, Rom. 4.. 11. Tfo 5^/ o/ffo Righteouf- 
nefs of Faith. 

Alfo tbt Law and the Letter, 2 Cor. 3.6". fta Letter, that is, the Law 
killeth,* but the Spirit, that is, the Gofpel quickeneth. 

The Antitype, or the thing typed and figured, is called in Scripture 
fometimes by this Name, C Antitype] 1 Pet. 3. 21. the Antitype whereun* 
to even Baptifm doth alfo now fave us. 

The Type being called a Shadow : The Antitype is called ffce jfody, CoL 
2. 17. the Body is of Chrift. 

The Types are called ****<*> the Antitype *W, /ftL 10. 1. 7T?e very* 
Image of the things them ft Ives. 

Future good things, Heb. 10. 1. a Shadow of good things to come. 

Heavenly things, Heb. 9. 23. Patterns of things in the Heavens. 

True, Heb. 9. 24. rc/?/cfo dre the Figures of the True 3 Job. 1. 17. ft* 
Ztfn? was given iy Mofes : &*t 6Yrfce and Truth cdwe &y 7e/#j Chrift. 

Laftly, they are called Spirit, and spiritual things, 2 Cor. 3.6. the Let- 
ter hUetb -, hut the Spirit giveth Life, Revel. Ii. 8. In the Jlr est of the great 
City , which is f[ir it uaUy called Sodom and Egypt. There is literal and 
fpirirual Egypt. 

Vfe We may receive Encokragemcnt from all that hath been faid, to 
look mo the Types, and toftudy this Subjeft. For that they do adumbrate 
and fhadow forth Jefus Chrilt, and Gofpel-Truths anot Myfteries exhi* 
bited and revealed by him. If is not good to defpife any part of Scri- 
pture knowledge, much lefs fuch parts as ftand in fuch a direct relation 
to Jefus Chrift. Tho' there is fomething of difficulty thro 5 our own 
«Urknefs and weaknefc -, yet the Fruit will countervail the Pains and 


The G of pel of the perfona! Types . 6 1 

Labour •, tho 9 they be difficult, yet they are ufeful to be known. 

/ have been dejired by my Brethren of the Minifry to [peak unto them, 
and 1 hope tor ective AJfiflance from God through your Prayers: And I do 
much defire the help of your Prayers, that yon would remember me to the 
Lord, that he would carry me through this Work, that he would enlighten 
and enable me by his Spirit, to [peak ptnto thtm with clear Light -, and not 
o»ly fo as may be clear and convincing to my oxen Conscience and judgment ; 
but with fitch Evidence of Light, as may be fat'isfying and illuminating t$ 
yours alfo, even in the Evidence and Demon fir at ion of his Spirit. 

Some have not unfitly called the Ceremonial Law one of the richeft 
Cabinets of Divinity, full of ineftimable Jewels. But many things in 
their Religion will feem ftrange, and uncouth, and ufelefs, if we con- 
sider them without their Scope and Meaning. All the Ceremonial 
Law, if a Man knows not the Meaning of it, looks like an heap of 
unprofitable Burthens. The Temple appears but like a Shambles, or 
Butchers Slaughter-houfe ^ And the Prielthood a vain and ufelefs Oc- 
cupation^ But conilder them in their Senfe and Meaning, and every 
thing is full of Light and Glory. A great part of the Scriptures, 
efpecially the Old Teftament, Exodus and Leviticus, and other places 
will be like a Sealed Book unto you, if you have not fome Inlight 
into the Types. But if the Lord give you a little infight into 
them, you will read the Old Teftament with more Profit and Spiri- 
tual Underftanding. For the Prophets do comment upon them •, yea 
fo do the Apoftles alfo ; And indeed the whole New Teftament is a 
large and full Expofition of the Types. 

If you ask, how may wefo fearch and look into them, as toun- 
derftand them, and profit by them? Take but three Rules for this 9 
and I conclude. 

Rule i. Search the Scriptures, Job. ^39. for they are they which tefti- 
fie of me (faith Chrift) the Scripture is the beft Interpreter of it 
felf. We cannot judge of thefe legal Shadows, but by Scripture- 
Light. If either exprefs Words, or change of Names, or a clear Analo- 
gy and proportion do appear •, thefe are Intimations of the Mind of 
God, that fuch Things are Types. Go no further than we fee the 
Scripture going before us. 

. Rule 2. Study the Covenant of Grace. Fcedus gratia clavvs tot hus Scrip- 
turd), Look diligently into the Gofpel, get a clear and fpiritual In- 
fight and llnderftanding into that , this is the beft help to the Under- 
ftanding of the Types. For he that well underftands the Antitype, will 
more eafily and readily difcern the Analogy^ and fee the Refemblancc 
it hath with the Type. 


$2 The Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 

Rule 3. As yon find the Lord letting in any thing of farther Light into 
your Minds, be f we yon ad Faith : And exercife Grace with renewed 
Vigour upon thofe Truths and Myfteries, as you find any Beams of 
further Light coming in concerning them. If a Man have all Know- 
ledge, and understand all Mysteries, and hath not Faith and Love, what 
is he the better for his Light ? 1 Cor. 13 i. 2. When yon fee things 
more clearly and fully, you fhould endeavour to believe more ftrongly, 
and to grow in Grace, as you grow in Light. 

rt „ rt 1, «-, Q ue ft- Why the Lord fpakefomuch in this way by 

25 fuij, 1667. Ty ^ and s * hadows ? y I 

Anfxo. Something may be gathered as to this, out of what was for- 
merly fpoken in general concerning theReafons of the Lords ufing fo 
great variety of Difpenfation, from that Text, Heb. 1. 1 therefore I 
fhall but touch upon fomefew things now, and that very briefly. 

R. 1 . There is a general Suitabknefs in fuch a way of fpeahng unto 
Man's Nature , as a fenfttive Creature, confining of a Body «#$ no ell as 
a Soul. Hence in all Times and Ages, even before Sin entred, the 
Lord gave unto Mankind fome outward and fenfible Things to be 
Signs and Reprefentations of Spiritual Things: Hence were thofe two 
Sacramental Trees, the Tree of Life, and the Tree of Knowledge of 
Good and Evil. And now much more iince the Fall •, Man being fal- 
len much lower, hath greater need of fuch Inftru&ions. Man is not 
only a fenfitive, but a Senfe-loving Creature. 

R. 2. It was particularly fuit able to that Infant- Age and State of the 
Church : It was fuirable to their Nonage, to be taught by fuch vifi- 
ble and carnal Things. The whole way of God's 
See Calv. Inftit. Difpenfations, both God's Bleflings and Judgments 
1.2. c. 11. 1. 1. were much more £ Xterna i an( i Senfible than they are 
now. Children muft have their A. B. C. weak and 
rudimental Inftru&ions. 7 hefe are called Elements, or Rudiments, 
yea weak and bepgarly, Rudiments fTcix**, Gal 4. 9. Tota Ugis Oe- 
conomia veluti rudis quxdaw erat difciplina rudibus conveniens. Bcza in 
Gal. 4. 3. Like a Horn-book to a Child. 

R. 3. That they to whom it was not given might not under fl and, 

R. 4. That his People might fee and under (I and the better. 

Thefe two laft Reafons are affigned by Chrift himfelf for his own 
Teaching fo much by Parables; and there is fome Affinity between 
a Type and a Parable, as you heard the lad time, Mat. 13. 1-1,13. 
why fpeakefl thou to them in Parables .? Bccaufe it vs given to you to know 

the Myfteries of the Kingdom of Heaven , and bccaufe they feeing fee 


The Gofpel of the perfcnal Types. 6 3 

not, &c. Similitudes not underftood are Riddles and Clouds of Dark- 
nefs upon the Under (landing : But if once interpreted and underftood, 
they are like bright Candles, they give a clear Light. Comparata etiam 
fitfa arguunt fidemque faciunt. 

It is not a true and found Rule, that of the Schoolmen, Theologia 
fymbolica non eft Argument ativ a. What fhall we fay, that all the Pa- 
rables of our Saviour did argue nothing ? When indeed they did not 
only argue, but demonftrate • and that fo, as did convince and cut 
the Hearts of his greateft Enemies and Oppofers. Was 
not Nathan's Parable argumentative, yea demonftrative and convicting 
unto David? Their Rule may be true concerning their own Allegori- 
cal Senfes, and Myftical Froth, which maybe found iQ, their Interpre- 
tations: But concerning Scripture-Types it is moft falfe. 

You have feen the Nature of a Type, what it is, and fome fhort hints 
of Reafons of the Lord's [peaking this voay :, we fhall now enter into par- 
ticulars, and go through the Types, and open to you ( as the Lord 
fhall enable) fomething of the 'Gofpel-Truths and Myfteries adum- 
brated and (hadowed forth by them ^ depending upon the Help and 
Affiftance of him, of whom we are to fpeak. 

Now the firft and moft general Diftribution of them is into Types- 
perfonal and Types real, holy Perfons and holy Things. The Terms o£ 
which Diftinction are fo plain, that it needs no further Explication • 
therefore we fhall not make any tarrying here ^ you know the diffe- 
rence between Perfdns and Things. 

Perfonal Types are fuclras Adam, Noah, David, and others. 

Real Types are the Temple, the Ark, the Manna, the Sacrifices, and" 
fuch like, whereof hereafter, 

We fhall begin mth-xhepeifbrrai Types ; and they may be fubdivlded 
into two forts. 
- I . Individual Perfons: 

2. Typical Ranks and Orders of Perfons, which we may call Religious 
Orders y fuch as the Priefls, the Na^arites, &c. 

i. Typical individual Perfons. Concerning thefe there be fome pre- 
vious Rules, that may be of fome life, and give fome general Light for 
your better underftandirrg of them. 

i. They vere all godly Men. No Wicked Man individually confi-' 
dered, ever was, or could be a Type of Chrift. How could Limbs of 
the Devil, Men in whom Satan dwelt, be Pictures as it were and 
L'ooking-giafTes, in which to fee the Shadow of the moft high God ? 
who is Holinefs it felf ? A Man personally Wicked may be involved 
with others in a Religious Order, For the Order is holy, though the 

^4 ^ Gofpel °f the ferfonal Typesl 

Man be Wicked ; but if fingle Perfons be Types, they mult needs 
be holy Men. 

2. Whereas thefe holy Men h3d their Failings ^ They were not Types 
of Chrift in regard of their finful Failings ; hut only in their Graces and Ex- 
cellencies. For Sin cannot be a Type of Holinefs : Therein they were 
not like, but unlike to Jefus Chrift the Antitype. 

3. When Typical perfons had real Types belonging to them ( as 
oftentimes they had ) we [hall fpeak to both together : At leaft where 
they cannot be better and more conveniently referred to fome other 
Place. As for inftance, Noah's Ark was a Type, as well as he himfelf. 
Therefore we fhall fpeak to that, when we fpeak of Noah, as being 
a Circumftance, and a part of his Hiftory, which was tho' a true and 
real, yet withal a Typical Hiftory. 

4. Thefe typical Perfons, the higheft and moft eminent of them, were 
but partial Types : Therefore together with the Analogy between them 
and the Antitype, we fhall fometimes, where we fee it needful, Note 
alfo the difparity and difproportion that was between them. That you 
may fee how far the Shadows fell fhort of the Subftance, and how the 
Antitype excels the Type. 

And we fhall not mention all, but only fome of the chief and moft 
illuftrious. And becaufe there be divers of them, we fhall rank them, 
for Method and Memory's Sake, into two ClafTes. 

1. The perfonal Types that were before the Law. 

2. Vnder the Law. 

\. Before the Law. Here I fhall inftance only in eight Perfons, 
namely, Adam, Enoch, Noah, Melchiuedek, Abraham, Ifaac Jacob 9 
and Jofepb. 

1. Adam. He was the firft Type of Chrift in the World. 

That he was a Type of Chrift is clear from exprefs Scriptures. The 
Text, Rom. 5. 14. Who vs the Type of him that was to come, and 1 Cor. 
15. 45. The firft Man Adam was made a living Soul, the laft Adam was 
made a quickening Spirit. 

Now to fhew you the Analogy, wherein Adam did iefemble and 
reprefent the Lord Jefus Chrift. 

I. It was chiefly in regard of his Headfhip and Influence, Adam and 
Chrift both flood inftead of all that belonged to them. Adam was 
the Head of the firft Covenant, Jefus Chrift is the Head of the fecond 
Covenant. Adam was the Covenant Root and Head of all Mankind, 
a Publick and Common Perfon, reprefenting them •, yea an Under- 
taker for them. What they fay vainly of the Pope, that he is the 
■ Church- Keprefentative, may be truly faid of Adam*, He was thtRepre- 


The Go/pel of the perfona! Types. 6 5 

ftntative of the whole World ; as a Parliament Mao a&ing in the 
Name of the Town or Country that chofe him : He finning, we fin- 
ned in him ; he being condemned, we are condemned in him : So 
Chrift is the Head of the fecond Covenant, and of his Eledt, who are 
involved and wrapt up therein : He hath undertaken for them, and 
prefented them to the Father, Ephef 2. 16. in one Body. Therefore 
when he died we died with him ; when Chrift was crucified, our Sins 
were nailed to his Crofs, and crucified and buried as it were in his 
Grave. If he arife, we rife with him, to die no more. His Influence 
is to all his Seed. For both Adams have a Seed. As Adam: So Chrift^ 
J fa. $3. io. He fhafi fee bis Seed " He communicates to them what 
he hath : So doth Chrift: what he hath. 

Adam conveys and communicates Sin and Death : But Chrift Righ- 
teoufnefs and Life. Adam brought in thefe two great Intruders and 
Ufurpers, Sin and Death, into the World. And as Adam conveys 
Sin to thofe Chat had not finned actually, fo did Chrift conveigh Righ- 
teoufnefs to thofe that had not wrought Righteoufnefs. As in the Text, 
Rom. 5. 14. with Rom. 9.30, 31. The Gentiles which followed not after 
Rigbteonfnefs, have attained to Righteoufnefs. As foon as there is an 
Union between Soul and Body, Adams Sin is imputed to his Seed : 
So, as foon as there is a Myftical Union between Chrift and the Soul 
by the Spirit of Faith, fo foon is Chrift's Righteoufnefs imputed. 

There be fome other Confiderations may be added unto this. 

2. The Apoftle feems to make Adams Dominion over the Creatures, 
a Shadow of Chrift's Dominion and Kingdom, Gen. 2. 19,2©. Pfal. 8.6. 
compared with Heb. 2.6,7,8,9. 

3. His Relation to Eve. She was taken out of his Side, while Adam 
was afleep, and afterwards married to him, Gen. 2. 21. fo the Church 
is taken out of Chrift's Side, while he was in the Sleep of Death, 
and joined to him as his Spoufe by the Covenant of Grace, 2 Cor. 
1 1 . 2. 1 have efpoufed you to one Husband, that J may prefent you as a 
cbaft Virgin to Chrift, Ephef. 5. 30,31. We are Members of his Body, 
of bis Flefb, and of bis Bones While Chrift dies, his Church re- 
ceives Life, and fli$ which lives only by him, her hath he efpoufed 
to himfelf inTrutb Mercy and Righteoufnefs, Hof. 2. 

The Church is both Effeclum & ObjecJum Redemptions, the Effect: 
and the Object: of Redemption. The Effe&, He died to purchafeto 
himfelf a Church, a peculiar People, Tit- 2. 14. 

The Object, he gave himfelf for the Church, Ephef 5. 25. 

But yet it follows not, that Marriage w a Sacrament ; tho' Adam\ 
Marriage had fuch a'Sacramental or typical Notion put upon it, he 

K being 

66 The Goffel of the perfonal Types. 

being the Common Root of ail Mankind: Bet this will not fuffice to 
make Marriage a Sacrament, any more than the annexing a typical 
ufe to the Jewifh Sabbath, viz. to commemorate their Deliverance ouE 
of Egypt, will make the fourth Commandment Ceremonial. 

And as Adam was a Type of Chrifl : So we may carry the parallel a 
little farther, and Co Eve may be confidered as a Type of the Church : 
For the Godly are called her Seed, lmUput enmity between thy Seed, that 
is, the Serpents, andherSeed, Gen. 3. 15. and. Adam calls her the Mo* 
ther of all living, Gen. 3, 20. So Jertifalem which is above, that is the 
Church, is the Mother of us all, Gal. 4. 26. 

4. And laftly, as Adam w is a Tyyehimfelf, fohe had fever al Types 
belonging to him, There were divers real Types belonging to the Hifto- 
ry of this perfonal Type. 

As Paradife a Type of Heaven. For Heaven is often called by that 
Name, 2 Cor. 12. that which in ver. 2. is called the third Heaven, iscall- 
ed in ver. 4. Paradife • fo luk. 23. 43. this day (halt thou be with me in 
Paradife. Paradife was a Garden of Pleafure, Eden, from whence the 
Creek word w^h Pleafure^ and the Heathenifh Poems of the Gardens of 
Adonis : But at thy right hand in Heaven are Pleafuresfor evermore, Pfah 
i6» 1 1. So iikewife the 'tree of Life in Paradife was a Type of Chrifl. Tho* 
it was created upon the third Day of the Week -, and before the Gofpel 
it could not be a Type of Chrifl: •, yet after the Fall, and after the Preach- 
ing of the Gofpel, Gen. 3. it might be defigned and ordained totbisfcfe. 
As God provided Phyfical Herbs for Man before he fell, or needed them 
as to that ufe of Phyfick : So this Tree of Life before Sin, or the Gofpel 
was known : It feems to be fpoken of Revel. 2. 7. and 22. 2* The Tree of 
Life in the midftof Paradife. Chrifl: in the midft of the Church. 

Mans Ejection out of Paradife, a Type of his deferved Exclufibn out 
of Heaven. < 

And the Cherubims with flaming Swords, Gtn. 3. nit. an outward and 
vifible Shadow of the Wrath of God ; and of the Angels of God as 
Executioners of it on Man, who were created to be Minifters to his 
good, and are fo again through Grace : But, as in our natural Conditi- 
on r they are the Lord's Hofts to fight againft us. 

But there is ni^a fzi^ov a much more put upon Chrifl. His faving Vir- 
tue far exceeds that curfedt influence of Adam, in fundry particulars, 
amply opened by the Apoftle, Rom 5. from ver. 12. to the^nd of the 
Chapter. The Difparity is very great. 

1. In their Perfons. . The firft Adam is of the earth earthly ; his Name 
is but Adam, Earth, or Red Earth ^ but the fecond Adam is the Lord 
from Heaven, 2 Cor. ig. 47. 

2. In 

The Gofpel of theperfonal Types. 6? 

2. In their Head/hip and Undertakings, the one was Head of a Cove- 
nant of works ; the other of a better Covenant of a Grace. 

3. In the Succefs of tbeir Vndertakngs. The one failed \ the other 
kept the Covenant ; the firft Adam was tempted by S? 'n,and conquer- 
ed by him ; but Chrift was tempted, and overcame the Tempter. 

4. In their Influences. T'be firft Adam was made a living Soul • the fe- 
cond a quickening Spirit, 1 Cor. 15. 45. The one conveys all Evil, Sm 
and Death to his Seed : The other Communicates all Good, Rigbteoufi 
nefs and Life to his. There is Righteoufnefs oppofed to Sin *, and Life 
to Death, and with a much more, Rom. 5. 15, 1 6, 17, 18. Not as tbe 
Offence, Jo is tbe free Gift. At the great Day, when AdamfozW fee his 
Seed loft and undone, he muft own it. I have embrued my Hands in 
the Blood of all thefe : But Chrift fhall fay, here am I, and the Children 
which God hath given me, and not one of them is loft. 

2. Enoch, the feventh from Adam. 

It is true, he is not fo exprelly mentioned in Scripture for a Type of 
Chrift, as Adam is j but yet by comparing the Scriptures, we may dif- 
cern a clear Analogy between Chrift and him •, how he was made like 
unto the Son of God in fundry. Things. 

1. He was a molt illuftrious Type of Chrift's Afcenjion into Heaven r , 
and indeed the only Type they had of it before the Law. They had 
but two in all *, Elijah under the Law, and Enoch before the Law . 
Therefore we cannot well omit him, Gen. 5. 24. Enoch walked with God % 
and he was not • For God took him ; and Heb. 1 1 . 5. he was tranflated, that 
hefhouldnot fee Death, and was not found, becaufe God had tranflated him. 
Some look upon this as a Pledge of their Tranflation, that ihould be 
found alive at Chrift's fecond coming * 7 of whom the Apoftle faith, they 
(hall beckanged,or tranflated, 1 Tbeffq. 17. 1 Cora 5. 51, 52.But it looks 
firft and chiefly at Chrift himfelf,at his Afcenfion. This I mention firft^as 
being the chief particular : But a further Analogy may be obferved in 
fundry other particulars alfo ; as, 

2. There was in Enoch fome Shadow of Chrift's Prophetical Office ; we 
read o( Enoch's Prophefie, Jude 14, 15. But Chrift is the true Prophet, 
who hath unfealed the whole Book of Gc'd's Counfels, that Liber fatidi* 
cus, Rev. 5. he hath opened it fo far as is fit and needful for his Church 
to know. And as Enoch Prophefied of the Day of Judgment : So hath 
Chrift very fully and frequently. 

3. We may fet him among the Types of Qirift, for his nnparaUel y d 
Holinefs in the Age wherein he lived, which was a corrupt and evil 
time, all Flefhbegan to corrupt their way, Gen. $. 22,24, Enoch walked 
with God; it is twice repeated, as worthy of fpecial remark: So Chrift 
fulfilled aU Righteoufnefs, Matth. 3.1 5. K 2 4. Hit 

68 The Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 

4. Hispleaftng God. For (bit isteftifiedofhim, Heb. 1 1. %. fo Chrift^ 

MaXth. 3 17* this is my beloved Sow, in whom I dm well pieafed *-Job. 

8. 29. / do always thofe things tkatpleafe him. He is pleated fo well with 
him, that he is well pieafed with Sinners for bis fake, even for his Righ- 
teoufnefs fake. 

5. His very Name Enoch hath fomething in it, dedicated unto God. 
^tin confecratus, from ^0 dedicavit, confer avit, From whence fome de* 
five the Greek k«M£« Initio, and iywvi*, the Feajl of Dedication , Joh. 10. 

21. So was Chrift, Luke 1. 35. that holy thing -my Servant whom I 

have chofen, Ifai. 42. 1. and 49. 5. formed me from the Womb to be bis 

6. Some have added, He was a Type in regard of the continuance of 
his Life. £wocfcVdays were as the days of the Sun •• For he lived three 
hundred fixty five years, Gen. 5. 24. as many years as there be days ia 
the year. And of Chrift it is laid, his Throne [hall continue for ever^ as* 
the Sun before me, Pfal. 89. 36. 

3. The third typical Perfon that we mentioned is Noah. He is made 
a Type, 1 Pet. 3. 20, 2-1. in regard of his Preaching and Saving thofe 
that believed him in the Ark. So Chrift hath publiihed the Gofpel, 
Matth. 1 1. 27. no man knoweth the Father, but the Son^andhe to whom the Son 

revealethhim He came and preached Peace, Ephef. 2. 17. 1 Pet. 3. 19. 

Chrift preached in Noah i He favesthem that believe on him, he faves 
them in the Ark of his Church, by the Covenant and Water of Baptifm. 
See more of Noah, p. 90. 

4. Melchizedek was alfo a Type of Chrift •, and moft efpecially in re«< 
gard of the Excellency and Eternity of his Perfon, Priefthood and King- 
dom, Pfal. no. 4. The Lord hath [worn, and will not repent , thou. art a 
Frieftfor ever after the Order o/Tvlelchizedek, with Heb. 7. 2, 3, 4. made 
like mtothe Son of God. 

But there being not time to mfift upon thefe, nor to proceed to the 
reft of the Types \ 1 (hall for the prefent Conclude with fomething of 
Vfe and pradrical Improvement ; and (hall raife the Ufes not fo much 
from the Do&rine in general ; as from that which hath been fpokea 
upon it at this time. 

Vfe 1. Learn and know fomething more of Jefus Chrift by what you have 
hearti? or, if you knew it before, let it be more deeply imprinted upon 
your Hearts. Let us fum up all together : For they are all but, partial 
Types, and weak and imperfed Shadows of the Mefliah : . But all toge- 
ther will give the greater luftre • like the Galaxia, which is faid to be 
Z' muMtudeof little Stars. Mam was a Type of Chrift in regard of 
his Headfhif and Influence 5 Enoch a Type of his Afcenfion into Heaven ; 


The Go/pel of the pergonal Types. 69 

Noah of his Preaching and fav'mg the Church by the Covenant and 
Water of Baptifm ; AJelchizedek was a Shadow of the Excellency and. 
Eternity of his Perfon, and of his Priefthood and Kingdom. Know 
thefe things, medicate and confider them more throughly, and im- 
prove Chrift in thefe Difcoveries for your Spiritual good. Confider 
him as a Common Perfon Handing in our ftead, as a Prophet, Prieft 
and King ; as afcended into Heaven, as the Saviour of the Church, 
which is his Body. 

Vfe 2. Be exhorted to examine your (elves, and try which of the two 
Adams you are under. For there are but two Men in the World, the 
firft and fecond Adam ; thou art a Member of one of them. Adam 
and Chrifi divide the whole World. 

Queft. How may we know whether we be under the firft or the fe- 
cond Adam ? Anfw. Take thefe Tryals. 

1. What Birth haft thou ? Only the natural, or fpiritual Generation ? 
An thou only born, or new-born? For they that come only. from 
Adam by natural Generation, belong to him as the firft Adam h They 
that come of Chrifl: by fpiritual Regeneration are the Seed of Chrilt; 
and belong to him as the fecond Adam. What Experience haft thou 
had of this great Work ? Nicodemm, though a Doftor in Jfrael, un- 
derftood little of it. 

2. What Covenant doth thy Soul cleave to, and Aft under the Rule 
and Influence of ? Works or Grace ? Works is the firft Adam's 
Covenant : But Grace is the Covenant of the Second Adam, To 
go forth in a Man's own Strength 5 to expeft Acceptance in his 
own Worth, this is a firft Covenant-Spirit } a fign thou groweft upon 
the old Stock, upon the Root of Old Adam: But to live in a continu- 
al Dependance upon Free-Grace for every thing *, the Free-Grace of 
God in Chrifl : This is the Spirit of the Second Covenant • and be* 
comes the Sons and Branches of the Second Adam. Though a godly 
Man may for a fit turn afide to the Old Covenant, as Abraham did to 
Hagar-, yet it is not his way, it is not his Spirit to dofo ; and thence 
he is never at reft, till he return to have his Dependance and Reft on 
Chrift again : The Spirit of one under the Covenant of Grace is, 'to 
have no Confidence in the Flefb, but to have h'vs reft and rejoycing injefus 
Chrift, Phil. 3. 3- 

3. What Communications, and whofe Influences doft thon nceive f Eve- 
ry Branch receives from its Root, the Stream from its Fountain. Dofl 
thou receive the Communications of the Firft or of the Second- Adam i 
This will fhew whofe thou art, and to whom thou doft belong, You 


7p The Gofpel of the pergonal Types. 

have heard what it is that each of them doth Communicate. That 
Old Tree bears no good Fruit at all. Art thou under the Power of 
Sin and Death ? Or under the Power of Righteoufnefs and Life ? Sin 
and Death reigns in the Pofterity of the F'trft Adam : But Righteouf- 
nefs reigns by Grace unto Eternal Life, in the Pofterity of the Second 

Adam % Rom. 5. 21. 2 Cor. 5. 17. If any Man be in Cbrifi be bis a 

new Creature. 

Vfe 3. Here is Comfort to the Seed oftbe Second Adam againft the pre- 
fect Troubles they are under. There be chiefly three Complaints and 
Troubles of God's People, under all which here is Matter of Support 
and Relief. 

1 . Thou art here upon Earth ; tho' Chrifl; the Head be in Heaven, 
yet his poor Saints and Members are here below : But remember 
whether Jefus the Fore-runner is entred for us. As fure as Enoch's 
Body is in Heaven, or Elijah's : So fure by virtue of bvs Afcenfionof 
whom they were Shadows, (hall thine and mine afcend thither, if we 
be his ^ tho' we fleep in the Duft for a time, as Chrifl: himfelfal- 
fo did. 

2. But while in this low Valley, The Floods of great Waters are rea- 
dy to overwhelm us ^ the Floods of Perfecution, Affliction, Defertions, 
the overflowing Scourges of common Calamities, which puts many 
of God's People to fome Cares and Fears : But as to this, confider 
that true Noah *, the Lord provides an Ark of Safety for his People, 

That the Floods of great Waters may not overwhelm them, Pfal. 32.6. 

fee Pfal. 124. i< 5. If it had not been the Lord who was on our fide 

—^-if it bad not been the Lord who was on our fide^ when Men rofe up 
againft us : Then the Waters had overwhelmed us, the Stream had gone over 
cur Soul then the proud Waters bad gone over our Soul. 

p. Thou art a poor unworthy Creature, and God is angry, or ap- 
pears angry \ and thou faieft, how can lexpetl fuch Salvation from bim 9 
who have finned againft himfoas I have done ? To this, remember, what 
an High Prieft you have, even Jefus, who is made an High Prieft for 
ever, after the Order of Melcbiaedek : Therefore let us come with bold- 
nefs to the Throne of Grace. It is the Apoftle's Inference, Heb. 4. 14, 
15,16. The Apoftle faith of Melcbizjedek, Heb. 7. 4. confider how great 
tbvs Man was. It may be faid much more of Chrifl, confider how great 
your High Prieft is. How little foever thou art in thy own Eyes, 
how unworthy foever •, the Greatnefs and Glory of your Redeemer 
is enough to remove all Difcouragement. 


The Gofpel of the perfonal Types, 71 

Some entrance (Beloved) hath been made into the % Jug. 1667. 
perfonal Types. We are upon the individual Perfons that 
were Types before the Law, whereof eight were named, Adam, Enoch, 
Noah, Melcbizedeky Abraham, Jfaac, Jacob and Joftph, whereof only 
two have been fpoken to, viz.. firft Adam, fecondly Enoch. We fhal] 
now proceed to the reft, 

3. The third is Noah, whom we did but touch upon thelaft time, 
but (hall endeavour now to clear it more fully. The Story of Noab is 
written in the 5. 7,8, and 9. Chapters of Gtnefu. And fo Famous ic 
was amongft his Pofterity, that the Heathen have fome broken Re- 
membrances and Traditions of it: They had heard of a Flood,as well as 
of the Creation of the World. Ovid fpeaks of them both in his Metamor- 
phofts : And their Bacchus, the very Name with a little alteration of the 
Letters, comes from Noah, Noachus, Boachus ; and Janus from the He- 
brew Ja'ftn, vimtm: Somewhat they had heard, as it feemeth, about his 
planting a Vinyard, and making Wine. 

That this Hiftory of Noah had a typical Refpeft, you may fee in 
1 Pet. 3. 20, 2T. In what Refpeft was he a Type? In two Things 

1. In regard of his Preaching. 

■2. His faving bis Hou(hold in the Ark. 

I , In regard of his Preaching -, he was a Preacher of Right eonptefs^ 
1 Pet. 1. 5. he gave warning to the fecure World -for a hundred and 
twenty Years together, both by his Word and A&ions : Every ftroke 
in the building of the Ark had a Voice, and was an Alarm to the 
World every Day : So Cbrift, who did preach by his Spirit in the Mi- - 
niftryof Noah, 1 Pet. 3. 19,20. And when he came in the Flefh, be 
did Preach and bring in ever lafiing Right eoufnefs, Dan. 9. 24, And he 
hath Preached by his Word and Spirit in his Apoftles and Minifters . 
ever fince. W 7 hat Noah did one hundred and twenty Years, Chrift 
hath been doing thefe fixteen hundred Years. 

And as Noab had no great Succcfs in his Miniftry : So Chrift and I 
all the Servants of Chrift have caufe to complain, who bath believed cur 
Report, Ifa. 53. r. There were but Eight Perfons faved io the Ark, 
wherein a few that is, Eight Souls were faved by Water, 1 Pet* 3*. And of ' 
thofe Eight, all were not faved Eternally ; there was a Cbam i and of 
him the curfed Canaanites i But all the reft of the World perifhed in 
the Flood. Doubtlefs they defpifed Noah and all his Preaching, and 1 
thought him an old doting Fool to go and build a Ship on dry Ground, 
and expect that the Sea Jhould come up thither to fet it afloat - y they 


72 The Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 

would not believe one Word he faid : So Men account Preaching 
Fooliflinefs, i Cor. i. Hence thofe complaints of Chrift and his Mef- 
fengers, lfa. 49. 4. I have laboured in vain, 1 have fpent my Strength 
for nought, and in vain—~-\n his own perfonal Miniftry and teaching 
we read not of very many that were converted by him. To the Apo- 
ftles he gave more Succefs -, but yet the Converted ones were but/<?ir, 
in comparifon of the unconverted, unbelieving World. 

2. Noah was a Type of Chrift in regard of his faving thofe that did 
believe his Preaching, fromthe common Deluge and Deftru&ion. Hence 
the Notation of his Name Noah -, it fignifies Reft : Chrift is Reft, and 
the only Reft of the Soul, Mat. n. 30. Gen. 5. 29. He (hall Comfort 
us, becaufe of the Curfe laid upon the Earth. Not upon the Earth only, 
( as the blind Papifts Dream, and therefore love the Fifh better than 
the Flefh -, ) but the Earth is put for the whole Creation, The Earth, 
the Sea, and all the Elements, and all that is therein -, yea, the Sun, 
the Moon and Stars are not excluded out of the general Curfe and 
Bondage of the Creatures : The Apoftle faith, the whole Creation fif- 
firs and groans, Rom. 8. 22. 

The ancient Dominion over the Creatures was in part reftored, when 
they came together peaceably in the Ark: The firft Blefling of Propa- 
gation and Dominion had its Charter renewed and confirmed, Gen. 
9. 9. Now Noah was an Inftrument to remove this Curfe in part, to 
repair the Ruins of the Old World, and reftore it to a betjer State : 
Some he did fave out of the Common Ruines, 1 Pet. 3. 20. fo doth 
Chrift reftore and fave loft a^d fallen Mankind, 1 Pet. 3.21. by the 
Refurre&ion of Chrift. 

This being a main thing wherein Noah was a Shadow, let us in- 
quire and fearch into it more fully .-For where the Scripture gives us 
a general hint, that fuch a thing was a Type, we may fafely inquire ; 
yea, we ought to inquire, and fearch out the particulars wherein the 
Analogy lies. Now this, viz.. Noatis typical faving the World includes 
divers Things. There were divers real Types belonging to the Hifto- 
ry of this perfonal Type. As, 

1. Noah's Ark. 

2. The Deluge. 

3. The Waters thereof. 

4. His acceptable Sacrifice. 

5. The Lord's Covenant with him ; and the Rainbow the Sign there- 
of. All which had their typical Significations. For, 

1. Noah's Ark was a Type flfthe Church. 

2. -She 

The Go/pel of the perfonal Types. " 73 

2. Deluge of the Day of Judgment, and the everlafling Salvation of 
fome, and Deftru&ion of others. 

3. The Waters tha r . bare up the Ark typified the Water of Baptifhn. 

4. Noah's Sacrifice was a Type of Chrift 's Sacrifice. 

5. His Ccven nt, with the Rainbow the Sign thereof, a Type of 
the Covenant of Grace. 

1. The Ark was a Type of the Church. Some have accommodated the 
Ark as a Type a little otherwife -, but this is the cleareft. The Analo- 
gy may be made out in many particulars, which fome have done with 
much Ingenuity, which becaufe it feems to be Solid as well as Ingenious, 
I (hall rehearfe it to you : I fay the Analogy may appear in thefe Ten 

1. Noah built the A*k according to the Mind of God \ and he was in it 
himfelfwhenit was tojfed, and floated upon the Waters, Gen. 6. 22. accord- 
ing to all that Cod commanded, fo did he. So Chrift buildeth the Church 
in perfect Faithful nefs to his Fathers Will, Heb. 3. 2,3. He was faithful 
to him that appointed him, as alfo Mofes was faithful in all his Houfe : And 
He is in it, in all the Floods and Troubles of his Church and People to 
the end of the World, J fat. 43. 2. when thoupaffeft through the Waters^ 
lwill he with thee, Matth. 28. 20. Lo, / am nith you alway even to the 
End of the World. The Church is refembled by a Ship : So Jfai. 54. 1 r. 

thou toffed withTempeJls. Here the Church is compared to a Ship in 
a Storm: And there are many things belonging to a Ship, refembling 
fomewhat in the Church. 

The Pump, Repentance. The Sails Affections. Wind the Spirit, 
The Rudder, the Word— 

1. The Workmen and Carpenters that built it, were drowned tbemfelves. 
So carnal Minifters may be instrumental for good toothers, of faving 
others, and yet not faved themfelves. 

It is zfcuple which fome Chriftians are exercifed with, the Minifter 
by whom they have received good to their Souls proves an Apoftate - 
hence they qneflion the Work they have found by his Miniflry. Now 

1 confefs, that ordinarily Cod doth not blefs the Labours of wicked Minijlers \ 
bat yet fometimes he doth : As in the building of Solomons Temple, ma- 
ny had todowi h it, who were not truly godly : So it is in fpiritual 
building there was a Judas, a Demas, Matth. 7. 22, 23. 1 Cor. 9. 27 
For the Efficacy of the Ordinances does not depend upon the Inftrument 5, 
but upon the Jnftitution and Blejfing of God. 

3. The Materials of the Ark: Noah takes many Trees out of the 
Woods, cuts them down, compacts them, joyneth them together -and 
they rquft be bowed and fitted and joynted : So Chrift in building his 

L Church ; 

74 The Goofpel of the perfonal Types. 

Church \ they mult be cut off the old Tree where they grew before, and 
fitted, and hewed, and humbled, Hof 6. 5. / have hewed them by the 
Prophets : And then compacted and united together in the Faith, Love 
and Order of the Gofpel \ and fo they become a Church of Chrifl:. 

4. There was a Door in the Arh, and but one Door, Gen, 6. 16. So in 
the Church, Chrift is the Door, John 10. 7. 9. by whom alone we enter 
in to the Father, and find Pafture, that is, full fupplies according to our 

5. The Ark had a Window to let in Light Gen. 6.16. which refembles 
the Windows of Solomons Temple, 1 King, 6. 4. which were made nar- 
row without, and wide within, to difFufe the Light the better. 

This Light is Chrift,7oJb 1.9. he is the Light of the World, Luke 1 1.34, 35, 
36. as a Candle in a Room enlightens the whole Room ; So if there be 
a Light in the fupream Faculties of the Soul, that is, true fpiritual Wif- 
dom in the Heart, it will enlighten the whole Man, fo as to direct and 
guide it ; the whole Body of a Man's Carriage and Converfation will be 
full of Light: The Light he gives, diffufeth it felf through the whole 
Man, and has an influence into all his Converfation. 

6. There were many Rooms or Chambers in the. Ark ; and fo in the Tem- 
ple ; yet all thefe made up but one Ark. This fignifies many particular 
Churches *, yet all the Churches in the World make up but one Church 
Catholick, which is the myftical Body of Chrifl, 1 Cor. 12. 12. as the 
Body is one, and hath many Members, and ail the Members of that one Bo- 
dy, being many, are one Body : So alfo is Chrifl. See Cant. <5. 9. My un~ 
defiled is but one. 

7. There were three Stories in the Ark; it was three Stories high, Gen, 
6. 16. and fo Solomons Temple had three parts, an outer Court, an in- 
ner Court, and an Holy of Holies. This holds forth the three degrees 
of the Church. There is, (1.) The vifible Church. (2.) The myfti- 
cal Church militant here on Earth. (3.) The Church triumphant in Hea- 

(1 .) The Church in her loweft Story is her vifible Members here on Earth, 
among whom there be many Hypocrites } yet even fo, /he is more 
Excellent than the Mountains of Prey, Pfal. 76. 4. Kingdoms are called 
Mountains of Prey, that faying being too often true, that magna Reg- 
na are indeed magna Latrocinia : But the Church is more glorious than 

(2.) The invifible Church is the fecond Story, again ft whom all the Gates 
and Powers of HcH fhaU not prevail, Matth. 16. 18. It is true in fome 
Senfe in general, concerning the vifible Church ; Chrift will always have 
fome vifible Societies of Chriftians in the World, thai (hall makePro- 


The Gofpel of the ferfonal Types. 7 5 

feflion of his Name •, but it holds chiefly concerning the myflical Body 
of Chrift : True Believers cannot fall away. 

(3.) The third Story is the Church triumphant ; which is higher than all 
thcfe, and more Excellent than all the Kingdoms in the World, than 
all the Churches upon Earth. 

8. They in the Ar\ were fafe ; and there was no Safety but in the Ark - 
So in the Church there is*Saivation •, but no Salvation out of the Church : 
Salvation is of the Jews, Joh. 4. extra Eccleftam non efl Salus. It is always 
true of the myftical Churchy and it is ordinarily true concerning the 
vifible Church. Yea the Ark was fafeft when the Waters were higheft. 
Sea-men have an Expreffion in a Storm, they ufe to wilh for Sea-room 
enough. Or we may apply it higher, to Chrift himfelf, and to his my- 
flical Body ; without Chrift there is no. Salvation : But as they were fafe 
in the Ark \ So whofoever is in Chrift, and a Member of that inviilble 
Society, he is fafe, and (hall never periih. 

9. In the Ark there were both clean and unclean Beafts : Yet the Rave- 
noufnefs of their Natures was reftrained for the time, Gen. 7. 2. So 
in the Church there are both Saints and Hypocrites : Hypocrites are 
unclean Beafts. A Cham in the Ark ^ a Judas , a Devil in Chrift's own 
Family. In the vifible Church there be fometimes Wolves within, and 
Sheep without : Tho' they are Wolves in Sheeps clothing • for pro- 
phane Perfons may, and ihould be kept out •, but clofe Hypocrites can- 
not. As in the Ark tho* there were ravenous Beafts ^ yet their Na- 
tures were reftrained : So in the Church, fuch as are Beafts by nature ^ 
yet the Corruption of their Natures is reftrained, there is reftraining 
Grace upon Hypocrites in the Church, as well as renewing Grace in 

the Saints, JfaL 11. 6. 9. They /hall not hurt nor deflroy in all my ho* 

ly Mountain. 

io. There iffued out of the Ark a Raven and a Dove, whereof the Dove 
returned again, but the Raven did not, Gen. 8. 7, 8, 9. the Raven is an 
unclean Bird, Levit. 11.15. a B * r d °f prey, and a Bird of darknefs, 
Ifai. 34. 11. The Dove is a Bird of Light : At the Baptifm of Chrift, 
the Holy Ghoft defcended on him in the fhape of a Dove, Matth 3. If 
a Dove go out from Chrift and his Ordinances, it (hall find no reft till 
it returns again into the Ark, and be taken in by the Hand of Noab t 
by the Spirit of Chrift : But the Raven goes out of the Aik, and re- 
turns no more. And how many Ravens are there in the Church that 
depart and fall off, and return no more? 1 Job. 2. 19. they went out 
from hs 9 becaufe they were not of us. 

L 2 You 

7 6 The Goftel of the perfonal Types. 

You Ravens that are going and coming, and hovering to and fro ^ 
as the Raven, fhe went and came, Gen. 8. 7. and might 

Vide tfc_oJ4 light on the outfide of the Ark If you do not get 

Geneva Note. .^ o tbe Ar ^ ^ chri ^ ic f^ews what you are. 

You that are Doves, are gone out, return again,. return to your Reft, 
fly as Doves to the Windows, Jjai. 60. 9. The Dove is no ravenous Bird, 
(he cannot fight as the Raven, and fhe is fwifCof Wing } fray for the 
Wings of a Dove— — in this fenfe, Pfal. 55. 6. make hafte to Chrift. 

Thus you fee what a full and plentiful Analogy there is between the 
Ark and the Church in allthefe ten Particulars. 

2. Tb? Deluge was a Shadow of the Day of 'Judgment, and the everlaft- 
ing Salvation of fome, and Deftru&ion of others at that day. The 
Apoftle Peter parallels them, 2 Pet. 3.6, 7. the World that then was being 
overflowed with W*ter perifhed : But the Heavens and the Earth which are 
now, are referved for tire againft the day of Judgment. It was indeed a 
lefTerday of Judgment, and magnum futuri Judicii prajudicium. Hence 
Hell is called the Place of the Gyants, Prov. 21. \6. The man that wan- 
dreth out of the way of underft adding jhatt remain ON*£H Tip} i n CX[U 
Gigantum, in the Congregation of the Gyants, Prov. 9. 17, 18. but he 
hnowetb not that the Gyants are there, and that her Guefts are in the deaths 
of Hell. 

The World will be in a like frame, drowned again in deep fecurity, 
Matth. 24. 37, 38,39. tho* they fee all the tokens appearing, and all 
things fulfilled that have been foretold •, yet they will not be awakened : 
But when they faw the Flood came indeed, Oh the amazement that 
began to feize upon them ! When they faw the Cataracts of Heaven 
opened from above, and the Fountains of the great Deep broke up from 
beneath ! So at the Day of Judgment every eye foall mourn, Rev. 1. 7. 
fee Heb. 1 1. 7. Noah prepared an Ark to the faving of his Houfe, by which 
hi condemned the World : Some faved by Noah, others condemned by 

3. The Waters that bore up the Ark are made by the Apoftle a fhadow 
of the Water of Baptifm, 1 Pet. 3.21. As that Water bore up the Ark, 
and faved them from drowning : So doth Baprifm fave us. For tho' 
the Flood was a true and real Hiftory ; yet there be typical Hiftories ; as 
. you will hear further when we come to there*?/ Types; Therefore that 
Water had a typical refpeft to the Water of Baptifm. 4. Noah's Sacri- 
fice when he tame out of the Ark, was a manifeft Type of the Sacrifice of 
Jtfus Chrift. For fo indeed were all their Sacrifices, Gen. 8. 20, 21, 22. 
Hence Chrift is called a Sacrifice of afweet fmelling favour, Eph. 5. 2. 
God was fopleafed with Noah's Sacrifice, that he promifed to deftroy 


The G of pel of the perfonal Types. 77 

the World by Water no more : So God is well pleafed with ChrifVs 
Sacrifice •, he is fo pleafed with it, that he will be gratious unto Sin- 
ners for the fake thereof, fo as not to deftroy them, but fave their 

5. Noah's Covenant, and the Rainbow the fign thereof, was a Type of 
the Covenant of Grace, Gen 9. 12, 13. It is a queftion whether there was 
any Rainbow before ? It may feem not : Becaufe it had been fmall com- 
fort and afluranceto the new World, to fee that which they had feen 
before, and to have fuch a fign of the Covenant. Therefore fome think 
that the Rainbow was not from the beginning : Bat as the Lord gave 
a new Promife •, fo he created a new thing for a Sign thereof. 

But how may it appear that the Covenant of Grace 
was here held forth ? See Ifai. 54. 9, 10. This is unto ^ on ( er '°? S cb, h !* 
me as the Waters o/Noah, &c. Eiek. 1 . hit. As the ap- vib^/ation. °* * 
pearance of the Bow that is in the Cloud in the day of 

Rain : So was the appearance of the Brightnefs round about Revel. 10. 

1. and 4. 3. 

Vfe. From all that hath been faid of Noah. Here is ground of un- 
fpeakable Comfort to the Church and People of God in all their troubles. Af- 
flictions are often compared to deep Waters, Pfalm 42. 7. but God will 
provide for the fafety of his People, Pfal.1%. 16, 17. hefent from above, 
be took me, and drew me out of deep Waters, Ifai. 43. 2. the Waters (hatt 
not overflow thee. The Rainbow appears when there hath been rainy 
Weather, the Rainbow in a Cloud in a day of Rain, Ezek. 1. ult. So when 
the Cku^ch hath been in Floods of great Waters, Chrift appears with a 
Rainbow, Revel. 10 1. And as he promifed there fhall be no more a 
Flood to deftroy the Earth : So there is a time coming, when there 
fhall be no more floods of Perfecution to overwhelm his Church : I have 
fworn I witt not be angry with thee, nor rebuke thee any more, Ifai. 54. 9. 
So for particular Souls that have been overflown with the Wrath of 
God, and the Waters have gone over their Soul, there is a time com- 
ing, when Chrift will appear with a Rainbow about his Head. To 
fome he gives fuch an inward Seal and Teftimony of their Adoption, 
that they never lofe it, but carry it in their Bofoms to their dying day, 
keep their AiTurance all their days. And tho' I know it is otherwise 
with fome of his Children ; yet at hft, when they dye and come to 
Heaven, he wiil never overflow the Soul any more with his Anger. 

4. The fourth perfonalType we named wss Melchi^edek -, his Story is 
in Gen. 14, That he a as a Type of Chrift is clear from Pfal. no. 4. 
where fpeaking of, and to the Mejfiah, he faith, The Lord hath fworn % 
thoH art a Prieft for ever after, the Order of Melchizedek : As alfo from 


78 The Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 

that which the Apoftle faith, Heb. 7. 3. that he was made lifo unto the 
SonofGod % and abideth a Prieft continually : AJfimilatus , or get ens fimi- 

Some Controverfie there is, who this Melchizedek was ; and diffe- 
rent Opinions there are. The Papifts have very roving Conjectures 
about it. 

He was not Chrifi himfelf; becaufe he is faid to be made like unto the 
Son of God, Heb. 7.3. but no Man is faid to belike himfelf: For fi- 
militude is between two. 

That he was not an Angel, or an Appearance of God, but a true 
and real Man, may be proved by this Argument \ becaufe every Prieft 
is taken from amongft Men^ Heb. 5.1. but Melchizedek was a Prieft-. 
And the Scripture fpeaks of him as a Man : For it mentions the Place 
where he dwelt, viz. at Salem; which mull needs beunderftood Hi- 
ftorically, becaufe there is no reafon to conftrain us to run a Meta- 
phorical Senfe. 

And, whereas fome Objecl, there was no Man then fuperior to A- 
hraham in Faith and Holinefs : But Melchizedek was greater than 

t Some anfwer it thus*, NonfandHate, fed dignitate prafertur Abrahx. 
For that Abraham was but an inferiour Perfon, whereas Mehbizedek 
was King and Prieft in Salem. 

But we may anfwer further. That there might be fome more emi- 
nent than Abraham -, fome of his godly Anceftors, who were aged 
and experienced Saints, as Sem % for lnftance, might towards the end of 
their Lives be more eminent than Abraham was in his Youth •, of 
Shem it is certain by the Genealogies, Gen. 1 1 . that he was yet living : 
and he was the greateft Perfon then in the World \ yea greater than 
Abraham^ as being one of his Progenitors and Anceftors. 

Therefore .many do Conje&ure that Sem was this Melchizedek : And 
indeed the Conjecture is not improbable •, tho* for any certain Demon- 
ftration it is not to be expected, becaufe the Lord hath purpofely con- 
cealed who he was, to the end he might be a more illuftrious Type of 
Chrift, appearing as it were like a Man fallen down from Heaven, 
and deftinated to that end. 

Queft. Wherein was Melchizedek a Type of Chrift ? 

Anfw. In regard of the Eternity and Excellency of hvs Perfon and Of- 
fice^ both as King and Prieft. There be four particulars here included. 
He was a Type. 

1. In regard of his Kingdom. He is called Melchizjdek, which the 
Apoftle interprets King of Righteonfnefs^ Heb, 7. 2. So Chrift is King 


The Go/pel of the ferfonal Types. 75 

of his Church, and King of Righteoufnefs, Pfal. 45. 6, 7. King of Salem^ 
which fignifies Peace. It is thought to be the fame City which was af- 
terward called Jernfalem : So Chrift was King ofjerufalem, Zach. 9. 9. 
and King of Peace, If*. 9. 5. My Peace J leave with yon, John 14. 27. 

Mic. 5. 5. Thvs Man JlmU be our Peace Peace that paffeth all Vnder- 

ftanding and Righteoufnefs firft, then Peace, Jfa. 32. 17. The Fruit 

of Righteoufnefs (hall be Peace : Other wife, thou fhalt have no Peace 
from Guilt, unkfs he give thee Righteoufnefs firft ^ both imputing 
his own Righteoufnefs for Juftification to thee ; and infufing the ttt* 
herent Righteoufnefs of Sanctification into thee : He will not create 
Peace for thee. 

2. In regard of his Prieftbood. Mekhizedek was Pried of the moft 
high God, Gen. 14.18. Heb. 7.1. fo is Chrift both King and Prieft. 
This was extraordinary in Melchiz.edtk, that he might be the more 
glorious Type ; God did not ordinauly allow it: The Houfe of Aaron 
had not the Kingdom ; the Houfe of David had not the Priefthood: 
They might not intermeddle in the Prieft's Office-, King Vz.zjah was 
frmtten for it : But Melchrzedek was both. 

3. In that Shadow of Eternity which the Story in Genefis doth caft up- 
on him. He is there brought in as a greater Perfon than Abraham 
the Father of the Faithful : But neither his Birth nor Death mention- 
ed, neither his Father nor Mother, without either beginning or end of 
Days, Heb. 7. 3. It is not meant, that he was fo really, but only in 
facred Hi/lory, and in a Type or Shadow : For it is impofllble for any 
Creature to be without beginning, that is an eflential property of 
God - 7 Novitas ejfendi eft de EffentiaCreatuta. And that Melcbizedek 
was a Creature, and not God, was proved before ; becaufe he was 
Prieft and King of Salem ; and every Prieft is taken from among ft Men , 
de Ratione Sacerdotis eft ut fit verus homo, It is an EfTential requifite in a 
Prieft, that he be indeed a Man : Mekbinedek therefore was a Man 5 
but yet Eternal, Typically and in a Figure. 

Chrift is called a Prieft for ever, Pfal. no. 4. and of Mclchizedek 
the Apoftle faith, be avideth a Prieft continually, Heb, 7. 3. You fhall 
never have caufe to fay, My Friend, alas my beft Friend is dead : For he 
hath an everlafting Priefthood, and lives for ever to intercede and 
make mention of you to the Lord, Heb. 7. 25. 

4. In regard of his Pre-eminence and Excellency above Vide My Notes of 
all other Men. Behold how ire at this Man was, Heb. 7,8. Chips ?rkflfrof. 

he was greater than Aaron the Prkft of the Lord : yea Zl\?J7?J?*' 

1 ai ? 1 r- c 1 cm ,cT ™*m Aaron, 

greater. than Abraham the Fore father of Aaron. 

He was greater than Abraham^ as in other refpecls ; 60 m theft 

three. 1. la 

80 The G of pel of the perfonal Types. 

i. la that he blefled Abraham, Gen. 14. 19. Hcb.7.7. and without 
Contradiction the lefs is bltffed of the greater : So Chrift blefleth us, Luke 
24. 50,51. All our Bleffings are through him ; he is the Fountain of 

2. In that Melcbinedek did reff efh Abraham and his Army, Gen. 14. 
18. and Melcbiz.edek King of Salem brought forth Bread and Wine, 
that is (as the Old Note well explains it) for Abraham and hisSoul- 
dier's Refrelhment, and not to offer Sacrifice : So Chrift refrefheth 
his Church with the Word and Sacraments, Mat. ir. I will give yon 
Refti or I will refrelh you, Ego rejiciam vos. 

3. In that Melcbizcdek did receive an homage and acknowledgment 
of Tythes from Abraham^ and from Levi and Aaron in his Loins, 
Thus they paid their Refpefts to him, Gen 14.20. Heb. 7. 4.9. whe- 
ther of his Spoils, or of his Goods, it was the tenth part, Some have 
gone fo far from this, as to infer, that we ought to gbeuno Chrift 
the tenth part of our Goods, as well as the feventh part of oar Time. 

But to let that pafs : Certain it is, that we ought to give famrfit Pro- 
portion of our Eftates unto God for his life and Service. And as he was 
herein greater than Abraham ; fo likewife greater than Aaron, and 
the Aaronical Order. MelchizedeVs was an higher Order in many 
Refpe&s, largely opened in that 7th to the Hebrews: 

Vfe. This that hath been faid concerning Melchizedek as a Shadow 
of Jefus Chrift affords the greater Encouragement to believe, and Cow- 
fort to them that do believe in the Lord Jefus Chrift. 

Encouragement, having foch an High Prieft, thou maift fafely ven- 
ture thy Soul upon him. 

Comfort, that fo great a Perfon is thy Saviour. 

True, thou art unworthy •, but his Worth and Excellency is enough 
to preponderate and overbalance all thine unworthinefs. He is both 
a King and a Prieft for ever after the Order of Melchizedd : and if 
thou doft accept of him as thy King to rule thee, thou maift fafely re- 
ly and reft upon him as thine High Prieft to juftifie and reconcile thee 
to his Father. 

Am i<. 1667. Of the individual Perfonal Types that were before 
u ^ ** the Law, there be four yet remaining to be fpoken 10. 

You have heard of Adam % Enoch, Noah, Melcbizedek, how they were 
Types and Figures of him that was to come. 

It remains, to fpeak of Abraham, Ifaac, 'Jacob and Jofeph. 
5. Abraham \ As the Apoftle faith of Mekbiuedek in other refpe&s,; 
Heb, 7. 4. fo we may fay of Abraham \ Confider bow great this Man 

wa* 9 - 

-The Gofpel of the ferjbnal Types. 8 r 

was, in that fo many Patriarchs, fo many righteous Men, fo many 
Prophets, Priefts and Kings, yea Jefus Chrift himfelf were once in 
Abraham's Loyns. 

I confefs he is omitted by divers that have handled this Subject ; fot 
what reafon I know not, unlefs it be from an aptnefs to reftrain all the 
Types to the Perfon of Chrift, wherein perhaps they found the Accom- 
modation not fo clear in refped of Abraham ^ in whom neverthelefs 
you will fee fome clearnefs, I hope, by and by, even as to that -, tho* 
it is not always neceifary in a Type, that it point dire&ly at the Mef< 
fiah's Perfon ; but it is Sufficient if there be an adumbration, or a fha- 
dowing forth of any Gofpel Truth or Myftery any way belonging to 
him. But there were many of them fhadowed forth in Abraham , and 
the Scripture owns him for a typical Perfon, as you will fee in the parti- 
culars. I (hall but inftance in five or fix things. 

i. If we conlider him together with Ifaac and Jacob, that proceeded 
from him, we may obferve that in thefe three Perfons, Abraham, Ifaac 
and Jacob, there is a weak and dark fhadow of a very great Myftery, 
even of thofe three glorious Perfons^ God the Father, Son and Spirit, in 
the order of their Subfiftence and Influences to our Salvation. For 
Abraham was the Father and Original of both the other •, and in his 
Love to God he fpared not his only Son Ifaac, but offered him up to 
Death for a Burnt-offering : So God, in his Love to Man, fpared not 
his only begotten Son^ but delivered him up for us, Rom. 8. 32. Ifaac was 
facrificed in a Figure : So was the Son of God, tie fecond 
Perfon oi the Trinity, in our Nature (lain and facrificed ij^uia 
for us. And Jacob, you know, came both of Abraham 
and Ifaac, and he is renowned for the Spirit of Prayer, by which he had 
power with God and prevailed, Gen. 32. 28. He did not prevail by his 
own ftrength, but by the Power of the Holy Ghofl, who did appear in 
him, and atted him as a Spirit of Prayer and Supplication unto fuch 
invincible wreftlings with the Lord. 

From all which you fee, that there is fome glimpfe and fhadow of 
theFather's Love, of the Son's Death and Sufferings, and of the Spirit 
his breathings and workings in us. Here is fornetbing of a low and 
weak reprefentation of that glorious Myftery of the Trinity, and the in- 
fluences thereof to our eternal peace •, tho' it is but a low, weak and dark 
fhadow of it, as all Types are in comparifon of the Antitype. 

2. If we confider Abraham with his two Wives Hagar and Saraband 
their Pofterities 7/£w*e/ and Ifaac \ here the two Covenants of Works 
and Grace, legal and evangelical Profeflbrs are fhadoweth forth. For 
this we have the Apoftles Authority, and the Teftimony of the Holy 

M Gboft 

82 Tie Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 

Cboft himfelf, the belt Interpreter of his own meaning, Gal. 4. 22, 23, 

(1 .) The Differences and Properties of the two Covenants are here held forth. 
Hagar by the ftrength of Nature hath a Chilcl ; but Sarah by Faith in 
the Promife, Gal 4. 23. So Works and Fruits brought forth in a Man's 
own ftrength, thefe are Legal : Jf by Faith in Chrift, thefe are Evan- 

The firft Covenant- Spirit is a Spirit of bondage. Gal. 4. 24,2$. Bon- 
dage unto Sin and Dtath s The fecond Covenant- Spirit is a Spirit of 
Liberty and Freedom - 7 not liberty to Sin, but liberty of Spirit in and 
unto Duty. 

The firft: Covenant-Spirit is a Spirit of Perfection, Gal. 4. 29. the 
fecond Covenant-Spirit is a Spirit of Love. 

Let thofe ProfefFors look to it, and take heed to their Spirits, who 
have a rigid, a violent, an impofing Spirit towards the People of God, 
the Children of the Promife •, take h,eed leaft you prove Hagaxites^ 
and meer legal Profeffqrs. 

(2.) It is true,as Abraham did turn unto Hagar : So a Believer afide that 
is in the Covenant of Grace, may pjfibly turn afide in fome particular 
actings to a Covenant of Works \ when thro' unbelief and negleft of 
the Promife h$ ads according to the Law, in his own ftrength ^ or in 
a way of violence, not of lpveto his g^ethren. 

(3.) But the Bond-woman andher Seed rflufi be caft o*tf, Gen.11. 10. 
Gal. 4. 30. Away with the Law of Works as a Covenant, we mufl re- 
nounce the old Covenant, and get free from the fnares of fuck a Spi- 

3. If we confider Abraham as the Head of the Covenant to that Church 
and People: So he is a Type of Chrift, the Head of the fecond. Cove- 
nant. You know God covenanted wir.h Abraham for his Seed : So W 
doth with Chrift for all his Elect. God's Promife to Abraham was to 
give a Seed to him, and an Inheritance to his Seed, viz.. the Land of 
Canaan % the Land of Promife : So God did promife to JefusChrift, that 
befhodd fee his Seed, Ifai. 53. 10, 11. and to bring them to Heaven, Heb. 
2. 10.— -Jefus Chrift is the true Head of the fecond Covenant, he en- 
gageth and undertakes for all his Seed : Abraham was but a typical 
Head thereof. 

4. Abraham was a Type of Chrift in regard of his abfolute Obedience to 
the Will of God ^ coming from his own Land, and from his Father's 
Houfe } fubmitting to that painful, and, unto carnal Reafon, fhameful 
and contemptible Ordinance of Cmnmcifion •, difmifling Jfhmael, a 
thing grievous to a teac]er-hearted Parent * yea, which was yet more, 


The Gofpel of tfre ferfonal Types. 83 

facrificing and offering up his Jfaac, his only Son Jfaac t There was no- 
thing fo difficult, but if God require it, Abraham will do it •, there is 
not fuch another Example, there is not an higher inftance of Obedi- 
ence in all the Scripture, than in Abraham, fave only in Jefus Chrifl, 
who was obedient to his Fathers Will in all things, even unto Death it 

telf, Job. 6. 38. 8. 29. — 10. 18. As God tryed Abraham in his Ifaac : 

So will he try every Son of Abraham in what is deareft to him. 

5. Abraham*s Jntcrcejfion for the Righteous in Sodom, and the Efficacy 
of it with the Lord, is fome jfhadow and refemblance of the Prayers and In- 
tercejfion of Jefus Chrifi, and the prevailing Efficacy thereof for the Salvati- 
on of the Eletf, Gen. 18. z<*. For as Lot was faved by means of Abra- 
hams Prayer from the Deftru&ion of Sodom. So are we for Chrifl's fake 
from everlafting Damnation. For Sodom was a Type of Hell, which is 
therefore called a Lake of Fire and Brimflone, Rev. 21.8. 

6. That he, who was the Father of the Faithful, (hould be fo great a 
Souldier, and Conqueror of five Kings (and indeed Abraham is the firft 
godly Warrior we read of in Scripture): It was a good Omen, and a 
Prefage, what Believers, the Sons of Abraham, (hould do ; and efpe- 
daily in the latter days, when the Kingdom of Chrifi (hatt prevail, as Dan, 
2. and chap 7. 

6. Jfaac. The Scripture takes Notice of him as a Type of Chrift, 
when it calls both him and Chrifl the promifed. Seed, and faith he rofe 
from the dead, and jTo he dyed alfo in a Figure, or as a Type. He was 
therefore a Type ofthrift in three refpedte. (1.) In his Birth. (2.) la 
his Death and Sufferings. (3.) In his Refurreftion from ihe Dead. 

1. In regard of his Birth, which was extraordinary and incredible, 
not by the power of Nature, but by virtue; of the Promife of God. Jfaac 
was the Seed of the Promife made to Abraham, iGal. 4. 28. in whom all 
the Nations of the Earth fhould be bleffed : But Chrifl was indeed the pro- 
mifed Seed, he was chiefly and principally intended in that Promife, fee 
Gah 3. 16. in whom alone we are truly bleffed, PfaL 72. 17. 

Jfaac was born by Virtue of the Promife believed on, againft and 
above the ordinary courfe of Nature, of Sarah's dead Womb 1 , Rom. 4. 
19- So Chrifl was born of the Womb of th6 Virgin Mary in a miracu- 
lous unconceivable manner,' ndt according to the ordinary courfe of 
Nature -, but by thepower'of the Holy Ghoft over fhadowing her, Luk. r.35. 

An Angel did reveal the Birth of Jfaac to Sarah, and (he thought ia 
her felf it was impoflible, Gen, 18, 11, 12. Sarah heard it, and it-bad 
ceafedtobe with Sarah after thcmanner of Women, ^ Sarah laughed with- 
in her felf, faying, after Tarn waxed old, fhuU J have fleafure, my Lord be- 
ing old alfo 1 Sodidan Angel reveal to the Virgin 'Mary, that Chrift 

M 2 fhould 

84 The Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 

fliouldbeborn of her, and (he admires and faith, bow can this be , feeing 
1 have not Inown Man ? Lake 1.34. 

Jfaac s Binh was promifed and waited for many Years : From the 
firft Promife of a Seed made to Abraham, to the Birth of Jfaac was 
five and twenty Years : For he was feventy five Years old when he 
left Haran, Gen. 12. 4. and he was an hundred Years old when Jfaac 
vj a- r l wa sborn, Gen. 21. 5. So Chrift the promifed Seed was 
inioi lon § ex P efted and waited for $ from the firft Promife 

of Chrift in Gen. 3. 15. to his coming in the Flefh was 
well nigh Four Thoufand Years. 

2. Jfaac was an eminent Type of Chrift in regard of his Death and 

Jfaac without refiftance, without repining or reply, willingly yields 
himfelf to his Father even unto Death : So was Chrift obedient to his 
Father even unto Death. So each of them was led away like a Lamb 
to the Slaughter, as is fa id of Chrift, Jfa. 53, 7. j4tt. 8.32. 

Jfaac carried the Wood whereon he was bound to Moriab, Gen. 22.5. 
fo did Chrift carry the Crofs whereon he was nailed to Golgotha, John 
1 9. 17. and fo the /Wood was firft laid upon them both, and then they 
were laid upon the Wood. 

Jfaac was to be offered alone, the Servants being left behind at the 
foot of the Hill, Gen. 22. 5. SoChaft muft tread the Win 'e * prefs alone , 
his Difci pies being fled and fcattered from him, Job. 16. 32. 

The Place where Jfaac was offered was Mount Moriab, Gen. 22. 2. 
and there was the Temple built, a Type of Chrift's Body : And there 
alfo his Body was crucified, upon another part of the fame Mountain. 

And as to the Time, fomething of Analogy may be noted : Some 
accommodate it thus, that as Jfaac came the third Day to the place 
of his Immolation: So Chrift came to his Sufferings the thirty third 
Year of his Age, confiding of three Tens and three Units. And it 
was three Years after his Entrance upon this publkk Miniftry, which 
is three Days, putting a Day for a Year according to the Prophetick 
Stile, Luke 3. 23. he began his Miniftry the thirtieth Year of his 
Age. And there be four Paflbvers mentioned in the Gofpel of John, 
in the Sacred Story of his Life and Death. Or we may apply this 
Circuraftance more literally in reference to his Refurre&ion from the 
Dead, which is the 

3. Third thing wherein Jfaac was a Type of Chrift, thus j that they 
mere both delivered from Death the third Day. Look, as Jfaac was reputed 
among the Dead in his Father's Thoughts and Purpofe, for three Days, 
who had giveahim up unto the Lord } but he received him again as 


The G of pel of the perfonal Types. 8 5 

from the Dead after three Days. So Chrift was in the State of Death 
three Days •, but then rofe again to dye no more ; fo that as Jfaac in 
three Days was both alive and dead, and revived in a Figure, Chrift 
was fo in Truth. In this refpect the Apoftle clearly makes him a Type 
of Chrift, Htb. II. 19. accounting {hat God was able to raife him up even 
from the Dead, from whence % alfo he received him in a Figure. For Ifaac'S 
Death and Refurre&ion were not a real Death and Refurredtion ; 
but a figurative Death, and a figurative Refurredtion : The Truth of 
which Figure is in Chrift, who both dyed and rofe again really and 
indeed. 1 am he that liveth .and was dead, and behold I am alive for 
evermore^ Amen, and have the Keys of Hell and of Death, Rev„ 
1. 18. 

7. Jacob, he alfo was a Type of Chrift, and is intimated in the 
Scripture fo to be, in that Chrift is called by his Name, Ifa. 49. 3. 
Thou art my Servant, Ifrael, in whom I will be glorified-, they are the 
Words of God the Father unto Jefus Chrift. Jacob was a Type of 

1. In his Sojourning. * 

2. In his Wreftling. 

1 . In his fojouming and travelling to and fro in an afflitled Condition almoft 
all his Days : For he feems to have been the nroft afflicted Saint that we 
read of in Scripture, except Job-, He leaves his Father's Houfe and 
goes to Haran, and lives there as a Servant for his two Wives, Ra- 
chel and Leah, Gen 28. 10. and 29. 18, 2. So Chrift left the Bofom 
of his Father, defcended from the higheft Heavens, and fojourned 
here upon Earth in the Form of a Servant, to purchafe to himfelf a 
Spoufe, a Church of Jews and Gentiles. 

Jacob alfo went down into Egypt by God's Direction, and there 
Jofephkd him, Gen. 46.3. So Cbrijl was carried into Egypt by Jofepb 
the Son of another Jacob, being warned fo to do by the Lord in a 
Dream : And was there fed and provided for by Jofeph his reputed 
Father, Matth. 2. 13. 

And as the Lord brought Jacob back again in his Pofterity, who 
carried his Bones with them, Gen. 46. 4. / will furely bring thee up 
again. So he brought Chrift out of Egypt in his own Perfon. 

And that this Hiftory bad a typical Refpeft to Chrift, you may fee 
in Mat. 2. 15. Hof. 11. 1. when Ifrael was a Child, thenr I loved him^ 
and called my Son out of Egypt. It is fpoken there Historically -, but 
not only fo, but prophetically alfo : For that Hiftcry of IfraePs going 
into Egypt, and returning again, was a typical Hiftory, .and did re- 
prefent what was to be done in Chrift the true lft ad 

2. Jacoh 

86 The Gojpel of the perfonal Types. 

2. Jacob was alfo a Type of Chrift: in regard of bis wreftling and pre- 
vailing with the Lord. When he was to meet Lfau, he betakes him- 
felf to Prayer that night, and prevailed ; from whence he got the 
Name of Jfrael, Gen. 32. 28. and he {aid, thy Name fhaB be called no 
more Jacob, hut lfi«ael : For as a Pfince thou haft power with God and 
with Men, and haft prevailed, Hof. 12.4. Y^, he wept and made Sup- 
plication unto him. So Chrift; often, and particularly the Night before 
his Sufferings, Heb. 5. 7. Who in the Days of his Flefh, when he had of- 
fered up Prayers and Supplications with ftrong crying and Tears unto him 
that was able to fave him from Death ; and was heard in that he feared ; 
for he had that which was equivalent. You know his Agonies in Pray- 
er that Night, when he faid, Father if it be poffble, let this Cuppafs 
from me • never thelefs not my Will, bttt thy Will be done. Tea he lives for 
ever to intercede, Hcb. 7.25. 

8. The laft perfonal Type, that is now to be fpoken to, is Jofeph. 
The Hiftory of Jofeph in the latter end of Gene/is is a very admirable 
and an affecting Hiftory. In Poems and Romances, to pleafe and af- 
fect the Mind, Men take liberty to feign ; yet they come far fhort of 
this which was a real Hiftory. It is true Jofeph is not fo exprefly men- 
tioned in the New Teftament as a Type of Chrift, as Abraham, Jfaac 
and Jacob are*, but the Analogy is fo clear and full, that we cannot 
well omit him. Jofeph mult'vs modis Figuram Chrifti geftavit, vel potius 
viva fuit ejus hnago^ faith Calvin in Matth. 2. ult. The Analogy is 
marvellous clear in fundry particulars \ I (hall but inftance in four 
Things, wherein he was (as the Apoftle fpeaks of another eminent 
Type) made like unto the Son of God. 

1. In his perfonal Qualifications and Endowments of Wifdom and 

2. In his Sufferings. 

3. In his Advancement. 

4. In his Carriage towards his Brethren. 

1 . In regard of his perfonal Qualifications and Endowments. Jofeph may 
be fitly numbred amongft the Types of Chrift ; for he was very emi- 
nent both as to Wifdom and Holinefs. 

As for Wifdom, he had a Prophetical Light fhining in him, from 
whence Pharaoh gave him that honourable Name Zaphnath payaneah, a 
clear Revealer of Secrets, Gen. 41.45. the Egyptian Language, though 
not the fame with the Hebrew ; yet had fome affinity with it. The 
firft Word Tfopnath Secretum comes from "J3s recondidit ; The other 
payaneach is thought to be a Compound of two Words, from W tla- 
rwt % and nru duxit placide^ Jofeph was eminent for leading by the Hand 


The Go/pel of the perfonal Types. Sy 

into fecret hidden Myfteries. It was fa id of him by Pharaoh, Can we 
find fitch a Man as this is, in whom the Spirit of God is t Gen. 41.38. 
andforafmuch as God hath fhewed thee all this, there is none fo difcreet and 
wife as thou art. So in Chrifb are hid all the Treafures of Wifdom and 
Knowledge, Col. 2. 3. He received the Spirit without Meafure, Job. 3. 34. 
He is the wonderful Counfellor^ I fa. 9. 6. the wonderful N umber er, Dan. 8* 
13. the true Palmoni, or numberer of Secrets. 

And as for Holinefs, Jofeph was tempted by his Miflrefs to bodily 
Adultery, but he refitted and overcame the Temptation : So Chriffc 
was tempted to Idolatry (which is fpiritual Adultery,) but overcame 
the Tempter, Mat. 4. And Believers alfo are victorious through him. 
Thanh be to God who giveth us the Hclory through our Lord Jefits Chrtft^ 
1 Cor. 15. 37. 

2. In regard of his Sufferings, both from his Brethren and from 
Strangers alfo, his Miftrefsand other Egyptians. His Sufferings were 
very grievous, the Archers for ely grieved him, and/hot at him, and hated 
him, Gen. 49. 3. It is faid, the Irons entredinto bis Soul, Pfal. 105. 17, 
18. So Chrifl did fuffer grievous things from the Jews, his own Bre- 
thren and Countrymen, and from the Romans, thofe Spiritual Egyp- 
tians. He came to his own, but his own received him not r 
Joh. 1. 11. but they delivered him up to the Romans : &e Calvin en 
He was a Nazarite as it were, feparate from \m Bre- ^ ^ ? ' 2 ' 
thren, Gen, 49.26. Dent. 33. 16, And what moved 
them to this ? It was, for that of God that was in him. The Patriarchs 
moved with Envy, fold Jofeph into Egypt, Ail. 7.9. So it is faid of 
Chrifl:, that Pilate knew, that for Envy they had delivered him, Mat. 

27. 18, 

They hated him efpecially, for that he by Divine Vifions and Reve- 
lations told them, that he fhould be exalted, Gen. 37. 8. So the Jews 
fought the more to kill the Lord Jefus Chrifl:, becaufebe not only had bro- 
ken the Sabbath, as they thought, but faid alfo that God was his Father, 
making himfelf equal with God, Joh. 5. 18. ■■ ■// we let him alone, you I: 
fee all Men go after him, Joh. 1 1 . 48. 

And when did they <\o this Injury to Jofeph} It was when he was. 
(hewing Kindjaefs, and doing Good to them : For his Father hadfent 
him to feek and viflt'his; Brethren in the Wildernefs, Gen. 37. 13,^ 14, 
Then they confpire againfl him,, and call him Dreamer, fell him for twen- 
ty Pieces of Silver to the Jfhmatlites, and tliey to the Egyptians, where 
he is falfly accufed, condemned and put in Erifon. So Chrift is fent 
from Heaven by his Father into the Wildernefs of this World, to vififc 
hi* Brethren the Sons of Men j but Judo* and the Jews confpire againll 


88 The Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 

him, call him a Seducer ^ he is fold for thirty Pieces of Silver by one 
of his own Difciples, he is falfly accufed, condemned, and crucified be- 
tween two Malefactors, like Jofeph imprifoned with Pharaoh's two 

And as JoftpV* Brethren, when they were refolved to kill him, and 
had thrown him into the Pit, thought they had made fure Work with 
him, we will fee what will become of his Dreams, Gen. 37. 20. So the 
Jews thought of Chrift 5 they thought they had him fure enough, when 
they had him upon the Crofs, and in the Grave. 

But the Hand of Providence was in all this, ordering and over- 
ruling it for Good, to another Iflue than the Instruments intended or 
expe&ed, Gen 45. 5, 7, 8. So it is faid of Herod, and the Gentiles, and 
the People of Ifrael, that they were gathered together, to do whatfoever thy 
Hand and thy Counfel determined before to be done^ Ad. 4. 28. Aft. 2. 23. 
him being delivered by the determinate Counfel and Fore -knowledge of God, 
ye have taken, &c. And you know the End of it was good to his Bre- 
thren^ for fo he calls his Elecl:, Heb. 2. 11. yea faving everlafting good 
both unto Jews and Gentiles, who both had an hand in his Sufferings •, 
as both Jofeph's Brethren had, and the Egyptians too in his Sufferings, 
the End and Iflue whereof was the faving of the Lives of both of therti. 

3. Come we now to Jofeph* s Advancement to all his Glory : Here like- 
wife was a Shadow of what was done in Chrift. For as Jofeph was 
brought firft into fuch a low Condition, and then to the greateft* 
height of Worldly Glory, from a Prifon to a Kingdom, Gen. 49 23, 
24. So Chrift was firft humbled, then exalted. Who, that had feen 
Jofeph in the Prifon, would have thought, that ever he Ihould come to 
be a Prince and a Ruler in the Land ? And when the Difciples faw 
Chrift upon the Crofs, how little did they think to fee him reign ? 
They were giving up their Hopes in him, we trufted it had been he, 
which fhould have redeemed Ifrael, Luke 24. 21. 

Now was Jofephs Dream fulfilled, that all their Sheaves would bow 
to his •, now the Sun, Moon and Stars did Obeyfance to him. For 
he was made next to Pharaoh, and they cried before him, bow the Knee, 
Gen. 41 . 43. And in the Name of Jefus every Knee (hall bow : For 
God hath given him a Name above every Name, Phil. 2. 10, 11. 

Thou [halt be over my Houfe, faith Pharaoh, Gen. 41.40. and he made 
him Ruler over all the Land of Egypt, ver. 43. So God hath put all 
things into the Hands and under the Feet of Jefus Chrift, and hath made 
him Head over all things to the Church, Eph. 1 . 22. He is an Head 
of Eminence over all • He is an Head of faving Influence to the 


The Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 89 

And Jofeph's Brethren, as ftout as they were, yet at laft came to him 
for Supplies, and did Obeyfance to him whom they had fold and 
flighted/ So mufl Sinners to Jefu's Chrifl, and fo fh.U his Brethren the 
Jews, thb' they have itood it out long againft him, yet they fh^i] come 
in at laft, and humble themfelves before him whom they have pierced % 
Zach. 12. 10. 

4« Jofeph bare a fimilitudeof the Son of God in his carriage towards 
his Brethren, which was mod heroick and Saint-like, yea Chnft-like, 
in requiting good for evil forgoing all their injuries, and fhewifig 
kindnefs to them, who had done all tne wro,^ they could to him. 
And doth not Chrifl; fo to us ? he prayed for thofc that Crucified him, 
he favesus who have Killed hi<? . 

This in general was Jofeptfs Deportment and Carriage towards his 
Brethren,and you fee it was indeed Divine and Excellent : But lee us alfo 
look into fome particular Parages of it which were nioft remarkable. 

1. He knew them, when they Liew not him, Gen, 42. 8. So doth 
Chrifl know us before we know him : Yei when we are tempted to 
think he takes no Notice of us. / [aw thee when thou waft under the Fig- 
Tree^ John 1 . 48. 

2. He carries it roughly towards them a while at fir-ft, to bring them 
to Repentance, Gen. 42. 7. — —21. and this made them refled upon 
their owii Sins. So doth Chrifl to Souls, -he firfl Humbles^ and then 
Comforts •, firfl he wounds and breaks the Heart, and then he heals it 
and binds it up ; he frowns upon them at firft, and pierceth their 
Hearts through with godly Sorrow, Atts. 2. 37. and afterwards he 
pours in theOyl of Joy and Comfort, lfai. tfi, 1, 2, 3. 

3. Jofeph reveals himfelf to them at laft, in thefweeteft melting Ex- 
preflions of his Lore and Bowels towards them, when they were fit for 
it, and when his own Heart was full, that he could contain no longer. 
See the Story of it, Gen. 45. 1, 3, 4, 5. So doth Jefus Chrifl reveal 
himfelf to the Souls of his People, when they are fit for it ; he gives 
them clear and fweet Difcoveries, ravifhing and amazing Manifeftati- 
ons of his Love ; J am Jofeph your Brother : I am Je/us thy Saviour^ 
who was crucified and pierced for thee, as well as by thee, whom thou 
haft been fo long mourning for ; but I have feen thy Tears. I have 
heard thy Prayers, and I am now come to Comfort thee, and to tell 
thee, that / am thine, and thou art mine : Such Words as thefe they 
hear, to this EfFeft he fpeaks, when he caufeth them to- hear the Voice 
of his Loving Kindnefs, and (beds abroad his Love in their Hearts by the 
Hoi) Gkoft. 

N 4; Jofeph 

c>o The Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 

4. Jofepb fupplies all their wants y makes Provifion for them every way : 
He gives them their Corn, without taking their Money •, wafhes them, 
fetsthem at his Table, and feeds them, Gen. 43. 16,33, 34- gives 
them Vi£uals and Chariots for their Journey, with a Charge not to 
fall out by the way, chap. 45. 19, 24. And finally placeth them in Go- 
(hen, in the belt of the Land, there to dwell, till they ftiould go to Cd- 
naan, the Land of Promife, cap. 47. 11. 

Jefus Chrift doth all this in an higher way. He gives us all the good 
we need, and that freely + without Money , or without price : He wafheth 
and cleanfeth us inwardly by his Spirit, as well as outwardly by the 
Water of Baptifm •, feeds us at his Table, not only with bodily, but 
with fpiritual Food ♦, gives us his Ordinances as Chariots cf Salvation to 
bring us to himfelf, and Signs and Seals of his Love to us, and of our 
Love to him, and to one another. It is his great Commandment to his 
Difciples, to love one another : And finally he plants us in Gofhen here, 
in a ftate of Light and Grace, till we come to the heavenly Canaan, to 
a ftate of Glory. Thus doth our true Jofep h provide for us. 

5. Yet after all this, they had fome fecret fears and doubtingsofhis Love \ 
whereupon they feek Pardon of their former Sins ; but he gives them 
renewed aflTurance of it, to quiet their fears, and fettle their doubting 
thoughts, through the remembrance of their own Guilt, and Sins a- 
gainft him, Gen. 50. 15. 21. So poor Souls, when Chrift hath fpo- 
ken Peace, yet there be oftentimes fome fecret fears and doubts remain- 
ing,, or returning upon them again, after all his appearances ; when he 
appeared unto them again in Galilee; as Mattb. 28. 17. itisfaid, and 
when they faw him r they worfhipped him , but fome doubted. But in fuch 
as are the Lords, thefe fears and doubts fet them upon the renewed ex- 
ercife of Grace, refle&ing and fearching their own Hearts and Ways, 
and feeking Pardon of former Sins : And in this Way, the Lord re- 
news his Love, and gives them new and frefli Evidences and further at 
durance of it, and bids them fear not *, and fo quiets their Hearts again, 
as Joftpb did his Brethrens* 

* Who is the Type or figure of him that Aug. 22. 

is to come, Rom. 5.14. 1 66 7. 

THE individual Perfons that were Types of Chrift have been referred 
unto two ClafTes. 
i. Such as were before the Law. 
2. Such as were mder the Law, 


The Gofpel of the ferfonal Types. 9 i 

The typical Performs that were before the Law have been fpoken to. 
We are now to proceed (as the Lord (hall enable) x^mo typical Perfons un- 
der the Law, and they were many and divers. I (hall not mention all, 
but only (as in the former fortj fome of the chief and molt illuftrious 
of them. 

And becaufe the Nature of the Matter will not only hear it ; bat doth 
partly lead unto it, none of them giving a/afl and perfecl Reprefentation 
of the Mefliah •, and there being fomething of Connexion remarkable in 
the Hiftories and A&ions of divers of them-, I (hall therefore put them 
together in pairs, or in feveral Conjuntlions and Conflellations, as it were, 
whereby they will yield the greater luftre, and give a more clear and 
full Reprefentation of that glorious Perfon whom the Lord ordained 
and dengned them to reprefent ; like xhtGalaxia in the Heavens, which 
Philofophers conceive to be a Conjunction or Conglobation of many leffer 
Stars [hining together, which gives that luftre, which we call the yia 
laftea, the milky way in the Heavens. Theconjoyning or putting of 
them thus together will be fome help both to your Underftandings and 

Now there were four eminent Conjunctions or Conflellations, as it were 
(for I know not well what fitter Word to exprefs it by) of typical Per- 
fons who (hone like bright Stars in the Night, in thofe darker times 
tinder the Law, before the Sun of Righteoufnefs himfelf arofe with 
Light and Healing in his Wings. 

Thefirft is Mofes and Joflwa : Whereof the one delivered them out 
of Egypt, the other brought them into Canaan -, a Shadow both of the 
evil we are faved from, and of the good we are poflefled of by him, 
who is the true Mofes and Jo/hua. 

The fecond Conftellation or Conglobation of typical Perfons k 
Samfon, David and Solomon, all which three put together, give a 
bright and glorious Reprefentation of Jefus Chrift t Samfon in his 
Death and Sufferings, David in his Victories and Conquefts, Solomon 
in the Peace, and quiet Eftablifhment of his Kingdom. 

The third is Elijah, Elifha and Jonah, three Prophets ; the firft 
whereof was an illuftrious Type of ChriftVs Afctnfion, the fecond of the 
Continuance of his Prefence and Spirit in his Apoftles and Minifters ever 
fines (for the Spirit of Elijah did reft upon Elifba,} And the Death of 
Chrift, which was the procuring caufe both of his Afcenfiofl, and the 
Effufion of his Spirit, is (hadowed forth in Jonah. 

The fourth and laft that I (hall fpeak to, is Ztrubbabel and Jehofbna ; 
one whereof was the Prince, and the other the High Prieft, and both 
Rebuilders of die Temple, and Reftorers of the cotlapfed Eftate of the 
Church of God in thofe times. N 2 1. Firft 

92 The Gofpel of the perfnoal Type:. 

i. Firft then for Mofes and Jofhua. The one (aslfaid) delivered 
them out of Egypt , the other brou^nc them into Canaan ^ and fo (ha- 
dowed forth both oi>r. Deliverance from fpiritual Bondage and Mifery, 
and the bringing of us into a ftate of fpintuai Reft and Happinefs by 
Jefus Chrift. There was a Prefiguration of the former in Mofes^ and 
of the latter in Jofhua. 

This Mofes, the Scripture fpeaks of him, as the greateft Perfon up- 
on all accounts that ever was in the World, except Jefus Chnft. See 
the three laft Verfes of Deuteronomy •, And there arofe not a Prophet fince 
in Ifrael like a#to Mofes, whom the Lord knew face to face : In all the ftgns 
and wonders which the Lord fent him to do in the Land 0/Egypt, to Pharaoh, 
and all his Servants, and to all his Land, and in all that mighty hand, and 
in all the great Terror which Mofes (hewed in the fight of all Ifrael. As to 
all human* and divine Excellencies and Accomplifhments, and appea- 
rances of God in him, there was never his fellow. 

Melcbizedek indeed was greater in one Refpefr, as to that ftiadow of 
Eternity and unchangeable Glory before mentioned : Solomon was grea- 
ter as to the outward Peace and Splendor of his Kingdom, and as to 
univerfal Infight into all the depths, fecrets, and myfteries of Nature t 
But neither of them hadfuch continual viflble Entercourfe and Commu- 
nion- with God in vifible appearances to him upon all Occaftons : Nei- 
ther of them wrought fiich: Miracles, nor were they inftrumental to fo 
great a Work of Providence, as the Deliverance of Ifrael out of Egypt y 
which, with all the PalTages and Circumftances belonging to it, was the 
greateft and the higheft Difpenfation of Providence that ever was ex- 
cepting that of our Redemption by Jefus Chrift. 

Yea fo famous was the Hiftory of Mofes, that tho' it was very anti- 
ent^ yet thp Heathen Hiftorians and Poes have faid fomething of it. 
And he is thought by ; forne to be their Mercnrws Trifmegiftus, of whom 
they fpake out of fome broken remembrances and traditions, though 
corrupted with fabulous Inventions intermix'd.-, wherein yet fome foot- 
ftepsof the Truth may feed ifcerned. They call their Mercnrius, Inter- 
Fes Divum % aqdpa^nt;him vvkh a Rod twined with Serpents^ &c. 

Now that Mops yv$i$%ypei the Scripture is clear,, Deut. 18. 18. 1 
wjliraife them qp : q Pw$etfrom among their Brethren, like unto thee— - 
Heb, 3. 2> Jefus Clirift y who was faithful to him that appointed him y as alfo 
Mofes was faithful /in all his Houfe. 

But how, or wherein was Mofet a "type t 

The Answer is, intwo rqfpe&s -.Fori Mofes may be confidered two 
: w,ays 

... In regard of his Pifpirfation, gad fo he m$ a Type^of. che Law. 

2. la 

The G of pel of the perfcnal Types. 93 

1. In regard of his Perfon, and fo he was a Type of Jefus Chrift ; 
And fo we have two things to inquire into. 

1. Wh3t of the Law, and 

2. What of Jefus Chrift was (hadowed forth in Mofes. 
I (hall begin wich the lower Notion firft. 

1. Mofes was a Type of the Law, in regard of the Difpenfation where- 
in the Lord was pleafed toufe him, and which he introduced by his 
Miniftry into the Church. For (as hath been formerly (hewed) the 
Types are not always to be refrained only to the Perfon of Chrift ^ 
But there were legal lhadows of all other Truths, which are more clear- 
ly and fully revealed under the New Teftament : And fo they had their 
Types and Shadows even of the Covenant of Works, as was (hewed in 
Abraham's Wives and Children : So like wife Mofes his Adminiftration 
of the Mind of God (hadowed forth the fame thing. 

Hence the Scripture fpeaks fo much of the Law oi Mofes, under the 
notion of Works, The Law came by Mofes, Job. 1.. 17: that is, as con- 
tra-diftinguifhed unto Gofpel Grace and Truth, for it follows: But 
Grace and Truth by "jefus Chrift. Not that Mofes his Difpenfation was 
indeed a Covenant of Works, but zfhadow or reprefentation of it. For had 
it been indeed a Covenant of Works, it would have been their Duty 
to feek Salvation by their own Merits : But they were fayed by Grace; 
as well as we, and not by Works : They were faved by Faith in Chrift, 
and in his Righteoufnefs, whereof they had fome difcoveries ^.they 
were under a Difpenfation of Grace : But it was like a Covenant of 
Works, and did very much refemble that legal way in many Refpe&s* 

Queft. But wherein was the Mofakal Difpenfation fo like unto the Co* 
venant of Works ? What of the Law was (hadowed forth in Mofes .? 

Anf. Something was hinted as to this in the firft Sermon on HA. 4J 
2. But now to fptak a little further to it; 

1. In regard of the dreadful Majefty, and Terror, and Glory of that 
Adminiftration. Herein it was like the old Covenant, HA. 12. 18. 

21. God afrsas a Soveraign Lord in the Covenant of Works, and 

appears in the dreadful Glory of his abfolute Soveraignty and Domini* 
on over his Creatures. 

2. There was a darknefs alfo in that Difpenfation, Heb^n. 18. Te 
are not come unto blacknefs, and darknefs, and Tempeft. Hence Mofes had 
a Veil upon his Face, Exod 34.29,30, 33. But there was a further 
Myftery in this Veil ; it fignifieth a fpiritual Veil, a Covering upon 
the Heart, 2 Cor. 3. 13,14. a Veil upon their Mind, Aft. 13. 27. they 
understood not the Prophets though Read every Sabbath-day. 

3, There 

94 T& e Gofpel of tbeperfonal Types. 

3. There was Tdke of Bondage, which neither we nor our Fathers 
(faith Peter) were able to bear, Aft. 15. 10. to the Law genders unto 
Bondage, Gal. 4. 24, 25. Such as are uuder the Law, their Spirits are 
under continual Bondage ; But the Gofpel is fpiritual Liberty. 

4. The abiding Strength and Power of the Law to condemn, 1 Cor. 
3.— — the Letter killeth It is the Miniftration of Death : And as Mo- 
fes his natural Force was not abated, Dent. 34. 7. fo neither is the 
Strength of the Law, as to its condemning Power over Sinners. Hereby 

the continual force of the Law is fignified , the Power where- 
Anfmrtb f decayeth not in the Confidence of Sinners by number of 

Days or multitude of Works, till God take it away, and abo- 
lifti it by Grace in Chrift. 

5. The Weaknefs of it tofavc. Mofes might not enter into Canaan, tho' 
he did much defire it \ fee Bent. 32 52. Andthe Reafonalledged is his 
failing inthatcwepowt', Numb. 20. 12. What was Mofes his error and 
niiftake at that time ? There is fomething of difficulty to difcern, and 
make it out. Three things the Scripture feemeth to intimate. 

1. He fmote the Rock twice, Numb. 20. 1 1 . when his laftruftions 
were no more, but to fpeak unto it, v. 8. 

2. Something of inordinate Paffionfeems to be noted, Pfal. 106. he 
ffakeuna&vifedly with his Lips, v, 33. 

3. His Vnbelief is exprefly taxed, becaufe ye believed not my Word, 
Numb. 20. 12. 

But what was this Unbelief? Or how came it to be working in him 
at this time ? 

Some have gueiTed at it thus, This Occurrence fell out eight and 
thirty Years after their firft murmuring for Water : And there was a 
Hew Generation now rifen up, and they falling into the very fame 
Sin, and that at the fame place, upon the Borders of Canaan^ and 
upon the &me occafion, want of Water, for which the Lord had re- 
jected and excluded their Fathers ; Mofes was afraid, that the Lord 
would now take Advantage againft: this Generation alfo, as he did a- 
gainft their Anceftors, caufing them to wander forty Years ; and as 
indeed he might jultly have done againft thefe alfo : But yet Mofes 
fhould not have given way to fuch Fears, unlefs the Lord had de- 
clared it, which as to this Generation he did not : But for this one 
failing Mofes could not enter into Canaan, 

So the Law, if but oat Sin be admitted, keeps the Soul out of Hea- 
ven: The Law is ftrong to condemn and deftroy Sinners, but it is 
mable and weak to fave them. The Law cannot lave, Rom. 8.3. 

6. The 

The Go/pel of the perfonal Types. 95 

6. The Abrogation of it through Grace. As Mofes's Body was buried, 
that it could not be found, Dent. 34. <5. and Satan would have brought 
it forth again ^ but Michael oppofed him, Jade 9. fo God hath buried 
the Law •, though Satan would revive it in the Spirits of Men. 

7. Mofes did prepare the People for Jolhuah's Difpenfation: So the Law 
prepares and fits the Soul forChrift, Gal. 3. 24. wherefore the Law was 
our Schoolm after, to bring us unto Chrift, that we might he juftified by 
Faith. It doth doth not put us into Chrift, but it prepares us for 

Thus, in regard of the 'Terror of that Difpenfation, and the Dark* 
nefs and Bondage of it, the Strength to condemn, the Impotency of it to 
bring them into Reft, and the Abrogation of it, and that neverthelefs it 
did prepare and fit them for Reft-, Mofes did adumbrate and lhadow 
forth the Covenant of Works. 

2. We may confider Mofes under an higher Notion. Though in re- 
fpect of the External Difpenfation introduced by him, he fhadowed 
forth the Law •, yet in other refpecls, if we confider him in his own 
Perfon, he was a Type of Chrift. The Scripture is clear for this alfo r 
Dent. 18. 1 5, 18. A Prophet /hall the Lord thy God raife up unto thee of 

thy Brethren like unto me That this was fpoken of Chrift, fee Aft. 

3. 22. Peter there applies it unto Chrift, he was like unto Mofes. There 
was a Similitude, but yet there was not a Parity. For Chrift was far 
above Mofes , Heb. 3. 3. For this Man was counted worthy of more Glory 
than Mofes, inafmuch as be who builded the Houfe hath more Glory than the 
Houfe : And again, vtr. 5. Mofes verily was faithful as a Servant ; hut 
Chrift as a Son over his own Houfe, ver. 6. You may fee it in thefe par- 

1. In regard of his Birth. 

2. In his perfonal Qualifications, 

3. In the whole courfc of his Life e 

4. In the clofe of it. 

1 . Mofes was a Type of Chris! in regard of his Birth. In that he 
was born but of mean Parents, in the time of IfraeVs Bondage in £« - 
gypt, Exod. a. 1. per fecuted in his Infancy by Pharaoh, and wonderful- 
ly preferved, Exod. 2. 3^9. So Chrift, Ifa. 53.2. HefbaUgrow up at a 
Root out of a dry Ground. When the Houfe of David was brought ve- 
ry low, and the Glory of it feemingly extincl, they were of the poor- 
tft fort of People, as appears by their Offering, which was but a fait 
of Turtle Doves, or two young Pidgeons, Luke 2. 24. when they taxed 
ail the World, that is when the Jews were under Bondage to the Ro* 
mans, Luke, 2. i,^ and you know Rom is fpiritually called Igypt ; 


9^ The Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 

then, and in this Condition of Subje&ion to the Roman Power was 
Chrift born : And as foon as born, he was petfecuted by Herod, Matth. 
1. who fought his Death ; but wonderfully prefervcd, and by means of 
his reputed Father, as Mofes by the Mother that adopted him •, both of 
them by wonderful Providences faved and delivered, that they might 
be Saviours and Deliverers unto others. 

2. Mofes was a Type of Chrift in bis perfonal Qualifications, which 
were very eminent. He was the moft accomplifh'd Perfon that ever 
was, except Jefus Chrift himfelf. 

t. In Learning and Knowledge, Aft. 7. 22. He was Learned in all the 
Wifdom of the Egyptians. So Chrift, J fa. 11. 1,2,3. The Spirit of Wtf- 
dom and Vnderftanding, the Spirit of Counfel and of Knowledge refled up- 
tin him, to make him of quick Vnderftand'mg in the Fear of the Lord-, in- 
fomuch, that he difputed with the Dotlors at twelve years of Age, Luke 2. 
42, 46,47. ( Thofe Dottors were as too many are, now a days eaten up 
with Mens Traditions^ and ignorant of the Scripture. ) The Jews ac- 
knowledged and admired it, Joh. 7. 1 5. And the Jews marvelled^ faying, 
how knoweth this Man Learning, having never learned, and ver. 46. the 
Officers anfwered, never Man f pake like this Man. 

2. Clear and extraordinary Vifion and Sight of God, Numb. 12. 6, 7, 
8. Face to Face, Mouth to Mouth God fpake to Mofes, even apparent- 
ly, an J d not in dark Speeches - 7 and the Similitude of the Lord did he be- 
hold 1 Expreflions arguing unparallePd Clearnefs in the Lord's reveal . 
ing himfelf and his Mind to Mofes. There was never the like vouch- 
safed to any other. Toothers, even Prophets the Lord made known 
himfelf in a Vilibn, or fpake to them in Dreams, ver. 6. but to Mofes 
at another rate. So Chrift, Joh. 1.8. No Man hath feen God at any 
time^ but the only begotten Son y which vs in the Bofom of the Father , he hath 
declared him. 

3. There was in Mofes an admirable mixture of Meeknefs and Zeal ; 
eminent in meeknefs of Spirit, and that feafoned and tempered with 
hojy Zeal^ Numb. 1 2. 3. forty Tears he bare their manners in the Wilder- 
nefs with an invincible Patience, Atts 7. 36. with 13. iB. though mur- 
muring and rebelling againft God and himfelf. So Chrift^ Matth. 1 1 . 
Learn of me r for I am meek and lowly in Heart. When his Difciples 
tempted him, he would not fetch down Fire from Heaven againft his 
Defpifers and Oppofers 5 yet he was angry at the Defilement of the 
Temple, and whipt them out -.And fo was Mofes at the Golden Calf 
» " " Meeknefs without Zeal is nothing elfe but Luhwarmnefs and Cowardife* 
Zeal without Meeknefs degenerates into ftnful Paffion. We fliould be meek 
la our own Caufe -, but zealous in the Caufe of Cod. 

4. Faith- 


The G of pel of the ferfonal Types. $j 

4. Faltbfulnefs to his Trnfl -, this was eminent in Mofes, but more 
eminent in Chnft, Heb. 3. 5,6. Mofes was bat faithful as a Servant infos 
Lord's Hopffs. But Chrijt 06 a Son in his own Houfe. • He will not lofe 
one Soul, of all thofe that the Father hath committed to him, Job. 6, 
39, 40. In his laft Prayer he profefTeth, Job. 17.12. thofe that thou 
givefl me I have kept, and none of them vs loft^ hut the Son of Perdition : 
Not the leaft Believer can or fhall mifcarry. 

If thou fayft, How may I know, whether I was committed to the 
Truft and Care of Jefus Chrift by the Father ? 

The Anfwer is, If thou doft commit thy felf to him, the Lord hath 
done it. Thou couldft never truft thy felf with him - 7 thou couldft 
not commit thy Soul to his keeping, if the Lord had not firft intrud- 
ed thee with him in his eternal Counfel and Covenant of Redemption. 
But thou haft done it. and it is thy daily Work; therefore thou maift 
fafely conclude with Paul, 2 Tim, 1. 12. be wiU keep the thing 1 have 
committed to him : He will be faithful to God, and faithful to thee * he 
never failed any that trufted in him. 

3. Mofes was a Type of Chrift in the whole courfe of his 
Life. And here many things come to be conlidered. 5 Sept. 1667, 

1. His Work and Office. 

2. His Sufferings and Conflicts iu the Difcharge thereof. 

3. The Lords owning and bearing Witnefs to him by Miracles and 
Signs and Wonders j in all which there was a manifeft Prefiguration 
of the Lord Jefus Chrift. 

1. In his Work and Off ce, He was in general a Mediator between 
God and the People, a typical Mediator. All the good that God was 
pleafed to confer upon that People, it was by his Miniftry, and In- 
terpofition between God and them, Gal. 3.19. the Law was ordained by 

Jin gels in the hand of a Mediator Deut. 5.5. I flood between the Lord 

and you at that time, to fhew you the Word of the Lord ; for ye were afraid 
by reafon of the Fire, and went not up into the Mount, Exod. 19. 7, 8. 
So Chrift is the Mediator of the Covenant of Grace, Heb. 9. 15. and 
for this caufe he is the Mediator of the New Teflament. But he hath the 
Preheminence above Mofes, Heb. 8. 6. but now hath he obtained a more 
excellent Miniftry, by how much alfo he is the Mediator of a better Cove- 

God was pleafed to redeem his People Ifrael out of their Bondage 
in Egypt by Mofes his Miniftry : God fent him, and he left his former 
Employment and Place to do this Work, Exod. 3.10. Come now there" 
fore and I will fend thee unto Pharaoh, that thou maifl bring forth my Peo- 
ple the Children of Ifrael out of Egypt. But by J«fus Chrift he redeew- 

O cth 

gg The Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 

eth us out of the Spiritual Bondage of Sin and Satan, which is worfe than 
'Egyptian Bondage \ and he was fcnt by his Father, and was content 
to come down from Heaven, and to leave his Glory to do this Great 
Work-, wherein Chrift hath the Preheminence. For Mofes was a 
Mediator only of Temporal and typical Redemption : But Chrift is 
the Mediator of Spiritual and Eternal Redemption. 

By Mofes his Mediation alfo the Law was delivered upon Mount 
Sinai, Gal. 3. 19. it was ordained in the Hand of a Mediator, or a mid- 
dle Perfon, that flood and tranfadted between God and the People, 
Aft. 7. 38. who received the lively Oracles to give unto us. Buc by Jefus 
Chrift the Gofpel is publifhed. in this refpeft he is the Mediator of a 
better Teftament. 

Mofes gave the moral, judicial and ceremonial Laws. But Chrift 
reveals the Gofpel and Gofpel- worfhip. ■ 

Mofes appoints the PafTover, Sacrifices, builds the Tabernacle made 
with Hands. But Chrift gives the Lord's Supper, a moft lively Re- 
prefentation of himfelf and bis own Death, the true Sacrifice : And 
iie is himfelf alfo the true Temple and Tabernacle, which the Lord 
hath pitched, and not Man : So that Chrift hath the Preheminence in 
all things, inafmuch as Gofpel- worfhip excels legal Worfhip, and 
Truth and Subftance excels Figures and Shadows. 

Laftly, Mofes did mediate between God and the People as an In- 
tcrcefTor by his Prayers and Supplications, and did prevail for them, 
for the Deftruftion of Amalek, Exod. 17. And again, when they 
murmured upon the evil Report of the Spies, N«wfc. 14. 12, 13, 
20 — and when they made the molten Calf, Exod. 32. 10, 1 1, 14. then 
with much wreftlinghe prevailed with the Lord for them, Pfal. 106. 
23. Mofes flood in the Breach. So doth Chrift intercede, and pleads 
for us with the Father, when we provoke him by our Sins, 1 Job. 2, 
i, 2. yea, he lives for ever to intercede, Heb. 7. 25. 

2. Mofes his Sufferings and Conftifts in the Discharge of hisTruft, 
and Exercife of his Office, had in them a Shadow of the like to be un- 
dergone by Chrift. 

Mofes fafted forty Days and forty Nights in the. Mount. So did 
Cbrift'm theWildernefs. 

Mofes fuffered many Contradi&ions both from his Enemies and from 
Ms Friends, profe (Ted Enemies, Jannes and Jambres, and the Magicians 
oi Egypt, 2 Tim. 3.8. His Friends, the People to whom he was fent 
rejc&ed him, Exod. 2. 14. often murmured at him, forty Tsars be bore 
fair manner^ A&. 13. 18, yea, his neareft Friends fometimes, Aaron 
and Miriam. So C&n#-was rejected of the Builders, Pfal. 1 1 8. 22. camt 


The Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 99 

to his own, and his own received him not, Joh. u II. His own Difciples 
fometimes thought his Do&rines hard fayings; as when hefpakea- 
gainft Divorces, they thought a Man had better never be married, 
than fubmit to fuch a Yoke : And all along how weak and wayward 
were they ? But the Scribes and-Pbarifees, like pannes and Jambres r 
openly refitted and oppofed his Doctrine and Miracles. 

3. The Lord's owning and bearing witnefs to him by Aliracles, Signs and 
Wonders, Deut. 34. 10, 11,12, So to Jefus Cbrijl, Aft. 2. 22. a Man 

approved of God among you, by Miracles, Wonders and Signs- Some 

note in all about five and forty of them recorded by the four Evange- 
lifts, and wrought in the three Years and an half of his publick Mini- 
ftry, viz. three in his firft Year, nineteen in his fecond Year, and 
thirteen in his third Year, and ten in his laft half Year, before Judex 
betrayed him \ befides thofe at his Death, and after his Refurre- 

Only there were thefe two differences between Mofes his Miracles and 

1. That Mofes his Miracles were wrought in Chrift's Name: But 
drift's Miracles were wrought in his own Name. 

2. That Mofes his Miracles had more of Terror and Majefty • 
Chrift's more of Love and Sweetnefs. Chrifl feldom wrought any 
Miracles for the hurt of his Enemies in a way of Righteous Wrath and 
Judgment ; but ordinarily only for the help both of Friends and Ene- 
mies .• As for inftance. the healing of Malchus his Ear. I remember 
but two Miracles wrought by Jefus Chrift in a way of Wrath and 
Punifhment againft his Enemies, the fufFering the Devil to enter into 
the Gadarenes Swine , and caufing his Enemies to fall backward, when 
they came to apprehend him. All the reft were Miracles of Mercy 
and Kindnefs : But by the Hand of Mofes there were no lefs than ten 
miraculous Plagues upon Egypt : There were Thunderings and Light- 
nings at Mount Sinai* The Earth opened her Mouth upon Corah, Da~ 
than and Jbiram, and {wallowed them up quick, with other fuch 
dreadful and terrible things in Righteoufnefs. 

The Reafon of this difference was, becaufe Mofes was the Minifter 
cf the Law, which is a Voice of Words, and Terror, and Fear, and 
genders unto Bondage } but Jefus Chrift is the Minifter and Author 
of the Gofpel, which is Grace and Peace : Therefore thefe two diffe- 
rent kinds of Difpenfations were attefted with two different kinds of 
Miracles. But as to the General, the working of Miracles by Mofes, 
and fo being owned by the Lord, and born witnefs to by him, here- 
in there was a Refemblance and Prefiguration of what was done by 
Jefus ChrMt. O 2 4. And 

ico The Gofpel of the perfnoal Types. 

4. And laftly, Mofes was a Type of Chrift in the end and clefe of 
his Life, viz. in his Death, Refurreclion and Afcenfion into Heaven. He 
died willingly, he went up to Mount Nebo, which was a part of Mount 
Abarim, and there furrendred up his Soul. So Chrift, No Man taketh 
it from me, but I lay it down of my fe\f no Man taketh it from me : See 
Joh. 10. 18. I have Power to lay it down, and 1 have Power to tale it 
again. He went to Mount Golgotha, and there gave up his Soul to 
his Father. 

Mofes after his Death and Burial rofe again • buried he was, Dent. 
34.5. and that he rofe again, and afcended into Heaven, may be ga- 
thered from For he did appear and talk with Chrift at 
his Transfiguration, together with Ettas. So you know Jefus Chrift 
rofe again from the Dead, and afcended into Heaven. 

Thus Mofes was a Type of Chrift all along. In his Birth, in his per- 
fonal Qualifications, in the whole courfe of his Life, hh Office, hisS/*/"- 
ferings, his Miracles, and finally in his Death, Refurreclion, and Afcen- 
fion unto Heaven. Bt yet, though there was fuch a full Analogy^ and 
fo great a Refemblance between them -, yet there was a Dtfparity ; 
Chrift having the Preheminence above Mofes, Heb. 3. 5, 6. Mofes was 
faithful as a Servant in his Lord's Houfe : But Chrift as a Son in his own 
Houfe Thus much as to Mofes 

Now for Jofhua his Succefifor. 

That he was a Type appears, becaufe Chrift was called by that Name 
in the Hebrew. And Jofhua is called Jefus in the Greek, in the New 
Teftament, Ad. 7- 45 #*&•. 4- *>. that is, a Saviour-, though he be 
but a temporal Saviour: Chrift a fpiritual Saviour, Author of eternal 
Redemption, Heb. 9. 

The Analogy appears chiefly in five Things. 

1. Jofhua brought the ?eople into Canaan after Mofes his Death, which 
Mofes could not do, being alive : He divided the Land among them, 
afligning to every one his Portion. So Chrift brings us to Heaven, 
which the Law could not do, Rom. 8. 3. And as Jofhua went in him- 
fe\fbefo v e them. So Chrift to Heaven, Joh. 14. / goto prepare a place 
for you ; in my Fathers Houfe are many Manftons, Heb. 6. ult. -whither 
the Fore-runner vs entred for us. 

And as when Jofhua did this, the Cloud and Manna ceafed, which 
had been in Mofes*s Time. Of the Mannas ceafrng it is exprefled, 
and the time when, Jofh, 5, 12. of the Pillar of Cloud and Fire, that 
it did ceafe is evident by many PafTages afterwards in the facred Hi- 
ftory -, but the time when is not fetdown. Probably it might be after 
they had pa fled Jordan, being divided by the Ark, and were ob fhoat 


The G of pel of the per foil al Types. 101 

on the other fide : So (hall Ordinances ceafe when we come to Hea- 
ven, Rev. 21. God himfelf is inftead of all. 

2. Jofb*a was a Type of Chrift in regard of the Miracles wrought by 
him, we read of three. 

1. He divided Jordan, Jofh. 3. But herein, as in all Things, Chrift 
hath the Preheminence -, for Chrift in the fame Jordan divided the 
Heavens when he was Baptized, Matth. 3. And he commanded the 
Winds and the Seas, and walked upon the Waters, as upon dry Ground. 

2. Moreover, Jofhua threw down the Walls of Jericho, by the 
founding of Rams-Horns, a weak and an unlikely means, for fo great 
a Work -, yea, ridiculous and contemptible in the Eye of Reafon, 
Jofh. 6. but it was done by Faith, Heb. 11. 30. So Chrift by the 
Foolifhnefs of Preaching fubdueth Souls unto himfelf, and throws down 
ftrong holds, 2 Cor. 10.4, 5. And as Jofhua did it again and again, 
fix Days ; yea, feven Days before the Walls fell. So it is in the 
preaching of the Gofpel : There muft be Affiduity in that Work ^ 
Line upon Line, and Precept upon Precept -, and at laft the ftrong holds 
are won, and the Sinner fubdued unto the Lord. 

3. Jofhua commanded the Sun to ftand ftill, till he had (lain his E- 

nemies, Jofh. 10. 12, 13. ver. 14. and there was no Day like that, 

before it, or after it, that the Lord hearkened unto the Voice of a Man. So 
Jefus Chrift, when fighting with Principalities and Powers upon the 
Crofs, Matth. 27. 45. when the Sun was afhamed, and the Moon con* 
founded, and all the Jngels in Heaven flood agafl. 

Thus you fee how great a Perfon this Jofhua was, in that all the 
Creatures, all the Elements obeyed him •, the Earth, the Walls of 
Jericho proftrate themfelves and fell before him, the Waters alfo, viz. 
m Jordan were at his Command, yea the Heavens alfo, the Sun and 
Moon obeyed him *, thus God magnified him in the fight of att Ifrael, as it 
is faid, Jofh. 4. 14. 

But behold a greater than Jofhua is here : For it is faid of Chrift, 
That God hath given him a Name above every Name, Phil. 2. 0. that in 
the Name of Jefus every Knee fhould bow, of things in Heaven, and things in 
Earth, and things under the Earth, ver. 10. 

3. Jofhua was a Type of Chrift in regard of his Conqucfls and Vi&o- 
riesover bis Enemies : We read of five Kings at once fubdued by fcim, 
Jofh. 10. and he bids his Captains tread upon their Necks, and cap. 
12. of one and thirty Kings which he fmote ; yet notwithftanding 
there were fome few Enemies left, though weak and inconfiderable : 
But not one that durft or could oppofe or difturb the publick Peace of 
God's People ^ yec they were left for a time, for JfracW Good, leaft 


IQ2 The Gofpel of the pergonal Types. 

the wild Beafts (hould multiply upon them, Dent. 7. 22. So Chrift 
Jefus is a mighty Conqaeror, he fubdueth all the Enemies of his Peo- 
ple : See him defcribed, Rev. 6. 1,2 conquering or to conquer, not only 
five, nor one and thirty, but thoufandsof them. One Man was pof- 
feft with a Legion of Devils j but they are all call forth by Jefus 

And as Chrift, fo his Followers are as Jofhua's Conquerors with and 
through him : And he gives Believers to tread upon the necks of their 
own Lufts ^ and of the Devil's Temptations ^ yet however there be 
forae Canaanites left in the Land •, fome Corruptions in the Hearts of 
God's People in this Life to exercife their Graces and to keep them 
humble ^ which yet, if it be not through their own carelefs Negligence, 
(hail not difturb their Peace with God. 

But there were fome Enemies, that were devoted unto everlafting 
Ruine and Deftru&ion irrecoverable, by Jofhtta in the Spirit of Pro- 
phefie, viz.. Jericho, cap. 6. 26. which Curfe did not fall to the Ground, 
but was fulfilled in Hid the Beibelite, 1 Kings 16.34. a Shadow of 
the irreparable Ruines. and everlafting Deftru&ion of all the implaca- 
ble Enemies of God and his People, and efpecially Rome and Anti* 
chrift^ Rev. 18. 21. Babylon (haU be casl down like a Mlftoneinto the 
Sea, never to rife more. The Curfe of Chrift will fall upon fuch as 
endeavour to reftore Rome again, and raife up the Ruines that he hath 
brought upon it. For it is devoted by our Lord Jefus, the true Jojhua, 
to irreparable everlafting Deftruclion. 

4. Tho' Jofhua conquered and deftroyed refilling Enemies ; yet he 
faved thofe who fubmhted themfdves ^ as Rahabcay. 6. the Gibeonites cap. 
p. Tho' they a&ed very finfully, they came out of flavifh fear, and 
they diflfembled ^ yet they did fubmit themfelves. So Chrift refifts the 
frond ; but gives Grace to the bumble, that yield up themfelves unto 
him ^ though there be a mixture of much flavifh Fear, and finful Sel- 
fifhnefs and Unbelief in their fo doing, as Mark 9. 24. 

5. Jofhua gave them reft, fulfilling and accomplifhmg all the good pro- 
mifed % cap. 21. 45. and Jofhua appeals to all their Knowledges and 
Confciences about it, cap. 23. 14. So when we come to Heaven, we 
fliall fee the Truth and Faithfulnefs of God ; we (hall have all the 
Promifes accomplilhed through Chrift the true Jofhua •, and be able to 
fay with Joy unfpeakable, not a Word bath failed •, and all through 
Chrift the true Jofhua : For in him all the Promifes are Tea and Amen, 
% Cor. x. 20. and this wiU be Reft for ever. As they had Reft ^ fo now 
Believers enter into an everlafting Reft, Heb. 4. p, 10, 1 1. 


The Gofpel of the perfova! Types . ro$ 

But yet withal, there is a great difparity between Chrift and Jcfhua 
and the Reds they bring their Followers into/ Joflwa brought them, 
but into a State of outward Reft, in the Land of Promife • which 
was not the true Reft : But Chrift gives us an higher Reft in Heaven, 
by bringing us into a State of Grace and Glory. 

Thus you fee how eminently Jofhua was a Type of Jefus Chrift. 

Who is the Type or Figure of him that Sepu l% 

is to com: % Rom. 5. 14. 1667. 

T^He fecond Conglobation of typical Perfons under the Law is Sampfbn, 
David and Solomon, three famous Rulers among the People of 
God of Old. All which three put together give a bright and glorious 
Reprefentation of the Median, Samfon in his Death and Sufferings, Da- 
vid in his Victories and Conquefts, Solomon in the Peace and quiet 
Eftabliihment of his Kingdom. 

1. Samfon, a Perfon, whofe Story is famous in the Scripture, and 
fome think, that the Fame of him went forth amongft the Heathen 5 
and that their Fables of the Strength of Hercules, and Nifus his Pur- 
ple Locks took their rife from the Story of Samfon, The Grecian* 
commonly turning all into Fables, Grac'ta Mendax ^ and being great 
pretenders to Antiquity, being as drunk with the Pride of that Pre- 
tence ( though as falfe ) as the Papifts are at this Day •, and there- 
fore making their own Country, the Scene, and Stage of every won« 
derful thing (as fome have well obferved of them : ) They report 
of Nifus the King of Megaris in Greece, that he had on his Head a 
Purple Hair, on which the Prefervation of his Life and Kingdom did 
depend, which Jewel his Daughter ScyUa is faid to have delivered 
unto King Minos, her Father's Enemy, with whom fhe fell in Love, 
&c Of which Fables it may be faid, Fabula ftttdatnr in Hifloria, thefe 
Fables feem to be founded in the Hiftory of ancient Times. 

That Samfon was a Godly Man is certain, becaufe heisnumbred a- 
tnongft thofe eminent Believers, Heb. n. 

That he was* Type of Cbrift appears by the clearnefs of the Ana- 
logy between him and the Antitype •, and there feemeth to be fome 
intimation of it in Jacob's Prophefie, Gen. 49. of which hereafter. 
And indeed the Analogy is fo clear, that I meet with none that have 
written of the Types, but take notice of Sajnfon for one 5 fodoth 
aifo Calvin and Beza on Matth. 2. ult. 


io4 Th e Gofpel of the pergonal Types. 

He was a Type in regard of his Death and Sufferings • yet not ia 
that only, but chiefly ', as being moll peculiar and fignal to him, both 
above other Types, and above other refpetts wherein himfett was a 
Type : For there were other refpccls alfo, befides this, which I Jhatl 
touch upon, and fo come to this as the main. Sampfon therefore was a 
Type of Chrift: in four refpe&s. 

i. In regard of fundry Paflages and Circumftances of his Birth. 

2. In fome fpecial Anions of his Life. 

3. In his Strength and Victories over his Enemies. 

4. In his Sufferings, and in the Viftorioufnefs of his Sufferings. 

1. The firfl: Analogy between Chrift and him is, in fome PaJJ ages a- 
bout his Birth, The Time of it, when Jfrael was under great Oppreffion 
by the Philiftines, Judges 131. then Samp/on arofe like a little Sun, as 
his Name imports JiWQiu Soliculus or Solparvus, from Shemefh, Sol, and 
gave them fome dawnings of the Day ? fome beginnings of Light and Li- 
berty in that deep Night of Darknefs and Bondage. Anfwerably Je- 
fus Chrift appeared when the Jews were under the yoke of the Romans, 
and both they and the whole World under the fpiritual thraldom of 
Sin and Satan. The Pagan World overwhelmed in Idolatry and Igno- 
rance of God ', the Jews degenerated into Formality and a fpirit of Bon- 
dage : Then did this true Sun of Righteoufnefs arife with healing in 
his Wings. 

Samfonh Birth was beyond the ordinary courfe of Nature. And fo was 
Chrift's : For Samfon's Mother was Barren, the Mother of Chrift a 

Samfon's Birth was foretold, together with his Office, to his Mother 
by an Jlngel, and confirmed by a Sign. And fo was Chrijl's Birth. 

Samfon's Office was to begin to deliver Jfrael from the Philiftines, 
judg. 1 3. 5. Chrift's to fave his People from their Sins, Matth. 1 . 21. 

The Sign to Samfon's Mother was the Angels appearing again, and 
afcending in a flame of Fire, Judg. j 3. 20. The Virgin Mary had the 
MefTage confirmed alfo by a Sign, tho' not fo terrible a Sign as this : 
But the Angels acquainting her with her Coufm Elizabeth's Conception, 
and the Babe leaping in her Womb, and fhe breaking forth into thofe 
blefTed Expreffions ; Bleffed art thou among Women, and bleffed is the 
Fruit of thy Womb, and whence is this, that the Mother of my Lord fhould 
come unto me, Luke 1 . 36, 42, 43. 

Moreover, they were both Nazarites from the Womb. Sampfon by 
the Law of Nazarites, Numb. 6. 2. Chrift by fpecial Sanclity fulfilling 
that Type • that holy thing that (hall be born of thee, Luke 1.35. As 
alfaby the place of his Be fidence, being born indeed at Bethlehem, but 


The Go/pel of the perfonal Types. 105 

i>red at Nazareth, Mattb. 2.1,5, 23. and thence called a Nazare» y or 
a Nazarite. 

2. There is a fecond Analogy between Chrift and Samfon in fome 
facial Heltons of bis Life. 

As in his Marriage with a Pbiliftine. And the Text faith, it was of 
the Lord-, therefore fome think that his firft Match was not finful •, but 
that he had a fpecial Difpenfation for it, Judg. 14.4. So Chrift took a 
Spoufe unto himfelf eut of the Gentiles, Hof. 2. 20. 

At his Marriage Samfon put forth his Mind in Parables and Riddles to 
the Pbilifiines, Jhdg. 14. 12. And fo did Chrift to the Pbarifees, 
Mattb. 13. 34. 

3. There is a third Analogy, in their Strength and Victories over their 
Enemies, efpecially in this circumftance } That Samfon wrought his 
Victories alone, by his own perfonal S:rength, his Countrymen would 
not ftand by him, Judg. 15. 10,11, 12. So Chrift trod the Wine- pre fs a- 
lone, when all forfookhim. 

Samfon s firft exploit was, the flaying of a Lyon in the Defart, that 
roared upon him, Judg. 14. 6. So the firft Work of Chrift at his en- 
trance into his Miniftry, was the conquering that roaring Lyon that 
aflaulted and tempted him in the Wildernefs, and roared upon him 
thofe three hideous Temptations, Mattb. 4. 

And as upon the Lyon Samfon flew, he gave this Riddle •, Out of the 
Eater came forth Meat, and oat oftheflrong came Stveetnefs. So ex Cor- 
fore Diaboli myftico, out of the Devil's Body, being (lain, out of the 
Devil's Deftru&ion comes the fweet and bleffed tidings of the Gofpel ; 
and Flocks, or Churches, or Societies of Chriftians,like fo many Swarms 
of Bees. The Saints were once in an unregenerate Condition, Chil- 
dren of Wrath, Limbs of Satan-, but Satan being flain and conquered, 
they are transformed ; and it is as great a change, as for a Bee to be 
bred of a dead Carkafs. 

Some Interpreters have obferved, that this was extra- EngUJh Annot. 
ordinary : For Naturalifts obferve, that Bees do not ufe on Judg. 14. & 
to breed in the Carkafs of a Lyon *, but rather of an Ox 
or Bullock. We may apply it to the Difpenfations of Providence jGod 
works by unlikely, yea contrary means •, Meat out of the Eater. The 
Canaanites, our Enemies, they are Biead for us, Numb. \ 4. 9. their ve- 
ry Sins, Corruptions, Temptations, the Lord in his unfearchable Wif- 
dom produceth good out of them -, Light out of Darknefs, yea Life 
out of Death, out of the Death of the Lord of Life. 

Moreover, Samfon flew a thoufand Men with the Jaw-bone of an 
Aft, a very weak, unable and unlikely Inftrument to effeft fiich a 

P Work 

i oct The Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 

Work by ; yet the Spirit of the Lord coming upon him, what {laugh- 
ter doth he make ! Judg. 15. 14,15. So Chrift by the Fooliflmefs of 
Preaching, through the Power of his Spirit, fubduesand overcomes the 
Souls ot Men unto himfelf, and (lays the Enmity. 

4. A fourth Analogy between Chrift and Samfon is, in his Sufferings, 
and the Ftclorioufnejs thereof againft his Enemies, efpecially his Death. J 
fay Samfon was made like unto the Son of God, in regard of his Suf- 
ferings from his Enemies. Some have fummed them up briefly thus. 

They were both fold for Money, under pretence of Love, appre- 
hended by their Enemies, led away bound, brought forth at a great 
Eeaft, blinded, (Chrift was blindfolded) fcorned, faftned to a Poft, 
offered themfelves willingly to Death, died amongft wicked Men, and 
thereby deftroyed the Power of the Church's Enemies. 

And as there were many Circumftances in Samfon^ Death, which 
did evidently prefigure what befel the Antitype : So let me defire you 
to take Notice of thefe three. 

1 . That it was voluntary : So Chrift, no Man taketh it from me, John 
10. 18. / lay it down ofmyfelf. 

2. That it was by his Enemies, not a natural Death, but a violent } 
fo was ChrihVs. 

3. That hs was victorious in his Death, he did fuffer, and conquer } 
yea he conquered in and by his Sufferings : He flew more at his Death y 
than in his Life, Judg. 16. 30. 

So Chrift by his Death gave the moft deadly blow to Satan's King- 
dom, Col. 2. In his Death he fp oiled Principalities and Powers. This was 
prophefied of by Jacob, Gen. 49. 16, 17, 18. Samfon was a. Serpent by the 
way, to the Philiftines, in the Foxes } and in the Jaw-bone of an Afs ; 
and the Pillars of the Houfe are compared by fome to the Heels of tht 
Horfe, whereupon three thoufand of the Philiftines rode and fell back- 
wards. And / have waited for thy Salvation faith Jacob, that is, for 
Chrift, whom in the Spirit of Prophefie, he faw afar off. 

And 05 Samfon when he was in Aaz.ah, when the Philiftines thought 
they had him fure enough, rofe at midnight, Judg. \6. 3. So when 
the Enemies thought they had Chrift fure enough, he arofe in his 
might, carried away the Gates and Bars of Death, and broke the Bonds 
of it, Rom. 1. 4- Mis 2. 24. 

2 David : That he was a Type appears by this, that Chrift is called 
b-y his Name, Hof. 3. 5. Eaek. 34. 23, 24. My Servant David fhaH 
re ign over them for evermore, 

Samfon began, David went on with the Work. 

Seethe Analogy between David and Chrift in thefe four particulars. 

I. He 

The Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 107 

1. He was eminently fitted for the Work, to rule, to feed God's Peo- 
ple Ifrael, though he was the meaneft of his Family. So Chrift came 
when the Family was brought low into Obfcurity. 

David was Eminent for Holinefs, a Man after Cod's own Heart. 

So Chrift, boly, barmlefs and nndtfiled, feparate from Sinners. David 
was a Perfon of fuch worth, that the Story of his Life is more fully and 
largely recorded in holy Writ, than any other Perfon in all the Old 
Teftament. So Cbrijl is the Perfon treated of throughout the whole 
Scripture. David beloved of God. So Chrift, Matt b. 3. tbis is my be- 
loved Son. 

2. He bad many Enemies botb open and fcent : Saul, Doeg and Acbito- 
pben, treacherous Dealer?, Types of Jndas, who dealt treacheroufly 
with him ; and for open profefled Enemies, the Pbtlijlines, and the Am- 
monites, and the Syrians engaged by the Ammonites, fee 2 Sam. 10. 6. 
and 2 Sam. 8. So had Jefus Chrift the Scribes and Pbarifees, the Jews, 
the Romans, Men and Devils for his Enemies. 

3. David's Kingdom had but [mail and weak beginnings ; firft a Shep- 
herd, then an Officer in Sanlh Army, then an Exile with a matter of 
fix hundred men, afterward King over Judab and Benjamin at Hebron % 
laftly King over all Jfrael at Jerufalem. So the Kingdom of Chrift: grows 
from fmail beginnings ; it is therefore compared to a grain of Mnftard* 
Seed: It is at firfl like a River breaking forth at the Foot of a Moun- 
tain in a little Stream, that you may ftride over it : But in its progrefs it 
enlargeth, and grows to a deep and broad River, and at laft ends in 
the Ocean, as all Rivers do ; fo doth the Kingdom of Grace in the 
Ocean of Eternal Glory. 

4. David had Glorious Shccejfes, Viftories, and Deliver -ances^ all his 
Enemies fell before him ; He flew the Bear, the Lyon, Goliah, 1 Sam. 
17. 37. conquered all his Enemies round about, fee 2 Sam. 8. 12, 14. 
Moreover, Sanl and his bloody Houfe were rooted out before him : 
He never fell into his Enemies Hands. Though in this there is Tome 

For Chrift was content to yield up himfelf into their Hands, to let 
them try their Strength, and do their worft upon him ; therefore he 
gave up himfelf to Death : But he rofe again from under the Power of 
Death, and prevailed againft them all ; and after his Refurre&ion, 
Death hath no more dominion over him. All his Enemies (hall fall and 
perifh fooner or later •, but he fhall Reign for ever and ever. 

3. Solomon ; 1 fhall but mention a three-fold Analogy between Chrift 
and him. 

P 2 1. la 

ic8 The Gofpel of the ferfonal Types. 

i. la bis per final Wifdom> i Kings 4. 29, 30. So Chrift, Col i t 3, 
in him are hid all the treafures of Wifdom and Knowledge. 

2, In the glorious Peace and Profperity of his Kingdom : The King- 
dom was peaceably fetled in his Hand, 1 Cor. 21.9". 1 King. 4. 24, 25, 
And Tone fell to the Work of building the Temple, as Chrift doth 
the Church ^ but of that hereafter, when we come to the real Types. 
So Chrift, Ifai 9. 6. he is the Prince of Peace, the great Peace-maker^ 
Ephef. 2. 

3. In his Marriage with Pharaoh's Daughter. Some obferve, that 
the Daughter of Pharaoh never feduced him -, neither is there any men* 
tion made of the Egyptian Idols, 1 Kings 11. 5 , 7 In his other Out- 
landilh Marriages he did Sin} but this is mentioned as by way of fpecial 
exception, 1 King. 11. 1. For (he was a Profelyte, and fo it was no Sin 
to Many her. And the Love between her and Solomon is made a Type 
of the Love between Chrift and the Church. So Chrift hath took us- 
Gentiles to be a Spoufe unto him, Pfal 45. 

Vfe 1. Refolution of that great Cafe of Conference, whether you do 
belong to Chrift or no ? In his Kingdom fet up in thee ? Art thou con- 
flicting ? Art thou conquering ? 

Vfe 2. Comfort again ft the low and weak beginnings of Chrift s King- 
dom. Samfon did but begin to deliver Ifrael ^ David carried the work 
through : But in Solomon's Time there was glorious Peace. You fee 
here, as in a Giafs, the method and progrefs of Chrift's Kingdom s 
It begins in War, it is carried on in Victory, it ends in Peace. 

Vfe 3. Here is Comfort and Support, as to all the Confiicls and Ene- 
mies that God is pleafed to exercife his People witb % whether particular 
Saints, or whole Churches. 

1. Samfon, David, Solomon had Enemies •, Chrift had £0, fecret as 
well as open Enemies, fecret underminers as well as open Oppofers. 

2. Thefe Conflicts will end in peace, and quiet Eftablifhment, PfaL 
37. 37. Mark the perfeft Man % and behold the upright Man, for the end of 
that Man is Peace. 

This is the difference between Chrift's Peace and Satan s Peace ; for 
they both give Peace to their Subjects ; Satanh Peace is a Peace of freedom 
from trouble, and of finful fecurity in Sin. But Cbrift's Peace is a Peace 
after and out of trouble, by War and Victory over Sin and fpiritual E- 
oemks, Jfa. 9. 3. His Servants rejoyce as thofe that divide the fpoil after 
the Victory. 

Quefi. But how may I know, that Peace will be the end of all my 
prefent Conflicts ? 


The Uofpel of the perfonal Type* . 109 

Jnfw. Doft thou get the Vi&ory ? Then the eDd will be Pfce. Are 
there any beginnings of Victory ? Whatever thou doft, do not lay 
down thy Weapons, but fight ftifl, this is the beginning of Vi&ory, 
and the end will be Triumph, and Peace, and Joy. 

. UI20 is the Type or Figure of him that Sept. 1 p. 

is to come, Rom. 5. 14. 1667. 

THe third Con]nnftion or Conglobation of Typical Terfons under the 
Law, is thofe three Prophets, Elijah, Elifha and Jonah, whom I 
put together, becaufe Elijah was a Type of Chrift/s Afcenfion into 
Heaven, and Elijha of the Continuance of his Prefence and Spirit in 
his Apoftles and MeiTengers ever fince, and Jonah of his Death and 
Sufferings the procuring caufe of all. 

1. For Elijah, that great Prophet. I confefs he is omitted by many 
that have written of the Types, and indeed by all that 1 have feen. I 
know not well, how it comes to pafs. But that he was a Type, is 
certain, becaufe John the Baptift is called by his Name ^ therefore he 
was a Type, ( 1. ) Of John. ( 2. ) Of Chrift hirafelf. 

1. He was a Type of the Meffiah's Harbinger and Fore-runner, John 
the Baptift. For the Types ( as hath been often hinted ) are not to 
b* reftrained always only to the Perfon of Chrift himfelf ^ but all the 
things of Chrift were typified to them of Old. There were Types 
of all New Teftament Difpenfations -, therefore John is called Elijah? 
Mai. 4. 2. laft ver. and Chrift himfelf explains it, Mattb. 11. 14. 

But why is John called Elias ? 

Not that he was Elijah perfonally, but myflically ; he rofeup in the 
Spirit and Power of Elijah ? So Elijah was John in a Type or Figure. 
John was Elijah in Spirit and Power, as Luke 1. 17. There was fome* 
thing of Analogy in his very outward Garb and Deportment, anbairy 
Man, 2 Kings 1. 8. that is, in regard of his Habit or Clothing ^ in 
a rough hairy Garment: So John ( Matth. 3. 4. ) were a Girdle of 
Hair ', But chiefly in regard of his Spirit and inward Endowments, 
and of his Work and Office, to convert and recal a backfliden Gene- 

2, Elijah was a Type of Chrift himfelf. And that he wasfo, will be 
very evident, if you confider how great a Perfon this Elijah wa$,. in 
three Refpe&s. 

1. Hn 

1 10 «■* tie Gofpel of the pergonal Types. 

t . His emtnent and beroick Spirit of HolineJs y and invincible Courage 
and Aftivity for God. His very Name fignifies God the Lord % Elijah 
or Elijahu, in the Hebrew Elias, in the Greek in the New Tefta- 
ment. He abode with God when almoft all the World forfook him, 
5 Kings 19. ica he reduced and brought back the People, cap. 18. 39. 
he was a Man mighty in Prayer, James 5. 17, 18. a Man of an invin- 
cible Courage, who feared not to Hand himfelf alone againft four hun- 
dred Prophets, and againft Ahab the King, and Jezabel the Queen, 
whofe Chaplains thefe falfe Prophets were : He is brought forth in 
the facred Hiftory not unlike Melcbiz.ede\ % without Father or Mother \ 
without either Birth or Death, 1 Kings 17. 

2. The great and wonderful Miracles wrought by him. There be twelve 
recorded in the Hiftory of him in the firft and fecond Books of 

i. His (hatting up the Windows of Heaven, that there ftiould be no 
Rain for three Years and an half, 1 Kings 17. whence fome have cal- 
led him Franttm Cali, the Bridle of Heaven. 

2. His being fed by a Raven, Morning and Evening at the Brook 
Cheritb befide Jordan. This Was the eflfeft of his Faith and Prayer, 

- and may be reckoned among his Miracles ; not that it is likely 
jgff that he did eat raw Flefli, but rather that God by his Provi- 
dence direfted the Ravens to the Places where they might have 
it, as to fome rich Mens Kitchens, or the like. 

3. His miraculous Supply of the Widow of Zarcpbalh> called Sarepta 
in Luke 4. 26. That her Barrel of Meal wafted not^ nor did the Cruife of 
Oyl fail. 

4. His railing her Son from the Dead, by ftretching himfelf upon 
the Child. This was the firft Perfon we read of in Scripture, that 
was raifed from the Dead, and Elijah's fourth Miracle, All thefe are 
recorded in 1 Kings 1 7. 

5. In fetching down Fire from Heaven upon his Sacrafice, to con- 
found the Priefts of Baal ? 1 Kings 1 8. 

6. His opening the Windows of Heaven, and fetching down Rain 
afte** he had done Juftice upon the Priefts of Baal ♦, cap. iS. He did 
this'alfo by Prayer, and by perfevering in Prayer, ver. 43. 

7. His fading forty Days and forty Nights, cap. 19.8, In Mount 
Horeb, and in his Journey thither and back again, the place where 
God appeared to Mofes, Exod. 3. 1,2. and where he gave the Law to 
/fiatl, Deut. 4. 10, 14. Never any Man fafted forty Days, befides 
this Elijah, and Mofes, Exod. 34. 28. and Chrift, Matth. 4. 2. Here- 
in both Mofes and Elijah were manifefted Prefigurations of the Lord 
lefts Chrift. 8. His 

The Gofpel of the perfonal Types . 1 1 % 

8. His calling the Prophet Elifha^ and caufing him to follow him, by 
calling his Mantle upon him-, which had fuch an Influence, that he 
left all and followed him < therefore this may be put into the Cata- 
logue of his Miracles, cap. 19. And in the like miraculous Influence 
of the Spirit did Chrifi call his Apoftles to leave all and follow 

His ninth and tenth Miracles were the Deftruftion of the two Cap- 
tains and their Fifties, when Aba dab fent to take him, 2 Kings 1. 1. 
they both perilhed alike. For like Sins pull down like Judgments. 

The nth was the dividing of Jordan by his Mantle, that he and 
Eli/ha might pifs over, 2 Kings 2. 

And the 12th was his Atcenfion into Heaven in a Chariot of Fire, 
2 Kings 2. 1 1. a Prerogative that never any Man had but himfelf, and 
Enoch before the Law, and Mofes who gave the Law \ but Mofes died 
firft, and was tranflated afterwards, as hath been formerly (hewed. 
They were all three eminent Types herein of Chrift's Afcenfioji into 

They that are faithful and zealous for God in times of general 
Apoftacy, the Lord is wont to own them in a .fpecial manner, and to 
put fpecial Honour upon them one way or other. 

3. His commillionating Succeflbrs after him to carry on the Work 
of God when he was gone, 1 Kings 19. 15, i5. Elifha to be Prophet 
Hazael King of Syria, Jehu King of JfraeL So Chrift fends forth his 
Apoftles and Minifters, Mattb. 2%, thofe that are godly ^ tho s fome- 
times he'imploys others that are hot godly, but only gifted, and makes 
fome ufe of them, as he did of Jehu, aqd of Judas, and Demos for a 

2. Elifha, called .in the New Teftament Elizeus, Luke 4. was a 
Type of Chrifi in three refpedts. 

1. In that Elifha, inrefpeft of Elijah, was, as it were, a Continua- 
tion of the fame Perfon : For he rofe up compleatly in the fame 
Spirit. The Prophets difcerned it, 2 Kings 2. 1 5. the Spirit of Elijah did 
reft upon Elifha. So when Chrift departed and afcended up to Heaven, 
he left the Comforter in his ftead, Job. 16. and he left the Apoftks and 
Minifters to carry on his Work, and poured forth his Spirit upon 
them for that end. 

Or we may accommodate this with refpecT: to Jobn the Baptift 5 
thus. As Elifha fucceeded Elijab ; fo did Cbrift come after Jobn the 
Baptift : And to Elifha was ia this refpeft a Type of Qhrift him- 


2. Ia 

f 1 2 The Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 

2. la regard of the remarkable Vengeance and Deftru&ion that came 
upon his wicked Enemies; The Children that moked him were de- 
voured by two She-Bears, 2 Kings 2. 23, 24- GehaxA his treacher- 
ous Servant fmitten with Leprofie, 2 Kings 5. 27, 

So Defpifers of Jefus Chrift, and the Gofpel, fhall be punifhed 
with moft remarkable and dreadful Deftru&ion •, Here ye Defpifers, 
and wonder , and peri/h, A&s 13. 41. For I work a Work in your Days, a 
Work which you fhall in no wife believe, though a Man declare it unto yon. 
Incredible Plagues (hall the Defpifers and Reje&ers of Chrift, and the 
Gofpel be punifhed with. And Judas the Traytor, Chrifl's Servant, 
you know what dreadful Deftru&ion came upon him, jttJsi. 18. his 
Bowels guihed out, through the horror of his Confcience, and the Fury 
of the Almighty rending his very Body in Pieces, as well as his Soul 
from his Body. 

3, In regard of his Miracles. He and his PredecefTor Elijah were 
the greateft workers of Miracles ( except Mofes ) that ever we read 
of in Scripture, or that ever the..Lord raifed up in his Church. For 
Mofes was to be the Founder as- it were of that Church, Eftate and 
Worfhip that was in thofe Days; And Elijah and EUfha were the 
Prefervers and Reftorers of it in a molt degenerate and corrupted 

The Miracles of EUfha were very great and many •, they are re- 
corded in the fecond Book of Kings, in the 2. 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7th. 
Chapters, and one more in chap. 13. They were about one and twen- 
ty in all. 

There be three recorded in the fecond Chapter, viz.. his dividing 
Jordan with Elijah's Mantle, his healing the Waters of Jericho, the 
devouring two and forty fcoffing Children of thofe idolatrous Parents, 
the People at Bethel, by two She-Bears. 

In the third Chapter there is another, viz.. the overflowing of the 
Wildernefsof the Eden with Water, ver. 16. 17,20. to the Deftru- 
dion of the Moabites, ver.' 21. 22, 23, 24. 

In the fourth Chapter there be five more, which are the Analafls 
and Contents of that Chapter, v'it. ( 1 . ) His multiplying the Wi- 
dows Oyl, while (he had any empty VefTels to fill. (2.) His giving 
a Son to that great and good Woman the Shunamite. (3.) His rai- 
ling her Son when Dead unto Life again: And this is the fecond Per- 
fon that ever was raifed from the Dead. ( 4. ) His healing the dead- 
ly Pottage which had poyfoned the Students in the College ^Gilgal. 
(5. ) His feeding of an hundred Men with twenty Loaves. 


The Go/pel of the perfonal Types. 1 1 3 

Iq the fifth Chapter there be two more, the curing of Naaman's 
Leprofie, and thefmiting of Gebazs with that Difeafe. 

In the fixch Chapter there be fix more. ( 1.) Hiscaufmg Iron to 
fwim. (2.) His difcloilng the fecret Counsels of the King of Syria 
by the Spirit of Prophefie. (3.) An Army of Angels coming down 
from Heaven for his Defence at ( 4. ) The opening of his Sei- 
vant's Eyes to fee them. ( 5. ) The fmiting of the Syrians with Bliud- 
nefs. ( 6. ) The opening their Eyes again. 

In the feventh Chapter are three more, the hideous Noife which 
was heard, and caufed fuch a pannick Terror in the Camp of the Sy- 
rians, th3t their whole Army fled ; and the incredible Plenty in Sa- 
maria \ with the Death of that unbelieving Noble-man, who had que- 
ftioned whether God could do it. 

And then laflly, cap. 13.21. a dead Man is reftored to Life by 
touching his Bones. And this is the third Perfon that was raifed from 
the Dead! 

All thefe Miracles in general were Prefignifications of what the 
Meffiah was to do in that kind: And fomeof them were more parti- 
cularly fulfilled and anfwered by the Antitype. As that of feeding an 
hundred Men with twenty Loaves. You know Chrift did that and 
more, feeding five thoufand with five Loaves and two Fiihes, Mat. 14. 
21. And at an another time, four thoufand with feven Loaves and a 
few little Fifties, Mattb. 1 5. 38. 

His raiflng the Dead to Life •, whereof we have three Inftances in the 
Old Teflament, the Widow of Sarepta her Son, the Sbunamite's Son, 
and the Man buried in Eli/hah Grave. Thefe were Types and Pledges 
of what Chrift mould do in railing the Dead. As in railing Lazarus, 
Jairus's Daughter, the Widows Son of Nairn •, and his own Blefled 
Body out of the Grave, and many Saints that arofe with him. And 
thofe which the Apoftles raifed by his Name. And finally, the railing 
all his Elect unto Eternal Life, and all the Sons of Men unto Judg- 
ment at the great Day. 

There might alfo be a Spiritual Application and Accommodation of 
them, as to the quickning of Mens Souls, the healing of the Difeafes 
of the Soul, feeding them with the Bread of Life, pouring into empty 
VefTels, empty Souls, theOyl of Gladnefs, the Joys and Graces of his 

3. Jonah, him I conned with Elijah and Eli/ha, to make the Type 
more compleat and full. Some have conje&ured, that Jonah was the 
Widows Son of Zarepbatb, whom Elijah raifed from the Dead, 1 Kings 
1 7. 22, 23. but this is but a Conje&ure without Proof ; It is probable 

Q. enough 

U4 The Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 

enough he might live about their Time, or perhaps fomewhat after. 
That he was a Type of Chrift, the Scripture is exprefs, Matth. 12.39. 
No Si/n (hall be given them, but the Sign of the Prophet Jonah. You 
may fee how the Type fits the Antitype in four Refpe&s. 

1. In his Death; he offered himfeif willingly unto Death toaflwage 
the Storm, "Jonah 1. and fo he is caft into the Sea, and devoured by 
the Whale. So did ChriB, to appeafe the Tempeft of God's Wrath. 
And as upon Jonah** being caft into the Sea, the Sea ceafed from its 
raging, cap. 1. 15. and the Seamen were faved from drowning. So 
upon Chrift's Death, God's Wrath is pacified, and Believers faved 
from the Wrath to come. 

Jonah had fore Conflids, and inward Agonies of Spirit, when he 
was under that Shadow of Death in the Whale's Belly, cap. 2. So had 
Chrift when he cried, My God my God. why haft thou forfahn me ! 
there were unutterable Anguifhes in his Soul, thofe "Ayvafflct n*0»W«e, 
unknown, unconceivable Sufferings in his Soul. 

2. He was a Type of Chrift in his Burial. For, look, as Jonah was 
buried in the Belly of the Whale three Days and three Nights : So 
was Chrift in the Belly of the Earth the fame fpace, Matth. 12. 40. 

3. In his Refmettion. For, look, as Jonah overcame all the Dan- 
gers he was in, and came forth again alive out of the Whales Belly. 
So did Chrift out of the Grave within three Days. 

Jonah overcame greater Enemies, even the Power of Satan, Death 
and Hell • and upon this fang Praife to God, cap. 2. So did Chrift 
triumph ? Oh Death , where is thy Sting ? Oh Grave , where vs thy Vitlory* 
Hof. 13. 14. and Vfal. 22. 22, 23, 25. and Pfal. 18. 48, 49. 

4. In his Preaching after his RefnrrccJion. For, look, as Jonah after 
his Refurrection preached Repentance to the Ninevites, and that with 
great Succefs and Efficacy •, for they did repent upon his Preaching, 
the whole Body of them with an outward Repentance ; and many of 
them doubtlefs with a true and faving Repentance: And fo were fa- 
ved both from that prefent Temporal Deftrudtion, and from eternal 
Damnation : And Jonah did Preach to the Israelites alfo, as well as to 
the Ninevites, 2 Kings 14.25. but which was firft the Scripture doth 
not exprefs. So Chrift, when rifen from the Dead, fent his Spirit^ 
and Preached by his Spirit in his Apoftles and Minifters • and not only 
to the Jews, but to the Gentiles, fuch as thofe Ninevites, to the Gon- 
verfion and Salvation, of Multitudes of them, as was foretold of him, 
Pfal. 22. 22. and to the deeper Condemnation of Unbelievers, Matth. 
ia. 41. becanfe a greater than Jonas is here. 

4. Tbs 

The Gofpel of the perfcmal Types. 115 

4. The fourth and I aft Conjunction that I fhall fyeakunto, of typical 
Terfons under the Law, vs Zerubbabel and Jehofhua, of whom one was 
the chief Magiftrate, the other the chief Prieft , and both oft hem Re- 
builders of the Temple, and Reftorers of the collapfed State of the 
Church of God in thofe Times : In all which there was an eminent 
Prasfiguration of Jefus Chrift. 

But what of Chrift was fhadowed forth by thefe two? For I fhall 
put them both together, they being Contemporaries, and Joint-In- 
ftruments in the Work and Service of God in that Generation. There 
were three Things of Chrift typed and (had°- ved forth by them. 

1 . Both his Offices of King and Priest Zerubbabel was the Prince of 
the People of God in thofe Days, and the chief Perfon of the Line of 
David. And Jehofknah was at the fame time High Prieft. And that 
there was fomething of peculiar Glory in his Priefthood, relating to 
Jefus Chrift our great High Prieft, is not improbable. In Zech. 3. he 
is prefented in Vifion to the Prophet, as Handing before the Lord, 
and refilled by Satan ^ but Satan doth not prevail againft him, ver. 
1. 2. for he is clothed with change of Raiment, ver. 4. and hath a 
fair Mitre fet on his Head, ver. 5. So Chirft, though oppofed and 
refitted by Satan, yet went through with his Work, and had blefled 
Acceptance with God, and Succefs therein. 

2. Their building the Temple, the Church of God. For thefe two 
did build the Temple, conjuuSly \ Ezra 3. 8. and 4. 3. and 5.2. each 
of them in their feveral capacities, being ftirred up to it by the Pro- 
phet Haggai, as you ma, fee Hagg, 1 12, 14. And it is faid of Zernb- 
babel, that as his Hands laid the I oundation of the Temple •, fo his Hands 
fhonld alfo finifh it, Zach 4 9. and the building of the Altar is afcribed 
to «hembo'h conjunctly, Ezra. 3. 2. So doth Chrift fpirituall^ as the 
Apoftle tells us in that very Metaphor of building theHoufe of God, 
Heb. 3.3.4. 

3 Ztrttbba l el and Jehofhua were the Conductors and Captains of the 
Salvation of rhu People from literal Babylon^ Ezra. 1. 5,8. and 2. 2. 
and 5. 14. S> Chrift brings back the Captivity of his People out of 
Spiritual Bondage under Sin, and Satan in their natural State-, and out 
of Antichrifttan Bondage under Rome, which is myftical Babylon. 

But there will be occadon to fpeak further to thefe things when we 
come to the real Types. 

Befidesthe Perfonal Types which have been fpoken to, there be di- ; 
vers others alfo that are noted by learned Men : As of the fir ft Claffis 
before the Law •, fome have noted Abel the Proto-martyr, as alfo Seth y Me- 

Q. 2 thtifelab. 

i j 6 The Gofpel of the perfoval Types. 

thufelah^ and Lamecb Noah's Father, and Heber the Seventh f?om Excch, 
as Enoch was the feventhfrom Adam. Heber was a pious Man ; in his 
Seed the primitive Language; and the true Religion and Church of God 
were preserved *, when the reft of the World was loft and fell into 
Idolatry *, and from him the Church had their Denomination, He- 
brews • as Cbriftians have from Jefus Ckrift. And it was prophefied, 
That Chittim fhould afflift Heber, Numb. 24. 24. Chittim is the Ro- 
mans, Chrift is the chiefeft of Heber, whom Italy or Chittim affiidted, 
as in other Refpecls, fo chiefly at his Death ; for he was crucified un- 
der Tiberius the Roman Emperor. 

Judabthe Son of Jacob, to whom it was faid, Thy Father's Sons [ball 
bow down unto tbee y Gen. 49. 8. 

Alfo Job in his Sufferings and Patience, both unparallel'd, and his 
prevailing Intercefiions for his offending Friends, are by fome looked 
on as Types of Chrift. 

And as to ihefecond Claffis, vit. thofe under the Law, fome have ad- 
ded Aaron the Prieftof the Lord : But what might be faid of him, will 
come in when we come to handle the Office of the Frieflhood. 

Alfo Gideon and Jepbtbab, Judges of Jfraeloi Old. 

And Samuel the Prophet, who was a Judge alfo, and a Nazarite. 

Hez.ckiah and Jofiab, thofe great reforming Kings. 

Eliakim, I fa. 22. 20. for the like Phrafe which is there ufed, vcr. 22. 
of Eliakim, is applyed to Chrift, IJa. 9. 5. Revel 3. n. 

Some havefet Cyrus alfo among the Types of Chrift, the Founder 
of the Ferfian Monarchy: Who may be thought to have been a godly 
Man, much Good and no Evil being recorded of him in the Scripture ^ 
and he did a very good Work, (and a great and glorious Work) it was 
the breaking the Yoke of Babylon, 2nd letting the Ifrael of God at Liber-: 
ty, and rebuilding the Temple -, and indeed the Elogies and Expreifi- 
ons of the Prophet 1 fat ah concerning him, are very High and Excel- 
lent, I fa. cap. 45. and cap. 46. 11. 

£>d«/el alfo a Perfon of extraordinary Eminency in his Generation, 

I do not omit tbefe Fcrfons, as concluding they had 110 no typical rcla* 
Hon to Jefus Chrift : For indeed, 1 think divers of them had ; but in 
feme, the Analogy is but weak and dark, and in fome few Particulars, 
and tho ? in others it is more clear ; yet it would have been too large 
to go thorough every Perfon. i have thought it fufficient to my intend- 
ed Scope, to inftance only in fome of the Clearefi and moft Eminent ; 
referring the rtfi to your own Meditations in the Scripture, to obferve 
and improve what you find Written concerning them. 

Vfc 1. 

The G of pel of the perfoval Type;. i\ 7 

Vfi 1. See the Glory of Jefus Chrift the Antitype ; in that {0 many Ex- 
cellenr Perfons do bttt weakly and imperfectly ieprefent him ; as if all 
the Candles in the World were put together, [hey would not equa- 
lize the Glory of the Sun : But, how Bright then is rhe Sun it ft If, 
which fhines brighter than all the Candles of the World •, yea, than 
all the Stars in the Firmament ? So here, how Glorious is the Mvfjiab, 
of whom all thefe were but weak and dark Umbrages ! He is indeed 
the chiefeft of ten Thoufands, Cant. 5. 

Vfe 2. Look whatever Glory was in any of thefe Perfons by way. of 
Prepguratkn of Jefus Chrift : It is, and (hut! d be found in every Believer 
by way of Participation from Cbrift, and Imitation of him. Therefore 
in thefe Examples v\efeec//r oxrn Duty; in their Attainments, we fee 
what mould be our Endeavours; our Endeavours did 1 fry ? I may fay 
alfo, through Grace, our Attainments, For tho' it is true, we are not 
yet Perfect •, neither have we already attained, yet there is a time* 
coming, when thou and I, if we be true Believers, (hall be more Ho- 
ly than ever Elijah, or Elifha were in the Days ot their Pilgrimage 
here Below . When we (hall ferve God better than Zerubbabel and Je- 
frjhuah did, when they reftored and rebuilt his Temple *, Namely, when- 
we come to Heaven. Then there will not be the leaft Saint, bu r will- 
be more Holy than ever the mod Eminent Saint was here upon Earth. 
For the bed of them had a Body ofSin and Death in them,, but in Hea-. 
ven there (hall be no Sin at all. 

As thefe Eminent Perfons had a Typical relation unto Chrift, fo eve- 
ry Believer hath a Mypical Union and Communion with him -, and by 
Virtue thereof, they do partake of his Spirit and Glory. So that as 
we have here a Motive unto what we ougjit to do, fo we have alfo En- 
cojixagement and Comfort, as to what we (hall attain. We (hall attain 
it. then, when Jefns Chrift (hall prefent all his Members to his Father blame- 
lefs, and fpotlefs, and faultlefs, before the Prefence of his Glory with exceed-. 
%ng 'joy. Eph. 5. 27. Jude 24, 

Who. is the Type or Figure of him that Sept. 26., 

was to come, Rom. 514* 1667. 

THE perfonal Types of Chrift have been referred un'o two forts, 
I. Individual Perfons. 2. Religious Ordi s, 01 whole R 1 ks and 
Kinds of typical Perfons. The former have httn fpoken to, we (hall 
now proceed to the latter r and fo finifh the Text. 

The difference between individual Types, and reltgious Orders or K^ds- 
and Ranks of typical Perfons, lies chiefly in this, That no wickeu Man 


1 18 The Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 

c ould bean individual Type of Chrifl; *, but, he may be involved in a 
religious Order of Types : For the Order is Holy, tho* the Man be 
wicked : And here it is not dire&ly the Perfon, but rather indeed the 
Order that is the Type, and the Perfon is involved and inverted in fuch 
an Order. 

Qucft. What are thefe typical Orders and Ranks of Men ? 

Anfw. I (hall inftance only in thefe fix. 

1. The whole Nation and People of lfrael. 

2. The Firft-born of that Nation. 

3. Their Nazarites. 

4. Their Prophets. 

5. Their Priefts. 

6. Their Kings. 

1. The whole Nation of the Jews. They were a typical People ; their 
Church-ftate being very Ceremonial and Peculiar to thofe legal Times, 
(therefore now ceafed and abolifhed) did adumbrate and fhadow forth 
two Things. 

1. Chrift bimfelf; hence Chrifl: is called lfrael, J fa. 49. 3. By lfrael 
is meant Chrift, and all the Faithful, as the Members of him their 

2. They were a Type of the Church of God under the New Tefla- 
ment. Hence the Church is called lfrael, Gal. 6. 16. and Rev. 7. The 
twelve Tribes of lfrael are numbred up by Name, to fhew forth the 
Lord's particular Care of every one of his People in particular. That 

• Place is not meant properly of Old lfrael, becaufe it relates to the 
Times of the Antichriftian Locufts ; compare cap. 7. with cap. 9, 4. 

The Analogy lies in this, That they were a peculiar People to the Lord, 
chofen and fingled out by him from all the world .* So is Chrifl the 
Lord's chofen, Behold my Servant whom I have chofen, mine elecJ in whom 
my Soul delighteth : So are all the Saints, 1 Pet. 2.9. A royal Nation, a 
peculiar People, gathered from among all Nations, Rev. 5. 9. Hence the 
Enemies of lfrael were typical Enemies ; as Egypt and Babylon under the 
Old Teftament, Types of Antichriftian Enemies under the New : And 
the Providences of God towards that People of Old, Types and Sha- 
dows of his intended future Difpenfations towards his People under 
the New-, as you will fee farther when we come to fpeakof typical 

2. The Firft-born of thatNation, were alfo a typical fort of Perfons -, 
therefore Efau in defpifing his Birthright, defpifed a fpiritual Privi- 
ledge«, and therefore juftly called a prophane Perfon, Heb. 12. 16. 
And they alfo typified Chrift, and the Church. 

Chrift : 

The Go/pel of the perfonal Types . 1 1 9 

Cbrift : For he is the Firft-bom among many Brethren , Rom. 8. 29. 

Tta Church : And thence the fame Name and Title is given to all the 
Saints, Heb. 12.23. The general Affembly and Church of the Firft-bom. 

The Analogy appears chiefly in two things. 

1. In regard of the Lord's fpecial Intereft and Propriety in 

2. In regard of their Preeminence and Dignity above others. 

1. The Lord's Propriety in them, as his in a fpecial and peculiar Man- 
ner •, The Firft-bom are mine. Becaufe he had redeemed them, when 
the Firft-bom of Egypt were deftroyed, Exod. 13.2. So Cbrift hath a 
fpecial relation to God, as his firft begotten, yea his only begotten 
Son •, we are Sons only by Adoption and Grace, but Cbrift is his 
Son by Nature : Primogenitus ante quern nullus, & unigemtus poft quern 

nullus Joh. 1. 14. So th^ Saints : The Lord hath a fpecial relation 

and propriety in them, all manner of Ways ; by Creation, by Re- 
demption, by Regeneration, by his own Choice of them, by their 
Confent and Choice of him, &c. 

2. In regard of their Dignity and Preeminence above others : The Firft- 
born had many Priviledges above his Brethren, he was, as it were 
the fecond Father of the Family : So Cbrifl, Jfa. 9. 6. is called the ever- 
lafting Father. The Firft-bom had the Honour, and the Government \ 
the Priefthood was his, and a double Portion of the Eftate, Dent. 21. 
17. The Firft>born at firft had the Prieftbood, Exod. 24. 5. Young men 

facrificed Afterward Levi was fet apart inftead of the Firft-born % 

Numb. 8. Therefore Reuben left the Government to Judab, the Prieft- 
hood to Levi, the double Portion to Jofeph^ who was divided 
into Two Tribes Epbraim and Manaffeh ; 

So Cbrift has the Honour above all Creatures, Heb. 1. 6. Let aU the 
Angels of God Worfljip him. 

And the Saints, which are the Lord's Firft-bom in a fecondary way, 
are honourable Perfons, as being Members of Chrift : They are 
precious in his fight and honourable : Therefore he fays, I wiU-give Nati- 
ons and Princes for thy Life, I fa. 43. 3, 4. 

3. Their JSJazarites. The Inftitution of their religious Order, 
with all the Rules and Obfervations belonging to it, you have Numb. 
6. It was an Order of much efteem amongft the People of God in 
thofe Times, and is reckoned as a great Honour and Glory to that 
People, Amos. 2. 11. J rat fed of your Sons for Prophets ^ and of your 
Young Men for Naz,arites, 

Her Nazarites, Lam, 4, 7, were whiter than Snow. 


1 20 The Gofpel of the pergonal Types. 

There were two degrees of it \ Either for a certain time, or during a 
Man's whole Life. 

^ Of Perfons chit were all their Days, ttit Scripture giveth 
fome veiy great and eminent Inftances^ as Samfon, Judg. 13, 5. 
alfo Samuel the Prophet, 1 S#w. i. 11. alio 7ofc/* the Baptift, Lata 
1. 15. 

Of Perfons under the Vow of Nazaritefhip only for fome certain time, 
we have Inftance in Paul the Apoftle, Ails 18. 18. and again, Mis 
21. 23, 24. 

How long they were to be under the Vow, the Scripture limits 
not. The Jewi/h Writers report, that one Month was the fliortelt 
time in ufe amongft them. 

This Order fiiadowed forth fundry Things relating, 

1. To Chtift himfclf. 

2. To the Members of Chrift. 

3. To the Benefits of Chrift;. 

I. The Nazarites were Types of Chrift himfelf } not that Chrift 
hirafelf was a Nazarite according to the Law, but only in the Spirit 
and Truth of this Type. That he was not a Nazarite literally, is 
clear ^ becaufe he drank Wine ^ as at other times, fo at his laft Sup^ 
per, which They might not do. But in him this Type was fulfilled in 
two Refpe&s. 

1. In regard of his ufual Name and Title, J c fits' of Nazareth^ or Jefus 
the Nazarite, Matth. 2. ult. John 19. 19. Thus he was ufually called, 
which the Jews would never have done } but that by the Providence 
of God he had had lived in that Place. In which difpofal of Provi- 
dence, altms fuit Vei Confilium -, as Calvin in Mat, 2. God had a further 
Defign and Counfel than they were aware of, who from thence called 
him by that Name: Which, though it was given him upon another 
Occafion by the Jews, namely, from the Place of his Refidence- yet 
God in his infinite Wifdom did fo contrive and order it, that by this 
means he Ihould be commonly called by the Name of this Religious 
Order. See Matth. 2. nit. where the Evangelift tells us, that by this 
means of Chrift's living in Nazareth, was fulfilled, that which was 
fpoken by the Prophets, namely, that he floould be called a Nazaren 

• By the Prophets is meant thofe Prophets, that wrote the Book of 

Judges ; and the Place intended, \% Judges 13. 5. as Calvin from Mar- 
tin Buccr judgeth. 

It is true indeed, the Words there are fpoken of 5 am/on literally ; 
but intended myftically of the Meiliah, of whom both Samfon, and all 
the Nazarites were Types. It is true, there is fome literal Difference 


The Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 121 

between Zain and Tfade, anH the Syriuk Tranflation (which yet is 
bat a Tranflation ) renders Nazareth by Tfade, Notforeth ) whereas the 
Word Na^arite is "1)U with Zain B^r that the Holy Ghoft regarded 
fuch a literal Exa&nefs is not probable. It may fuffice 
that there is an Allufion and Affinity in the Souud. And Ste Bucbolcer 
though Matthew uieth the Word Naz.arem, as fignifying £™ oU pag " 
one of the Religious Order of the Nazarites , yet Pilate, 
John 19. j 9. ufeth the fame Word of him, never dreaming of any 
thing more, than the Place where Chrift had dwelt. Some indeed 
have thought, that this Paffage in Matth. 2. 23. refers to Ifa.n.i. 
where Chrift is called Netfor, the Branch, a fburifhing Branch. But 
we do not' find that fburifhing Branches are called Nazarites in the 
Scripture : So Calvin in Matth. 2. nit* 

' 2. In regard of his peculiar Holinefs and Separation unto God, They 
were ceremonially Holy } but he was Holy indeed, and after an higher 
and infinitely more excellent and glorious manner. He is called that 
holy Thing that [hall he born of tbee^ Luke 1.35. and Dan. 9. 24. the 
mofl Holy, or the Holy of Holies. 

2. The NaxMrstes were Types of all the Saints and Members of Chrifl. 
All Believers, who are an holy People, are Spiritual Nazarites feparated 
unto God ; I fay, all Believers, whether Male or Female. For there 
were Women Nazdrites as well as Men, Numb. 6. 2. When either 
Man or Woman [hall fey arate themfelves to vow a Vow of a Naz.arite. For 
in Chrift Jefus there is neither Male nor Female, Gal. 3. 28. 

3. There was in this Order a Ceremonial Shadow and Adumbra- 
tion of the Benefits of Chrift, which Believers do receive from htm ^ and 
they are chiefly two,- San 8 ific at ion and J unification. 

1. Sancltfication, This was fhadowed out in this, that the Naza- 
rites weie Perfons feparated and devoted unto God in a fpecul manner 
by a Vow, Numb. 6. 6. As alfo in the particular Rules and Cere- 
monies belonging to this Order, which were three. 

1. Not to drink Wine, Numb. 6. 3,4. So Samfon. Tms was to 
teach them Temperance, and Mortification of flelhly Lufts, which 
Wine often provokes Men to, and takes away their Hearts from that 
which is good, Hof. 4. 11. and caufes them to err and /tumble, Ifa. 28 7. 
Moreover this Ceremony taught them, inftead of Wine, to be filled 
with the Spirit, Eph. 5. 18. and inebriated as it were with the Joys 
thereof in the Senfe of God's Love, which is better than Wine, Cant. 

2. Not to cut their Hair, Numb. 6.5. This is thought to be appointed 
( as many other Ceremonial Laws were ) in Oppofuioii to u»e hea- 

R theuifli 

122 The Goffel of the ferfonal Types. 

thenilh Idolatry of thofe Times : And to figaify the keeping himfelf 
from all Uncleannefs and Impurity : For when the Nazarite was pur- 
ged and cleanfed from Impurity, his Hair was fhaved off^ ver. 9. and 
fo the Leper, Lev. 14, 8, 9. therefore to keep it from (having feemeth 
to (Igntfy the keeping themfelves from Uncleannefs : So fome ex- 
pound k. 

It fhadowed forth alfo the growth of the Graces of God's Spirit in 
them, as in Samfon, who with the Lofs of his Hair, loft the Power of 
God : And as bis Hair grew again, fo his Strength in God renewed, Judg» 
13. 25— -and 1 6. This Strength came not by the growth of the 
Hair, otherwife than as an outward Sign appointed unto them of 
God, who fan&ifieth to his People what outward Signs 
v ]!;'** ° n himfelf pteafeth, to fignify and convey Grace \ as he fan- 
u 6. 5. aified the W aters of Jordan to walh away Naaman's Le- 
profie, which of themfelves had no fuch Efficacy, 2 Kings 5. 14. 

3. Not to defile themfelves by the Dead, Numb. 6. 6, 7, 8. This re- 
fraining from the Dead, in whom the Image as it were of God's 
Curfe for Sin was to be feen ( for the Wages of Sin is Death, 
Ainfmnh in R om 6t ly ^ figured out abstaining from finful and dead 
Works, and from fuch as live in them, who are dead 
whilft they live, 1 Tim. 5. 6. And alfo it {hewed their Conftancy in 
the Rules of their Profeflion, and their Magnanimity in the lofs of 
deareft Comforts. 

2. Jufiification by Chrift alone was Biadowed forth in two Rules or 
Obfervations belonging to this Order. 

1. That legal ftri&nefs and feverity of Purification in cafe of acci- 
dental Defilement, ver. 9. 10, 11, 12. If a Nazarite chance to be de- 
filed, he is to begin again upon a new Score. This (hews the abfolute 
Purity and Perfection of the Law of God, which will not admit the 
leaft Error or failing •, but whofoever continutth not in all things, vs cur- 
fed and condemned by it, Deut.97. 16* Gal. 3. 10. If a Manhcpth* 
whole Law, and fail but in one Toint, he vs guilty of all, James 2. ic. and 
fo needs Chrift and his Blood to make Atonement even for the leaft 
Sins, and thofe which are in forne fort involuntary, as the Original 
Corruption of Nature is, and many aftual Sins of meer Infirmity and 

% Sacrifites of Atonement, even when they had fulfilled their Vow,. 

>vtr t 1 3. to 21. This taught the fecret and unfeen Guiltinefs, which 

cleaveth to the moft holy Men in their beft and moft per- 
Airifwnbm fcft works 7 which, without Atonement by the Blood of 
** Gbrift, cannot be pure and pleafingin the Sight of God. 



The Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 123 

For tho' a Man know nothing by himfelf ; yet is he not thereby juftified, 
1 Cor. 4.4. When we have kept our Vows, and done our Duty ; yet 
we need Atonement and Pardon. 

4. A fourth Religions Order among them of Old, was their Prophets, 
Thefe alfo were Types of Chrift, and oiCbriftians. 

Of Chrift, For as they taught the Will of God : So doth Chrift. 
For he is the great Prophet, Deut. 18. 15. A&S3.22. Joh. 1. 18. No 
Man knows the Father, but he to whom the Son reveaktb him, Mat. 11.27. 
But tho* there be a Refemblance and Analogy ; yet there is alfo a great 
difparity in this Type. For all the Types ( as hath been often obferved ) 
fell fhort of the Antitype in Glory -, and fo in this •, for none teacheth 
like him, Job 36. 22. in regard of the Authority, and in regard of the 
Efficacy of his teaching. 

1. The Authority ; For the Prophets fpeak in the Lord's Name, Thus 
faith the Lord : But Chrift in his own Name, and the Fathers ; as a Son 
over his own Houfe, Heb. 3. 6. 

2. The Efficacy. All the Prophets could not reach the Heart : But 
Chrift teacheth inwardly, and effectually - 7 for he fends his Spirit to 
bring the Truths to Remembrance with Power and Efficacy, John 14. z6. 

And as their Prophets were Types of Chrift : Solikewife of all Be- 
lievers; who are fpirituaUy Prophets, 1 John 2. 27. 1 Cor. 2. 15. the 
ftirituMl Manyidgetb all things. They are faid to fropkefie as the Lord's 
Wttneffes, Rev. J 1 . 

5. A fifth Religious Order in thofe legal Times was that of Priefthood. 
Their Friefts, and efpecially their High Priefts were Types of Christ; 
and of Chrtfiians: Therefore Chrift is fo often called aPrieft, and the 
High Pries! ; Heb. 3. 1. of onr Profejfion. 

The Analogy between Chrift and them appears chiefly in two Things. 

1. That as they offered Sacrifice, and by Sacrifice made Atonement : 
So Chrift, Eph. 5. 2. gave himfelf for us, an Offering and a Sacrifice to 
Cod for afweet fmeUing Savour. 

2. There was in them the Shadow ( though but the Shadow) of an 
everlafting Prieft-hood', becaufe the Office was fettled in the Houfe and 
Family of Aaron : And fo though the Perfons died - 7 yet the Office 
was never Vacant : For the Son fucceeded the Father, and was fome- 
times inverted during the Father's Life, as Eleazjer, Numb. 20. 2d. 
And though MclchizedeVs Priefi-bood was ot an higher Order, and 
more illuftrious than that of Aaron, as the Apoftle (hews, Heb. 7. yet 
in this alfo there was but a Shadow of Eternity, as hath been formerly 
fliewed. But Christ vs indeed a Prieft for ever : He is often fo called in 
the Epiftle to the Hebrews. He was made a Prieft not after the Law of 

R 2 a car- 

124 The G°fp e l o^the perfonal Types. 

a carnal Commandment , but after the Power of everlafting Life, Heb.7. 15. 
The Difparity between Chrift and thefe typical Priefts was maaitold. 
I fhjl) inftaacein a few Particulars 

1. Theirs was but the Shadow; Chrift the true Sacrifice, and true 
Reconciliation with God. 

2. They offered Sacrifice firft for their own Sins : But Chrift had no 
Sins of his own to offer for, and to make Satisfaction for y Heb.^.ij. 

3. All thofe Priefts of Old, even Mdchizedek himfelf, they were but 
Priests-, they were not both Prieft, Altar and Sacrifice. Bnt Chrift is 
all three. He is pyieft as Gcd-ui3n. He is the Altar in regard of his 
Divine Nature : For this is that which far ft i fie s the Gift, and makes the 
Sacrifice To infinitely efficacious and meritorious. And Chrift himfeif 
is alfo the Sacrifice in regard of bis Humane Nature : His Humane 
Nature fuffered Death, and fo was offered up as a Sacrifice unto God 
for us. 

Thus in all things Chrifl hath the Preheminence. 

I might alfo (hew, how all the Saints are Priefts. He hath made us 
Kings and Priefts unto our God, Rev. 1. But there will be occafion to 
fpeak further of the Prieflhood, when we come to the Temple and the 
Temple Miniftry. 

6. A ftxth Religious Order was their 'Kings of the Houfe of David. 
It is true, Magiftracy is a civil Ordinance belonging to the fecond Ta- 
ble : But yet, as God was pleafed to annex a typical Refpeft unto the 
Sabbath, which is in it felf a moral Duty • and unto Mam's Marriage 
with Eve, which was a Civil Relation i So he did unto 'Magiftracy or 
Kingfhip, as ftated and fettled amongft that People. 

Hence as in the Bufmefs of Marriage, and of the Sabbath, the things 
themfelves are not abolifhed, but only the typical Refrecls are taken 
off: So here, Kingftlip as amongft them was both a Civil and a Religious 
Order. Non dubinm esh y quin caeleftis pater in Davide ejifyue pofteris 
confpici voluerit vivam Chrifti imagvnem, Calvin. Inftitut. I. 2. cap. 6 feft. 
2. & cap. 7. {eft. 2. See the Analogy in three Things. 

1. hi their Inauguration ; they were anointed with holy Oil, Pfal 89. 
20. with mine holy Oil have I anointed him. This typified the Gifts and 
Graces of the Spirit \ the Spirit of Government, JcJs 10. 38. how God 
anointed Jefus of Nazareth with the Hely Ghoft, which Chrift received 
above his FeUows,?fo\. 4<$.7.not by Meafure,but above Meafure, John3.34 # 

2. The Lord fettled the Kingdom by an everlaft'wg Covenant in a 
perpetual Series and Succeffion of Perfons in the Houfe of David. So 
with Chrift, he hath made an everlafting Covenant, that his Kingdom 
/hall endure for ever, Ifa. 9. 7. ■ of the increafe of his Government and 
Peace, there fhaU be no end. 3. The 

The Co/pel of the pergonal Types. 1 1 5 

3. The moral Work and Duty of their Office had alfo a typical llfe 7 to 
fhadow torch, what Chnftdoth fpiritully in and for his Church. 

1. Thy made Laws for the People of Jfrael -, tho' they did it ftill in 
Subordination to, and purfuance of the Laws ot God, as all Magistrates 
ought to do, not in Oppofition to them : So Chrift is the Law- giver 
of his Church, /fa. 33. 22. the Lord is our Judge, our King, our Law- 

2. They fubdued the Enemies of Jfrael : So did David the Pbiliftwes, 
the MoMtes, &c. So doth Chrift fubdue and tread down the Church** 

3. It was their work to execute Vengeance upon Rebels • as Solomon, 
the peaceful King, did op Joab, Adonijah, Shimei. So doth Chrift, the 
Prince of Peace, on Unbelievers and Hypocrites in the Chuich. This 
King will fay, Bring forth tbefe mine Emmies, and flay them before my 

Yet there was a great Difparity between Chrift and thofe Kings. Bis 
Kingdom is Spirituai,his Government infinitely better . 

than theirs was. Some underftand and render 2 Sam. Zlxions. 
23. 3. 5. to this Purpofe, There (hall be a Ruler over 

Men, a Righteous one, ruling in the Fear of God Although at yet he 

make him not to fpring up. 

From the whole. ' 

Vfe 1. See the Vnvoarrantablenefs of reviving religious Orders under the 
New Te/lament. It falls heavy upon the Papifis, who have their Reli- 
gious ( as they call them, but indeed Superftitious ) Orders. Their 
Monks, Nuns, Fryars, &c. for which they pretend the Jewt/h Order of 
Nazarites, But this was a Type : And therefore to revive it, isincon* 
fiirent with the Truth of the Gofpel • it is as if they mould fay, there 
is a Meffiah yet to come, who will be juft like a Monk or a Fryar ^ but 
what h>rnble Blafphemy is this ! -B-'lides, there was a Command, an 
Inftitution from God for the Order of Nazarites ; but there is not fo 
for Popt/h Orders. And which is obfervable, in all the Rules, Ceremo- 
nies and Burdens of thofe legal Times, the Lord never refrained Mar- 
riage from any -, but all forts, Priefts, Prophers, Nazarites, were wont 
to marry, which the Popifli Orders vow againfl:, which the Apoftle 
defervedly calls a DocJrine of Devils, 1 Tim. 4. 1, 2, 3. 

O.jecJ. But fome of thefe Orders are not ceafed : For there be- Firft* 
born in every Nation, and Magijlracy or Civil Government. 

Anfw. It's true : But therefore fome of thefe Orders wereofaw/x* 
Nature ^ there was fomething moral, and fomething Ceremonial in them, 
as was [hewed before in David's Kingdom : That which ismor4 re- 

126 The Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 

mains, that which is Ceremonial is done away : But there were other 
Religious Orders that were wholly Ceremonial \ and thefe are wholly a- 
hohfhed. Of this fort was Nazantefkip, and the Prieflhood. Thefe were 
Orders meerly Religious, and fo are ceafed and vanifhed away with the 
legal Religion of thofe Times. But the Popifh Orders of Monkery and 
Nunnery, &c. are an apifh and wicked Imitation of that old legal Na* 

Vfe 2. See the Glory of the Antitype in whom all thefe meet in one * 7 all 
the individual perfonal Types before- mentioned, and all thefe religious 
Orders now opened. He is the true Jfrael % and the Firft-born, he is the 
trueNazarite-, he is our Prophet , Prieh and King. They were but Stars 
that (hone in the Night, he is the Sun of Righteoufnefs. 

Vfe 3. See our own Dignity and Duty -, for all the Members of Chrift 
do in their Meafure partake of the Glory of him their Head : Therefore 
walk as becomes the Jfrael of God, as his Firft-born ^ do not, with pro- 
fane Efau, feUyour Birthright for a me fs of Pottage, Heb. 12. 16. 

Ye are Nazarites feparated unto God : Therefore be ye not conformed 
to the World, Rom. 12. 1, 2. 

Ye are the Lor£s Witneffes and Prophets : Therefore bear your Tefti- 
mony to him, and to his Truths and Ways, tho* yepropbefie in Sackcloth. 

Ye are alfo Priefis unto God, not to make Atonement, ( that Chrift 
hath done ; ) But as he hath offered the Sacrifice of Atonement : So 
ye fhould offer the Sacrifices of Praife and Thankfgiving to his Name. 

And finally, remember ye are Kings ^ for he hath made us Kings unto 
our God, Rev. 1. Therefore walk and aQ: as Kings to rule over your 
own Lulls, and not be Underlings to them. It was Davids Prayer, 
Pfal.51. 12. Vphold me with thy free Spirit^ that is, thy Kingly, thy Royal 
Spirit, as fome explain it. And if ye reign with him as Kings in Grace 
here, ye (hall reign with bim in Glory for ever. 








i Cor. X. ii. o**.*i66u 

Havl* £e advice tintoi amiQamv imvoi$ 9 

Now allthefe Things happened unto them for Types, and they are 
written for our Admonition, 6cc 

f w~\ 

HE Types (Beloved) have been diftinguifhed into two 
forts, Perfonal and Real ; or Typical Ferfom and Typical 
Things. This is the firft and higheft Diftribution of 
them : The Ferfonal Types have been run thorough. We 
J^ are now to proceed ( the Lord aflifting ) tothe-Ktai 
Types. And thefe may be fubdivided into two forts, Occafional^ and 
Perpetual : For fome Types were Tranfient, and fome Permanent : 
Some were Extraordinary and Occa/ional-, as Manna, the Brazen Ser* 
pent % &c. Some were Perpetual, viz. the whole Ceremonial Law, the 


1 28 The Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 

Ordinances whereof are frequently called everlafiing Statutes : So that 
this Diftin&ion is founded both in the Nature of the Things, and ia 
ttotr -Scripture Expreffions about them. We fhail clear this, further, 
when we come to the fecond part of the Diftribution. 

Concerning the former fore, viz.. Extraordinary and Occafional 
Types, this Text fpeaks, and gives you this Doclrine ; 

That there were divers Extraordinary Providences oj God towards his 
People of Old, which were intended by him to be Types of Gofpel Myfti- 
ries and lnjlrutlions to us in Gofpel-timcs. The Text is plain tor it, and 
the Word the Original h.fypes, as your Margeni reads': Nowall 
thefe Things happened unto them for Types , Tat/™ & vaila. 71m/. and be- 
fore, in ver. 6. 7 *vta j$ ?6 t >^4v lyim^*™.". And he had beibre- 
Hientioned the Cloud, and the Ruck that followed them, their pajfing thro* 
the red Sea-, wirh other, famous Qifpenfations towards God's People 
of Old. So that there were not only Typical Pc?fon<, but Typical Pro- 
vidences, for the right underftanding of this Doclnnu -, to prevent mi- 
ftakes, take thefe two Cautions 

Cant. 1. That there is an Htftorical Ferity in all.thofe typical Hiflories 
of the OldTeflament. They are not bare Allegories, or parabolical Po- 
ems, fuch as is the Song of Solomon, or Jotham's Parable, Jttdg. 9. 7. 
or Nathans Parable to David, 2 Sam. 12. but they are a true Narra- 
tion of Things really exiftent and a&ed in the World, and are literal- 
ly and hiftorically to be underitood. 

If ic be faid, That in fome of thofe Tranfa&ions, as for Inftance, 
their Deliverance out of Egypt, and travelling through the Wddernefs to 
Canaan, the whole Frame of the Hiftory all along is fo fuitable to ex- 
prefs Spiritual Redemption, as one would think it was an Allegory 
devifed on purpofe for that End. 

The Anfwer is, That God had the ordering of his Work in his 
own Hands ; and therefore could make it fuit all his Ends at once ; fo 
as the fame thing might be both an Hiftory of Temporal Redemption • 
and yet withal an Allegory of Spiritual Redemption alfo. 

Neither indeed is it necefTary to the Nature of an Allegory, that ic 
he always Res'ficla: God, who is the Author of all the Arts (for all 
the true Rules of them are Beams and Rays of his glorious Wifdom ) 
hath fee no fuch Rule in the Art of Rhetorick, and if any Rhetoricians 
have doneit, it is aMiftake: For Abraham and Sarah, and Ifaac, and 
Hagar and l(hmael t is a real Hi/lory; yet the Apoftle affirmerh, That 
it is an Allegory, Gal. 4. The turning of all fuch allegorical and ty- 
pical Hiftories and Providences into rreer Romances and Fi&ions, is 
not unlike the Tranfubftantiation of the Sacramental Elements «, as if 


The Go/pel of the perfojial Types . 129 

Things could not be Real, and yet Typical too, . You will find many 
Treafures of Divine Wifdom and Gofpel-light in the Scriptures, by 
attending this Rule of underftanding and accommodating typical Scrip- 
tures both to Type and Antitype, not excluding either, they being real- 
ly meant of both, and molt fully of Chrift the Antitype, who is thp 
Scope and Centre of all the Counfels and Difpofitions of God. 

Cant. 2. That the Lord in thefe occafional and extraordinary Dif- 
penfations whereof we fpeak, did aim at fun dry Ends, and intended them 
to be for feveral Vfes -, namely, to be not only Types, but other ways 
alfo to be inftrutlive and ufeful : And herein his infinite Wifdom ap- 
pears the more, in caufing fo many Ends to meet at once : And in- 
deed fo it is in all the reft of his Difpenfations towards his People, and 
in the World : And fo in the Ordinances we have at this Day, they 
do not ferve for one life only. 

Queft. But what are thefe Ends ? 

Anfw. Not to infift upon the general Ends of all ihcTypes • In this 
fort we are now upon, viz.. tranfient and occafional Types , there were 
three great Ends. 

1. For outward and temporal Good. They had by thefe Things outward 
Supply and Deliveranee : So the pafTing thrp' the Red Sea, the Manna, 
the Water out of the Rock were outward Mercies : So the Brazen 
Serpent gave outward and bodily Healing to them, befide that fpi- 
ntual and facramental life it had to adumbrate Jefus Chrift. 

2. They were Inftru&ions in Moral Duties, as indeed all Providences 
are : The Lord's giving them Water out of the Rock, and Bread from 
Heaven, were inftru&ing Providences to depend upon God in Straits, 
and to truft in him at all Times. 

3. The third End was the typical Adumbration of Chrift and GofpeU 
myfteries. Befides all other Ends and Ufesofthem^ befides outward 
and temporal Good, and moral Inftruftion ; they did, by the pofltive 
Intention of the Spirit of God, point at Chrift, and lead to him. For 
this the Text is exprefs, aft thefe things happened unto them in Types, and 
ver. 4. that Rock was Chrift. 

Queft. How may we judge what providential Difpenfations had fitch a 
typical Refpeil and Vfe j 

Anfw. TThishath been formerly partly fpoken to, and this Rule was 
given, that it 'is not fafe for Men to form Allegories out of their own 
Fancies, unlefs it be fome way hinted in the Scripture, unlefs it be ei- 
ther exprefled, or may be gathered from thence by clear Confequence : ; 
as when by comparing the Scriptures, a manifeft Analogy doth ap- 
pear as clear as the Sun at Noon-day, But for Men to fct their Fan* 


1 3© The Gofpel of the prfonal Types. 

cies a Work to extra& Allegories out of every Scripture-hiftory, as 
the Popifh Interpreters ufe to do, is not fafe nor becoming a Judicious 

Luther called fuch Allegories Spnmam Scripture they 
Lutb. in Gen. 3. beat the Scriptures into Froth by allegorizing all things. 
foh 57. AUegorias ejfe vanas fpeculationes, & tanqnam fpumam 

facrx Scripture. And fol. 57 58. Hoc monuijfe fit fa- 
tis r ut qui AUegoriis uti vellent, ivsutantur quas indicarunt Apoftoli, &qua 
habent fundament urn certum in ipfa liter a fen hiftoria, alioqui fiet ut adifi- 

cemus fnper fundamentum paleam & ftipulcvs non durum. 

iZE tt°-T*; parce admodum Spirits fundus 'a*x» >0 m'£«/. the Holy 
w Gen. V in Gal. Ghoft {$ fparing j n |hc Bufinefs of A1]eg0ries , He 

doth mot allegorize every Providence:, but fome he 
doth. And fothefe Providences were alfo Ordinances : God was plea- 
fed to fuperinduce the Natnre of an Ordinance upon them. 

Que ft. What were thofe typical Providences, which we caU occafional 
and extraordinary Types ; 

Anfw. They may be referred and diftributed into two Sorts, Things 
and Aclwns. A Diftribution that fome have made ufe of in this Sub- 
ject, who have not well known where to place it} but this I take to 
be the proper Place of it : They are indeed thefe Occafional Types, 
which are beft diftributed into Things and Aclions. 

1. As to Occafional Typical Things, we may inftance in feven Parti- 
culars. And I fhall fet them down before you according to the order 
of time wherein the Lord gave them. 

1. Jacob's Ladder. 

2. Mofes's burning Bufh. 

3. The Pillar of Cloud and Fire. 

4. Manna, or the Bread that came from Heaven. 

5. The Rock that followed them, and Water out of the Rock. 

6. The Brazen Serpent. And 

7. Some have added alfo thoie healing Waters of the Pool of Be* 
the f da. Thefe were Typical Things. 

Occafional Typical Actions are fuch, as their coming out o/Egypt, paf~ 
fing through the Red Sia, &c. of which afterward, 

We are to fpeak to tbefe Occafional Typical Tbings % Some where- 
of were given to particular Perfons, as that Vifional Ladder 10 "Jacob-, 
the burning Bufh was (hewed to Mofts- — others of them were given 
to the whole People of Jfrael, as the Pillar of Cloud and Fire, and all 
the reft that were enumerated. 

i, Jacob** Ladder^ which he.faw at Btfhcl. This was but ar* Occa- 


The Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 1 3 1 

fional Type, it was no permanent Thing. The Hiftory of ic is in Gen. 

28. ( 2 16. That it had a Typical Refpecl, our Saviour hirnfelf feems 

to infinuate, John 1. ult. It reprefented Chrift as the means of Inter- 
courfe between God and Man. Yet it was not, to fpeak properly, 
a Type ; but rather a Typical Vifion, being not a thing actually exiftent, 
but only in aVifion of the Night : However, becaufe Divers who have 
fpoke upon the Types have made mention of it, I fhall alfo fpeak a 
Word to it. Altho' even this Circumftance. Some have thought of a 
typical Accommodation for it thus -, That as Jacob faw this Ladder 
but in a Vifion : So we fee Chrift here but in a Glafs darkly, 1 Cor. 1 3. 
12. till the Day-light of Glory in Heaven dawn upon us; when we 
lhall fee Face to Face. 

But I (hall draw the Parallel only in thefe five Things. 

1. Here was fome dark Shadow of the Perfon^ Natures and Office 
of Chrift thus ; The Foot of this Ladder flood upon the Earthy and the 
top of ic reach'd up to Heaven, whereby Heaven and Earth did meet 
as it were : So Chrift in regard of his Humane Nature toucheth the 
Earth •, yet in regard of his Deity, he is the God of Heaven. 

And as in this Ladder, the top and the foot of ir made but one Lad- 
der : So both the Natures of Chrift are but one Perfon^ and by this, 
Union of his two Natures he brings Heaven and Earth together 
unites God and Man, which was the great Work for which he came 
into the World. 

2. This vifional Ladder /hews the way to Heaven. There is no amen- 
ding to Heaven, but by the Spiritual Ladder Jefus Chrift, no Salvation 
but by Chrift, no comfortable Intercourfe and Communion between 
God and us, but only in and through him. Men cannot climb to 
Heaven by their own Works and Merits : tho' they mould heap Moun- 
tain to Mountain of Duties one upon another; yet they would fall 
fliort. Neither is there Salvation in any other •, for there is no other Name 
under Heaven given among ft Men whereby we mutt be faved. Aft. 4. 12. 

3. We have in this typical Ladder an exprefs Figure of the Aiiniftraiion 
of Angels through Jefus Chrift unto the Saints, which is a Fruit of that 
great Priviledge of Adoption ; For they afcended and defcended in 
the Viiion by this Ladder. To wicked Men the Angels are Enemies 
( as if the King frown upon a Man, all the Court does fo too ) and 
fight againft them, as they did againft Senacheritfs Army, when they 

flew An hundred eighty five thoufand in one Nighty 2 Kings 19. 35. . 

fo Pfal. 35. 5, 6". Let them be as Chaff before the Wind, and let the Angel 
of the Lord chafe thern-^ let their way be dark and flippery, and let the An* 
gel of the Lord per faute them. The blelTcd Angels are ever chafing and 

S 2 per. 

1 32 The G of pel of the perfonal Types. 

perfecting Reprobates and wicked Men. But through Chrift they mi- 
nifter unto us for our Good, Zach. 1. 9. they appeared behind him y and 
ver. 10. thefe are they whom the Lord hath fent forth, and ver. h. they 
give up their Account to him. 

4. Jacob [eei God at the top of the Ladder, renewing hit Covenant with 
him, ver. 13. So it is through Chrift that God enters into Covenant, 
and renews his Covenant with us • through Chrift the Proraifes are 
Tea and Amen, 2 Cor. 1. 20. God could never have fpoken Words of 
Peace to Sinners, but by the Mediation of Jefus Chrift. 

5. Where was this Ladder feen ? At Bethel, which fignifies the Houfe 
of God, ver. 19. he called the Name of the Place Bethel. So Chrift is 
feen in the Churchy Ephef. 3. 10. and through the Church made known to 
Principalities and Powers, &c. If you would have a Vifion of Chrift, go 
to Bethel, into the Churches of his Saints and People, Cant. 1. $. If 
thou know not, go thy way forth by the Foot-fleps of the Flock. 

6. There he fever al fleps of this Ladder.- Which fome apply thus un- 
to feveral degrees of Grace -, as there are many Rounds of the Lad- 
der, fo there are many Graces in Saints : The loweft Round is Pover- 
ty of Spirit, the higheft is Perfection* 

Thus you fee how Jacob's Ladder reprefented and fhadowed forth 
fomething of Chrift, and of the Gofpel, to Jacob and to Us. Andfo 
much for this Spiritual Ladder which Jacob faw. 

2. A fecond Typical Thing in thofe Typical Days was the burning 
Bufh which the Lord fhewed to Mofes, Exod. 3. in the Ten firft Ver- 
fes : A very memorable Difp?nfation ; therefore largely repeated by 
Stephen, A£ts 7. 30. to 35. The Bufh burnt, and was not con fumed. A 
moft lively Emblem of the Churches fubfifting in the fire of Perftcuti- 
sn through the prefence and good will of him that dwelt in the burning 

That is the Inftrn&ion we fhould learn out of it. As Jfrael in the 
Iron Furnace in Egypt.: For it related both ways, both to mew the- 
State of Ifrael in Egypt, and of the Church of God on Earth after- 
wards. So the Three Children, Dan. 3. An the fiery Fornace were not 
-onfumed, no nor frortby the Fire. So in the times of AntichrisJ, Rev. 
\r. 3. the Lord hath his Witneffts all the thou fan d two hun- 
dred and three fcore Days : God hath his two'Witnefles all the while ; 
though they prophefie in Sackcloth ; yet prophefle they do, and bear 
witnefs to him : The Lord doth not leave himfilf nitbout Wltnefs, when 
his Church and Intcrelt is in the Joweft and moft affrclcd Condition : 
/>-id indeed all along under the New Teftameat this Bufh hath been 
turning m fiver al Vires, and yet not coo fumed* 


The G of pel of the perfonal Types . 133 

There was firft the Fireof Pagan Perfection during the three firft Cen- 

Then the Fire of Arrianifm, and Contention in the Church, &c. fet forth 
under that prophetical Reprefentation of Fire in the firft and fecond 
Trumpets, Rev. 8.7* ?« 

Then the hire of Anlicbrifiian Perfection a thoufand two hundred and 
tbreefcore Days. 

And then laftly, the Perfection of three Days and an half 'in the lafc 
of his Reign. 

But yet (till the burning Bufh is not con fu m ed : The Church of God 
fublifts, and lives, and outlives all Oppofition ; it cannot, it fhall 
not be con fumed. They have power over the Ftre, Rev. 14.18. It is 
underftood by fome Interpreters not unfitly concerning the Martyrs 
that fuffered by Fire, but were cot overcome by it; their Faith and 
Patience were not overcome, but did triumph and conquer through 
Jefus Chrift : And all this through the Prefenceof God w T ith them. For 
he that dwelt in the burning Bufh, dvcells in the midftofhis Church, Deut. 
33.16. A&S7.35. The Son of God was in the Furnace, Dan. 3. 25* And 
under the New Teftament he walked in the midsl of the feven Golden Can- 
dle/licks, Rev.i.r . — He hath prom i fed, Jfa 43.2. when thou walkest through 
the Fire, thou [hall not be burnt, neither' fhall the Flame kindle upon thee. 

Thefe two Typical Things were prefented to particular Perfons, 
namely, the myflical Ladder 10 Jacob, and the burning Bufh to Mofes, The 
other five were more publick to the whole People of Jfrael, namely, the 
Pillar of Cloud and Fire, the Manna, the Rock and Water out of it, 
the Brazen Serpent, and the Pool of Bethefda. 

3. Vie Pillar of Cloud and Ftre, ExGd. 13.21, 22, As to the Nature 
of it, it feems to have been not unlike thofe Things which are called 
in Scripture Pillars of Smoke, Joel 2. 30. which the Apoftie renders 
Vapour of Smoke, Aft's 2. 19. which the Lord did now create, and in a 
miraculous way (by the Miniftration of Angels, who are the Inftru- 
ments of his Providence and Miniflers to his Church ) did carry and 
move to and fro from Place to Place'. 

It is called a Cloud, becaufe it had fomething of that Appearance ; 
but it was not an ordinary and natural,buta fupernatural and miraculous 
Cloud ; and differed from other ordinary Clouds ifl many refpefts. 

It was of fuch an height and bignefs,a$ was and might be feen by all the 
Houfe of Ifrael, E*od. nit. ult. Orher Clouds are foon difperfed and dii- 
frpated} But this remained firm for the fpace of forty Years together, 
till they came into the Land of Canaan-, the lower part of it retted 
upon the Tabernacle, after the Tabernacle was erected, and frorrj 


j 34 The Gofpel of the per f oval Types. 

thence it afcended and went up like a Pillar of Smoke, as we read of 
Pillars of Smoke f Judg. 20. 40. Gz«f. 3. 6. It was ewe and the /awe Sub- 
ftancc, which was a C/oW by 'Day, and Fire by Night. It was not real 
natural Fire -, therefore called the appearance of Fire , Numb. p. 16. It 
was not Ignis urens, but only Ignis lucens ; it was no burning, but only 
(hining Fire : For it fat upon the Tabernacle, which was made of Boards 
and other Combuftible Matter. It kept its Form, and was not moved 
by the Wind, ov by any other ordinary and common Caufe, but by 
the Lord himfelf : And it moved and walked no falter than the whole 
Camp could follow. Out of this Cloud the Lord [pake and delivered 
his- Oracles to Mofes. And there the Glory of the Lord appeared to the 
People, Exod. 16. 10. and 33. 9. and 34.5. Levit. 16. 2. Pfal. 99. 7. 
Numb. ii. 25. and 12. 5. Deut. 31. 15. 

Thus for the Hiftory of it. 

Now that there was a Myftery in this Pillar of Cloud and Fire, is clear 
from 7/^.4. 5, 6. for there never was a literal Cloud and Fire upon 
Mount Sion. This fiery Pillar did ceafe,when they were entred into Ca- 
naan : Ifaiah therefore intends a Spiritual Thing under thofe Exprefii- 
ons. So it is here mentioned by the Apoftle in the Context as re- 
prefenting a Gofpel-Myftery ; They were all baptized unto Mofes in the 
Cloud, 1 Cor. 10. ver. 2. 

It (ignified and (hadowed forth, 

r. Something of Chrift himfelf. 

2. The Benefits of Chrift. 

3. The Ordinances of Chrift. 

1. Christ himfelf. Some have noted a Shadow both of his Deity and 
Humanity. There was a fiery Brightnefs in the Cloud, which yet was 
but a dark lhadow of the Glory of his Deity •, which was often in Vi- 
fions fo reprefented : But his Divine Nature was veiled and over- 
clouded by his Humane •, as in this Shadow there was a Pillar of Cloud 
as well as Fire. \nRev. 10. 1. Chrift is reprefented as clothed with a 
Cloud, and his Feet as Pillars of Fire. Expreflions notably anfwering 
this ancient Type and Shadow. 

2. It holds forth fomething of the Benefits of Chrtsl. What Benefits 
had they from this Pillar of Fire and Cloud ? They had Three. 

1. Light and Direction. 
1. Defence and Protection. 

3. Ornament and Glory. All which we have in an higher manner 
in Chrift by the Gofpel. 

1. Light and Diretlion in the way they (\iou\dgo, in thofe Arabian De- 
farts, where no Man dwelt, and which no Man palled thorough •, where 


The Gofyel of the perfcmal Types , 135 

there was neither Path nor Guide: But they had the Lord himfelf to 
guide them. So it is faid of this Cloud in Exod. 13. 21. where it is 
firft mentioned, that it was to lead them the way by Day, and by Night to 
give them Light-, and more fully and with much Emphafis, Numb. 9 > 
17, 18. to the end of the Chapter. 

So doth €britt direft and conduct his People in their Travels thro' 
the Wildernefs of this World to Heaven, the tx\xt Canaan ; He is the 
true Light, John 1. 9. who coming into the World, en Itghteneth every one 
that is enligbtned : For fo that Place may be fitly rend red, He is the way 
the Truth and the Life, John 14.. 5. There is a directing Light : They 
are under the everlafting Conduft of his Word and Spirit. He doth 
not leave his People in the Dark, as to things abfolutely neceflary for 
their Communion with him here in this World, and for the r Salva- 
tion with him in the World to come : We muft follow Chrifr, as 
J [rati followed the Cloud. 

2. A fecond Benefit they had by this Cloud was Safety and Protetlion, 
Both from the heat a^d fcorchings of the Sun in thofe burning Sands 
and Defarts of Arabia ; For the Cloud covered and overfhadowed 
them •, therefore it is faid of it, Pfal 105. 39. he f pre ad the Cloud for a 
covering : And likewife from their Egyptian Perfecutors and Enemies; 
For the Cloud went behind them, when their Safety fo required, Exod. 14. 
19, 20. as if the Lord fhould fay, You (ball not hurt them, till you 
have ftricken thorough me firfr. 

Yea the very fame Difpenfattons, which are directing and > protecting to 
God's People, are dark 3nd deflruftive to his Enemies : As here -, the 
fame Cloud was Light to the Ifraelites^ but Darknefs to the Egyptians. 
Upon all the Glory (hall be a defence and a covert from the Storm, I fa. 4. 
5,6. There is a protecting Prefence of God in his Church -, we do 
experience the Truth of this at this Day in all our folemn AfTem-- 
blies, there is a wonderful protecting Providence over us. Every 
Church of Saints is a Spiritual Army of Jefus Chrift, and thefe Armies 
are terrible, Cam. 6. 10. glorious as the Sun, terrible as an Army with 
Banners. It is a terrible thing to offend or trouble them : A Man had 
better fight againft all the Power the great Turk can raife, than op- 
pofe or offend one Church of Chrift, and there were more hope of 
Succefs : For the Lord him ft If is a Wall of Fire round abou^them, Zach. 
2. 5. as well as the CUry in the midsi of them. Therefore it is writ- 
ten, J fa. 54. 17. no Weapor. that is formed agatnjl thee /hall profper^ , 
and every Tongue, thai (hall rtfe agatnjl thee in Judgment, thou/halt con- 

v Some 

136 The Gofpel of the perfonal Types. 

Some allude thus upon thefe two Benefits they had by the Cloud : 
That Truth is as a Pillar of Fire to go before us ; and Peace as a Pil- 
lar of Cloud to overfhadow and refrefti us. 

3. This fiery Pillar was exceeding glorious It was an honour and glo- 
ry to them ; So in the Church, Chrift is the Glory of his Church. See 
J fa. 4. 2. We would think, if we could fee a Company of Kings and 
Princes, and Nobles and Great Men walking together in the Ways and 
Ordinances of Chrift, this were glorious, Deus tnaximus in minimis. 
There is a Glory in the meanest of the Aflemblies of his Saints, though 
becaufe 'tis fpiritual, carnal Eyes are not able to difcern it. When 
you come to the Meetings and Aflemblies of God's People, you fhould 
endeavour to fee this Divine Glory : You fhould by Faith difcern and 
fee a Pillar of Cloud and Fire over the Places where they meet, and 
a Guard of Angels and fiery Chariots round about them : God is pre- 
fent there : In his Temple doth every one [peak of his Glory, Pfal. 

Thus the Pillar of Cloud and Fire did figure and exhibit them to the 
Benefits of Chrift -, Light and Direction ? Safety and Protection ; Or- 
nament and Glory. 

3. It figured alfo the Ordinances of Christ ; and his Prefence in and 
with them : For the Ordinances are the outward and vifible Tokens of 
God's Prefence with his People •, as this fiery Pillar was of old. And 
therefore when the Tabernacle was made and fet up, it refted upon the 
Tabernacle, Exod. 40. 38. There be fome Duties are fecret, which 
the World fees not, nor may fee ; as Alms-deeds, and perfonal and 
fecret Prayer. But the Ordinances of Inftitution are things that ought 
to be pra&ifed with all the Publicknefs that may be: They are out- 
ward and vifible Tokens of God's Prefence ^ particularly that great Or- 
dinance of Baptifm, as in this Chapter, 1 Cor. 10. i. The Cloud it 
feems, had a refrefhing Moifture in it, to (hade, refrefh, and cool 
them from the burning Heat : And they were bedewed with it, as we 
are with the Water of Baptifm •, whereby this legal Cloud became a 
Type ofGofpel-Baptifm. And fo you fee how it reprefented fomething 
of Chrift himfelf, and fomething of his Benefits, and fomething of his 
Ordinances under the New Teftament. So much for this third Typical 
Thing, this Pillar of Cloud and Fire. 

1 '^or 

The Gofpel of the occafwnal Types. 137 

April 16. 16SC 

i Cor. X. It. 

Now aft thefe Things happened unto them for Enfatnples : And they are 
mitten for our Admonition^ upon whom the Ends of the World art 


A Fourth typical Thing among them of old was their Manna, or 
*** Bread from Heaven. And a fifth was the Rock that followed them % 
and gave thim Water. Here was fpiritual Meat and fpiritual Drink. 
Of thefe two, the Lord aflifting at this time. They are both men- 
tioned above, ver. 3.4. of this Chapter *, And they did aU eat the fame 
fpiritual Meat, and did all drink the fame fpiritual Drink : For they drank 
of that fpiritual Rock that followed them, and that Rock was Cbrift. 

The fourth, I fay, was the Manna, or the Bread that came from 
Heaven- the Hiftory whereof we have in Exod. 16. 14, 15. Behold up- 
on the Face of the Wilder nefs there lay afmall round thing, asfmaOas the 

boar Frofl on the Ground And Moksfaid unto them, this is the Bread 

which the Lord hath given you to eat. Which that it was indeed a Type, 
and that the Truth and Myftery of it was Chrifi himfelfj as the Bread 
of Life, and the Food of our Souls, Chrift himfelf atfures us in Job. 
6. 32. Verily, vtrily 1 fay unto you, Mofes gave you not that Bread from 
Heaven, but my Father giveth yon the true Bread from Heaven. And 
ver. 48. I am that Bread of Life. And ver. 51. / am the living Bread 
which came down from Heaven : And fo the Apoftle a little before the 
Text inftanceth in this, I Cor. 10.3. They did aU eat the fame fpiritu- 
al Meat. This then was the general Scope of it, to bold forth Chvifb 
as the Food of our Souls. 

But now to let you fee a little more particularly the excellent Cor- 
respondence between the Type and the Antitype, the clear and full A- 
nalogy that is between the Shadow and the Iruth prefigured by it. 
You may difcern it in thefe five Particulars. 

1 This Manna was a Portion prepared of Cod, and given down from 

Heaven to an unworthy murmuring rebellious People When the Children 

of Ifrael firft faw it, they faid one to another^ It is Manna ; for they wifi 
not what it was, Exod. 16.15. This Word Manna, your Margent tells 
you, may be rendred what is this ? or, it is a Portion, a prepared or 
diftributed Portion, from the Verb mn numerate, and in piel rLVJ 
praparavst \ becaufe God prepared and diftributed it among them, and 
it was ready to their Hand, to be eaten as they found it; tho' they 
might alfo bake it, if they would. The Hebrew Word Manna is re- 

T tained 

1 3 8 The Gofpel of the occafional Types. 

tained in the New Teftament in the Greek, John 6. 31. and from 
thence in our own and other Languages. There is another thing 
known by the fame Name, which Writers fay. is aSyriackDew; but 
k will neither melt with the Sun, nor putrifie in the Night •, nor is 
it fit for Food, but for Phyfickonly : So it differs wholly from this 
Hebrew Manna whereof we fpeak , God did in a miraculous way rain 
down this Manna from Heaven, Pfal. 78.23, 24. He commanded the 
Clouds from above , and opened the Doors of Heaven, and rained down 
Manna upon them, and gave them of the Corn of Heaven. And this with- 
out any Care or Pains, or Industry of theirs ; a Food which they nei- 
ther fowed nor laboured for, but had it for the taking up. And this 
he did for an unworthy, murmuring, finful People, when they were in a 
molt rebellious Frame -, when they were murmuring, and faid, Exod. 
1 5. 3. Would to God we had died in the Land 0/ Egypt, nhenwefateby 
the Fle[h-fots. Hereupon the Lord promifeth, ver. 4. / will rain Bread 
from Heaven for them. 

So is Christ a Portion, and a Food prepared for every hungry Soul ^ 
and he came down from Heaven, and is fent and given of God even 
to rebellious Sinners : He gave Gifts to Aden, even to the Rebellious^ 
Pfal. 68. 18. 

2. This Manna was outwardly and feemingly defpicable and contempt i- 
lie ; yet indeed the choicest Food, and most excellent in all Refpedts, 
both as to Colour and Figure, Tafte and life. It was but a little 
thing in Quantity, Exod. 16*14.. yet it is called Angels Food, Pfal. 78. 
25. Men did eat Angels Food. The Figure of it round, Exod. 16.31. 
like Coriander Seed, which Philofophers note to be the beft and moft 
perfect Figure. The Colour white, ibid, and Numb. 11. 7. like to the 
Colour of Bdellium. The Tafte fweet , like frelh Oil , or Wafers 
baked with Honey, Numb. 11. 7. And it fultained fix hundred thou- 
fand fighting Men, Befides Women and Children. They might eat 
it either as they found it, or grind and bake it, Numb. 11,8. Yet the 
Murmurers loathed it, and grew weary of it, Numb. n. 6. they cal- 
led it, this light Bread, Numb, 21.5. for which they were deftroyed. 

In like manner Jefus Chrift, as to his outward Appearance isdefpi- 
cable and contemptible, and defpifed by the World, Ifa. 53. 2, 3. 
though in himfelf moft precious and excellent, Cant. 5. ult. 1. Pet. 2-. 
7. to you that believe he is precious. Chrift in the Promifes and Ordi- 
nances is precious to the Spiritual Tafte, 1 Pet. 2. 3. If fo be you have 
taftedthat the Lord is gracious- -< and fweet er than the Honey or Honey-comb, 
Pfal. 119. 103. Their grinding and baking the Manna feme apply to 
the Sufferings of Chrift, whereby he was prepared to be unto us the 


The Gofpel of the occafional Types. 1 5 9 

Bread of Life. And he fills and fatisfies the defires of all Believere, 
the whole Ifrael of God. 

But as in other Types, there is not only a refemblance in part, but 
withal a difparity, rnd pre-eminence of the Antitype above the Type ; So 
ia this Obr/jft infinitely excels the literal Manna, as the Subftailce doth 
the Shadow, for that only fed the Body, but Cbrift feeds ' • that 

preferved only the natural Life of the Body, and that only for a 
time, but could not give Life •, but Cbrift preferves fpiritual Life, yea, 
gives Spiritual and Eternal Life to Souls that were dead in Sins andTtof- 
pajjes ; and as he gives it, fo he maintains and preferves it for ever. 
Tour Fathers did eat Manna and are dead, Joh. 6. 49. but be tbat eats this 
true Bread (hall never die, ver. 51. 58. fo that in this (as in att things) 
Chrift hath the pre-eminence. 

3. Something of Myftery may be obferved in the quantity they were 
to gather , an homer full, Exod, 16.22. now an Homer was about two 
Quarts, or as others exprefs it, three Pints and an half of our meafure ; 
God gave them a liberal Allowance. The Homer was the Veflel, which 
did contain, and wherein they were to put the Manna. The Veflel 
that holds Chrift is the Heart and Soul •, and fo to get the VelTel full 
of Manna, is to get the Heart full of Chrift. 

And be tbat gathered had none to fpare, Exod. 16. 18. for it feems 
their manner was, when they had gathered it, to diftribute to every 
one the fame Proportion, quoted by the Apoftle, 2 Cor. 8. 14, 15. to 
perfwade them a liberal Communication of outward Supplies to one 

It might alfo figure that fpiritual Equality which is among Believers, all 
forts of Believers having an equal Portion in Chrift the true Manna, 
Gal. 3. 28, 29. 2 Pet. 1.1. them that have obtained like precious Faith with 

us. We are all one ia Chrift Jefus as to relative Pri^iledges Jnfti- 

ficatio nonfufcipit magis & minus. The Virgin Mary her felf, tho' fhe be 
SanQifieatior, yet fhe is not Juftificatior quam altera. All Saints are e- 
qually juftified,and having the fame precious Faith,fhall be ail made par- 
takers of the fame common Salvation : Every Believer is compleat iff 
Cbrift, the weak as well as the ftrong, Col. 2. 10. ft ^ 

4. Where did they get this Manna? Th^re were three things chiefly 
remarkable as to the Place, which feem to have fomething of Myftery ia 

1. It was about the Camp of Jfrael ; and no where elfe to be found but 
there. So Chrift the Bread of Life is to be had in the Church, but no 
where elfe : Extra Eccleftam non eft Salus. Where two or three are gather- 
td in bis name, there is Chrift, Matth. 18. His Parents found him in 

T 2 the 

140 The Gofpel of the occafwnal Types. 

the Temple, Ltt\e 2. If you would gather Manna, goto the Camp of 
Jfrael If you would get Chrift, go to the Church, and feek him 

2. It was bidden in the Dew, lapt up (as it were) in two Beds of Dew, 
the one above it, and the other under it, Exod. 16. 14. When the Dew 

was gone up, the Manna appeared on the face of the Earth Numb. 1 1. 

9. When the Dew fell upon the Camp in the night, the Manna fell upon it :\ 
So Chrift is exhibited in the Word and Ordinances. Dew is often * 
mentioned as an Expreffion of God's Favour. / will be as the Dew unto 
Jfrael, Hof. 14. 5. And the Word is compared to Dew, Dent. 32. 2. 
And it is a hidden Word to fome, 2 Cor, 4 3, 4. Chrift is therefore 
fitly called the hidden Manna, Rev. 2. 17. We fhould labour to fee 
Chrift, to get Chrift in the Word, Chrift in an Ordinance -, to gather 
Manna out of the Dew. 

3. They went, and were to go,o«* of their Tents to gather it. Exod. 
15. i6. So we muft go forth out of our felves out of Sin, and felf, and 
the Creature, to get Chrift. He that ftays within in his own Tent 
cannot gather Manna •, yet it is but fteping out of Doors. Oh the 
Sloth and Negligence of fuch as Perifh for want of it .' When Manna 
falls round about our Tents in the Difpenfation of the Gofpel, where- 
in Chrift is offered from Day to Day ! 

5. The Time when they had this Manna. There were many Circum- 
fiances in the time, that are very fignificant and inftru&ing to us. 

1. They were to gather it early in the Morning, Exod. 16. 12. The 
Quails came at Evening, for naturally they flew in the Day time to the* 
Sea, and came to Land towards night, Numb. 11. 31. But Manna came 
in the Morning, becaufe it fell with the Morning Dew. And the 
a- r l • Quails are not noted in the Scripture to be a fpirkual 
EToTiti? Meat > asthe Manna is ' We fhould feek after Chrift be- 
times, in the Morning of our Lives, with our firft endea- 
vours, Pfal. 90. 14. Satisfie hs in the Morning with thy loving kindnefs* 

They that feek me early, (hall find me, Prov. 8.. This fhould be our 

firft work, Mat. 6. 33. Seek firft the Kingdom of Cod and the Righteonf- 
nefs thereof, and then all other things (hall be fnperadded, and given (as it 
were) into the bargain. 

2. They were to gather it and feed upon it daily, from Day to Day : 
If they kept it, it putrified and ftank, Exod. 16. 19,20. Jt wormed 
Worms, as the Phrafe is in that Emphatical Language, that is, it bred 
them abundantly, or crawled full of Worms. A miraculous Judgment 
for their Unbelief, and Curiofity, and Difobedience. By this daily 
gathering, they were taught to depend upon a daily Providence for 


The G of pel of the occafional Types* 141 

daily Bread, as we Pray in the Lord's Prayer, Give us this Day our Dai- 
ly Bread we fhould be content with the prefent Supplies that Pro- 
vidence calls in, without inordinate Cares and Thoughts for to Mor- 
row : Let your Converfation be without Covetoufnefs, and be content with 
fneb Things as yon have, Heb. 13. 5. Take no thought for to Morrow, 
Matth. 6. 31, 34- 

This Paffage may have a further Reference, and be applied unto 
Chrifi, theMyftery of this Type, thus ^ that as Manna muft be daily 
gathered, daily fed upon, fo muft Chrift -, we muft receive him, and be- 
lieve and feed upon him every Vay 7 or elfethefweeteft Manna will be- 
come as rottennefs, and a favour of Death unto Death, unto carnal 
and formal Profcfifors, who fuffer Manna to lie by them un-eaten, who 
fufter Chrift to lie by them un-imployed, and un-improved for Spiri- 
tual Supplies •, we muft feed upon Chrift, and receive frefh Supplies- 
from Chrift every Day. 

3. They were to gathers double Portion upon the fixth Day^.and none 
upon the Sabbath, Exod. 16. 23— to 27. By this the Lord taught them 
to reft upon the Sabbath. This is the fecond Place where the Sabbath is 
exprefly mentioned, before the giving of the Law upon Mount Sinai. 
The firft mention of it is before the Fall of Man, Gen. 2. i, 2. which 
ftewsthe Antiquity of the Sabbath: For, that was two Thoufand five- 
Hundred and thirty Years before this y which would be a very vaft and 
ftrange Prolepfis, if it were fo as the Anti-Sabbatarians weakly and 
foolifhly pretend. And here now we have a fecond Mention of the 
Sabbath before that upon Mount Sinai \ And it doth not feem by any 
Circumftance of the Hiftory, to be here mentioned as a. new Thing un- 
to them •, but rather as a Duty they formerly knew \ but the Obfervance 
of it now, anew recommended to them by a very fpecial Providence. 

Moreover, they might here learn, That God difpenftth Chrift, the 
true Manna to Believers moft plentifully towards their latter end ^ as he 
did to Simeon in his old Age,- Luke 2. Chriftians when they grow near 
the Grave, and near to their eternal Reft, they fhould gather double 

Yet further, we may here learn and fee, That after this Life aU en- 
deavours are in vain : If you have not gotten Chrift before, there is no 
Manna to be rained down then. There be no offers of Grace, ncis 
means of Grace ^ then you muft Pray no more, hear Sermons no more j. 
but thereV an end then of all your former opportunities. They went 
out to gather, but they found none, vcr. 27. So the foolilh Virgin! 
asked the wife for Oil, but it was too late,* their time was paft. It is 
;he cafe of many a Soul. . 


1^2 The Gofpel of the occafional Types. 

The weekly Sabbath now is a day of fpiritnal gathering, and getting Food 
foryonr Souls : But there will a Sabbath come, a time and ftate of Reft, 
when you molt live upon the Manna you have got and gathered in thii 
Life, or elfe you perifh. 

4. It ceafed when they came to Canaan : They had it till then, Exod* 
1 5. 35. but then they did eat of the Fruit of the Land of Canaan, Jofh. 
5. 1 2. The Manna ceafed on the Morrow after they had eaten of the old 
Corn of the Land : So (hall all Means and Ordinances, when we come to 
Heaven ; Word, Sacraments, offers of Grace Ihall be no more •, then 
means of Grace and opportunities Ihall be no more. 

5. Yet neverthelefs there was a Golden Pot of it referved and kept by 
them for ever, being laid up before the Lord in the Holy of Holies, B x- 
od. 16. 33, 34. a Pot ; it is called in Heb. 9. 4. a Golden Pot. So Ihall 
Chrift remain •, and all the Difpenfations of him in this Life, ihall re- 
main in precious Remembrance with the Saints in Heaven before tl)e 
Lord to all Eternity ; Chrift mall be laid up as it were in the Golden 
Memories of the Saints, like Manna in the Golden Pot, for a Memori- 
al before the Lord -, the Love of Chrift and all the Difpenfations of 

They had likewife Aaron s Rod blolToming, laid up to the fame End 
and Purpofe. So the Saints {hall remember in Heaven, how the Rod 
of Mr on Budded, how the Miniftry was Blefled, and made Fruitful to 
them when they were in this World. So much as to the Manna, or 
Bread from Heaven. You fee how full it was of Chrift and Gofpel 

A Fifth typical Thtng of Old, was the Rock that followed them, with Wa- 
ttr iffuing forth out of the Rock. The Hiftory of this Type is in the 17th 
Chap. Exod. feeverfetf. That it was a Type, is expreffedby the Apo- 

ftle a little before the Text, 1 Cor. 10. 4 which Rock was Chrift. This 

Rock and the Water ifluing out of ic, was a Type of Chrift, and of 
his Spirit. It was a Difpenfation often Celebrated by His People, to 
the Praife of God in after-times. 

But wherein did the Rock reprefent Chrift ? I Ihall but Inftance in 
Four Refpe&s. 

1 . As 1 Strength and Firmnefs, and Stability. He is indeed the Rock 
of Ages, Ifa. 16. 4. The Rock of Eternity •, Everlafting Strength, as it is 
not unfitly interpreted by our Tranflators — Ifa. 33.16. His defence is 
the Munitions of Rocks, Impregnable fafety to his People, Their Bread 
fhaU be given them ; Their Waters (haft not fail — 1 Pet. 2. 6. Behold I lay 
in Sion a chief Corner Stone, EleO, Precious • and he that believeth in him 
fhall not be Confounded, The Church is Built upon this Rock, Mat. id. 1 8. 


The Go/pel of the occafional Types, 143 

Hence a wife Hearer is faid to build his Houfe upon a Rock, 
Mat. 7. 

2. As to Shadow and Refrefhmcnt, Ifa. 32. 2. As the fhadow of a great 
Rock in a weary Land : This World is a weary Land, Pfal.121. 6 9 5. 
The Sun fhaU not fcorch by Day, nor the Moon by Night. Thofe that 
dwell under the Shadow of this Rock •, thofe that are in drift. 

3. He is fitly refembled to a Rock For Offence and Scandal : Not in 
hfmfelf, but only accidentally through the Prejudices and Lulls of Men, 
Hence he is called a Rock of Offence, and a Stone offtumbling^ 1 Pet. 2. 

8 Rom. 9.33. As it is writen (Ifa, 8. I4.andi8. 16.) Behold 1 

lay in Sion a St twitting- ft one and Rock of Offence, and whofoever believetb 
on him fhaU not be afhamed. 

4. He is a Rock as to meannefs and unlikelihood of that fttpply of Water. 
Who would expeft or look for Water out of a Rock ? Therefore it is 
fo often rerr.embred with Admiration, Pfal. 78.20. The Rock was 
of no great Pomp to fee to, but only a rude thing {landing in a vaft 
Defertu So in Chrift, to outward View, there is no Beauty that we 
fliould defire him, Ifa. 53. Neither is there any likelihood of Salva- 
tion to be had in Chrift, if Men behold him only in his Meannefs, 
and look only at his Abafement with an Eye of Senfe and carnal Rea- 
fon, as the Jews of old did. 

And as the Rock reprefented Chrift unto them : So Secondly, The 
Water out of it, reprefented the Spirit of Chrift, John 7. 37, 38, 39 — 
Oat of his Belly fhall flow Rivers of living Water. This fpake he of the Spi~ - 
w>. There is nothing more frequent in Scripture, then to exprefs 
the Spirit by Water, Ifa. 44. 3. and that moft fitly, becaufe of the 
cleanfing and refrefliing Vertue of it. But let us here conuder it in 
reference to the Rock from whence it came : And in this there is a four- 
fold Analogy obfervable. 

1. As the Water iflued forth out of the Rock.So the Spirit proceeds 
*nd comes from Chrift—^ The Comforter whom 1 will fend wto yon from 
the Father, John 15. 2<5. To refrefh the weary Soul when ready to 
faint away. 

2. The Water came forth out of the Rock when fmitten with the 
Rod of MofeS) Exod. 1 7. 6. So the Spirit proceeds from Chrift, fmit- 
ten as it were with Mo[e?% Rod, with the Curfe of the Law for our 

Sins, Ifa. 53 -he was fmitten of God and afflicted. Had not Chrift died 

and fuffered, we had never had any refrefhing Water, never any Ri- 
vers of Joy and Coufolacioos from his Spirit. 

3. The next time the Rock muft be fpoken to, Numb. 20. 8. It 
fee meth that God in his unfearchable Wifdom and Providence did fo 


1 44 Tie- Gofpel of the occafiondl Types. 

order it, That the Waters did ceafe at this time, which had followed 
them thirty eight Years. Hereupon the People murmur, and their 
murmuring Caufes Mofes himfelf to ftagger at the Promife through 
Unbelief. Though in this Mofes did mifs it too, for that he fmote the 
Rock inftead of fpeaking to it. But this we may learn from it : Chrift 
muft be preached, as well as faffer for us •, and ia and by the fpeaking 
and preaching of the Gofpel he doth communicate his Spirit, GaL$.z. 
Received ye the Spirit by the Works of the Laws or by the bearing of Faith — 
As Chrift fmitten is the procuring Caufe of fending the Spirit : So 
Chrift preached is the inftrumental Caufe. 

4. There is yet a fourth Analogy in this, that the Rock followed them ; 
either the Rock it felf, or (as others) the Rock in regard of the 
Rivers and Streams of Water ilTuiug from it. So doth the Spirit of 
Chrift follow his People in all their Changes and Travels up and down 
in the Wildernefs of this World •, when we run from Chrift, he fol- 
lows us. This Water of the Rock, the Spirit of God, purfues and 
follows us up and down from Place to Place, and from one Condition 
to another. 

I fhall clofe with a Three-fold Improvement of this Truth. 

Vfe 1. We may here fee that they had the Gofpel preached unto 
them, as well as we: For this fpirituai Bread was Chrift, and the Rock 
that followed them was Christ : If they had not, all that I have 
preached to Day, and ever fmce I begun upon the Types, is all falfe 
Doctrine •, for you know the Scope of all hath been to let you fee 
what of Chrift, and what of Gofpel Grace and Truth was held forth 
under thofe legal Types and Shadows. 

Vfe 2. "This fhoiild render Jefus Christ precious, exceeding precious to 
us *, for that he is every way fuitable to our Neceffities : He is a Rock 
for Support : He is the Bread of Life, and the Water of Life, for Food 
and Nourifhment. 

Vfe 3. Here is Comfort and Lirefiion to poor^weak,hungry,thirfty Souls ; 
whither to go, and to whom to repair for help and fupply. Here is 
a Rock and fure Foundation for thy weak and weary Soul to reft up- 
on •, here is fpirituai Bread, and fpirituai Drink : Therefore feed upon 
Chrift by Faith, and this will fill thy Hunger, and quench thy Thirft, 
and flay and fupport thy weary Soul. 

But thou haft been rebellious, and murmuring, and queftioning the 
Truth and Goodnefs of the Lord : So was Ifracl. Mofes indeed ftuck 
at this, and fo could not enter into Canaan. But we fhould believe 
that there is Water for Rebels. 

1 Cor. 

The Go/pel of the occafwnal Types. 1 4 $ 

April 23. i6£8, 

i Cor. X. 1 1. 

Now aU thefe Things happened unto them for Enfamples : And they art 
mitten for our Admonition, upon whom the Ends of the World are 

A Sixth Typical Thing amongft them of Old was the Brazjen Serpent. 
/\ The Hiftory whereof we have in Numb. 21. 5,6, 7, 8. The My- 
fiery and meaning of it we have by that infallible Interpreter, our Lord 
Jefus Chrift himfelf, in John 3. 14, 15. And fo the paralleling and 
laying thefe two Scriptures together, the one whereof declares the 
Hiftory of the Type, and the other reveals the Myftery intended and 
aimed at therein, will be a great part of my Difcourfe at this time. 

You fee in the Hiftory there be two things, the bodily Difeafe, and the 

Now this lhadows forth the fpiritual Difeafe, and Remedy for the 

I (hall fpeak firft to the Difeafe, which was the deadly flinging of 
fiery Serpents, for their Ingratitude and Murmuring? againft the 
Lord. In this Difeafe there was a Shadow of the fpiritual Sicknefs of 
the Souls of Men. And let it not feem ftrange, that they fhould 
have a typical Reprefentation of fpiritual Evils : For it hath been former- 
ly (hewed, when we opened the Nature of a Type, from Rom. 5. 14. 
that all the Types are not to be retrained only to the Median's Per- 
fon, or to his Benefits ; but they had dark and legal Adumbrations 
under the Old Teftament, of all thofe Things and Truths which are 
more clearly revealed under the New. 

That this was indeed a Typical Difeafe, is evident from the coherence 
that muft needs be between the Difeafe and the Remedy, I mean thus. 
Such as the Remedy was, fuch was the Difeafe. An outward Remedy 
fuppofes and implies a bodily Difeafe : A fpiritual Remedy muft needs 
relate to a fpiritual Difeafe : But the Remedy here was Spiritual and 
Typical; for this our Saviour is exprefs, John 3. 14. therefore fo was 
the Difeafe. Now for the Particulars wherein it was fo. 

Having this general Ground and Foundation in the Scripture for , 
it : As to the Particulars, we muft beg of God Spiritual Wifdom to 
accommodate and apply Things rationally and fpiritually, and not in 
a way of loofe and wanton Wit and Fancy. In the Hope of whofe 
Afliftacce, thro' the help of your Prayers, I (hall inftance only in five 
Parcicuhrs of fpiritual InftruSion out of this Type, as to the Difeafes 
of our Souls. 11 io Thaf 

146 The Go/pel of the occafiond Types. 

1. That Satan is indeed the Old Serpent 

2. That he is a fiery Serpent. 

3. That Sin is the Sting of this Serpent. 

4. This Sting of Sin is painful and deadly. 

5. The Lord fuffers thofe moft of all to be tormented and plagued 
by it, who defpife Manna as a light Food. 

1 . That Satan is indeed the tvbote Serpent. For this, the Scripture is 
exprefs, Rev. 12. 9. He is fo reprefented in Prophetical and Typical 
Scriptures, both becaufe that was the firft Shape wherein he did ap- 
pear as- a Devil in tempting and deftroying our firft Parents ^ and for 
the fubtiity and venome of that Beaft, and the Curfe inflicted upon 
'him in that Appearance. In darker Places, as amongft the Pagans of 
old, and amongft the Americans of late ^ he hath delighted to appear 
unto them in that Shape of a Serpent : Therefore the. Pagan Temples 
were wont to be haunted with Serpents, infomuch that k grew into a 
Phrafe of Speech amongft them, Sacer anguvs. 

1. The Devils are fitly called Seraphim's, or fiery burning Serpents. 
The Serpents wherewith they were flung in that Wildernefs were fuch, 
Dent. tf. 15. The Prophet Ifaiah fpeaks of fiery flying Serpents, Jfa. 
14,29' and 3Q.6". The Word is DSTKurV. Olimr banechafhim bafera~ 
pbim, Serpents burners, Nnmb.ii: 6. or burning Serpents* The Root is 
(TTCJ. urere.. The Name Serapis, that Egyptian Idol may be derived from 
hence. Some derive from the Hebrew Saraph by Inverfion of Letters, 
the Greek Word ^»r»?, which fignifies a kind of venomous Serpent, 
which is alfo called, Dipfas and Canfon, with which he that is bitten is 
tormented with fuch a burning Heat and Third, 
Viafcor, 1. 6. cap. 3S. tria t though he drink never fo much, his Thirft 
and 40. apud Ainfw. will not be quencht or fatisfied : And the Bitings 
in lee*, of thefe Serpents were left off by the mofl; ancient 

Bhyficians as altogether incurable. 

They are alfo fitly called fiery Serpents from their Colour. For they- 
had a fhining and glittering Skin, as if it had been made of Fire. And 
we fae our ordinary Snakes that feem to fhine andiparkle againft 
the Sun. So Taylor on the Types, pag. 305. Satan is fitly fo called, as 
being a Serpent of the worft kind, a moll terrible aad deadly Serpent. 
Hence, he is- elfe where compared to a great red Dragon, Rev. 12. upon 
the fame Account as here to a fiery Serpent, becaufe he is fuch a dread-? 
ful Enemy. This Name Seraphim that ishereufed, is applied to tha 
Holy Angels, Ifa. 6. 2. For the fpiritual Brightnefs, and burning Heat 
and Z$al, .and Love to God, that is in thofe Blefled Spirits, thofe pure 
f)ames> He bath mack bis. Angels Spirits y and his Mniflersa Flame of 


The Go/pel of the occafwnal Types. 147 

Fire, Heb. 1 . 7. And Satan himfelf was fuch a one at firft, though now 
by his Fall he is but a fiery Serpent : He is a Seraphim debafed and fallen 
below himfelf. 

3. The Sting of this Serpent is Sin. Therefore the Temptations of 
this fiery Serpent are fo called fiery Darts, Ephef 6. 16. with which he 
flings the Soul to Death. He hath thruft his Sting into the Nature of 
Maw, and poyfoned it, and made it like himfelf. And he is continu- 
ally tempting and thrufting in his Sting : Sin is called a Sting, 1 Cor. 
15. 56. The Sting of Death is Sin. 

4. 5i», the Sting of this Serpent, vs pain ful and deadly Toy fon : It both 
torments and kills. It is true, it is fweet Poyfon while under the 
Tongue •, but withal it is tormenting and mortal in the Bowels, Job 20. 
1 2, 1 3, 14. Though fweet in his Mouth, it is the poyfon of Afps within him ; 
fweet in the Commiffion, but tormenting and deftru&ive afterward. 
Oh the Pain it puts the Confcience of a Sinner too! Deadly Pain and 
Anguifh J there is no Anguifh like it, no Poyfon fo inflaming, fo tor- 
menting to the Body, as Sin is to the Soul. 

5. The occafion of all this Mifery, was their flighting and murmuring 
againft the Manna wherewith the Lord had fed them from Heaven. There 
had been many Murmurings before upon other Occafions : But novr 
they come to flight and defpife Manna, wherewith the Lord had fed 
them fo miraculoufly, for about eight and thirty Years together: 
( For fo fome Interpreters compute the time of this Murmuring. ) All 
the while till now, though that Wilderriefs through which they Tra- 
velled was full of fiery Serpents, and Scorpions, and Drought, as Deut. 
8. 15. Yet the Lord had notfuffered any of them to be ftung. But 
now he lets loofe thefe fiery Dragons to fly upon them, as Amos 9. 3. 

/ will command the Serpent and he {hall bite them and 'tis upon oc- 

cafionof their ungrateful Murmurings againft the Manna, Numb. 21. 

The InftruSion we may learn and fee in it is this, That God lets 
kofe thofe fiery Serpents^ Satan and their Lufts, to fting the Confciences 
and torment the Souls of Men, for contempt of Chrift, and Gofpel-mer- 
cies. When Manna hath been flighted, whenChrift is offered and re- 
jected, then the Serpent ftings, Pfal. 81. 11, 12. Becaufe Ifrael would 
none of me ; therefore I gave them up to their own Hearts Lufls. Have 
you never felt the Truth of this Type by woful Experience, how Sin 
hath raged and gotten more Strength, when the Gofpel hath been fligh- 
ted, and offers of Grace defpifed ? So much of the Difeafe, the deadly 
fting of thefe fiery Serpents for their Murmurings. 

U 2 t\ Now 

148 The Gofpel of the occafwnal Types. 

Now for the Remedy, The Brazen Serpent. That Chrift is this Bra- 
zen Serpent, himfelf declares, Job. 4.. 14. 

1 . It was made of Brafs, and in the Shape and Form of a Serpent, yet 
not a real Serpent. It was not made of God, but only of Brafs • which 
tho' it be a ftrong and bright Mettal, yet was contemptible in outward 
appearance, and moft unlikely to have attained fuch an End, to Work 
fuch a Cure. So is Chrift Strong and Mighty, and bright and Glorious, 
Rev. 1. 15,15. The brightnefs of his Fathers Glory, Heb. 1.3. Vet a Man, 
and the Son of Man -, Therefore low and mean in his outward Appea- 
rance, and defpifed of the World. Chrifi Crucified is to the Jem a 
{tumbling Block, and to the Greeks foolifhnefs ♦, but to them that are Saved, 
thelVifdom of God and the Power of God, 1 Cor. 1. 23,24. Yea he conde- 
scended to appear in the ftmilitude offinful Flefh -, for fo the Apoftle 
moft accurately sxprefleth it, Rom. 8. 3. He was counted a Sinner, hut 
he was indeed without Sin, Heb. 4. 15. As this Brazen Serpent was like 
a Serpent, yet had neither Venom nor Sting ; fo Chrift appeared like 
a (inner. He came in the likenefs of finful Flefh , and yet knew no Sin y 
2 Cor. 5. 21. But tho* he was not linful, yet he was indeed under the 
Cnrfe due to Sin, as the Serpent was curfed, Gen. 3. So Chrisl became 
a Cwfefor us, Gal. 3. 13. 

2. This Bmen Serpent was a Remedy and a Cure provided of God y 
in meer Grace and fovereign Mercy, for ungrateful and unworthy Rebels, 
when fbmeofthem were Stung to Death, and ready to Perifii for their 
Contempt of Manna ; and others of them were dead, and gone, and 
paft recovery for the fame Sin. It was againft the Merit of their Mur- 
murings, when they fpake againft him, and againft Mofes. In like 
Manner doth God give his Jefus Chrifi of free and meer Grace, when 
we were Enemies, without and againft our Merit •, when fo great a 
part of Mankind perifheth without him in their own Rebellions, and 
efpecially for their Contempt of the Gofpel, Joh. 3. 16. God fo loved 
the World, (it was a moft intenfe Love) to give his only begotten Son^ that 
whofoever belieyeth on him might not Perifh, but have Eternal Life. 

3.. The Serpent muft be lifted up upon a Pole, Numb. 21. That all Ifrael 
might fee it, whether near or further off : So Chrift was lifted up, 
Joh. 3. 14. As Mofes lifted up the Serpent in the Wilder nefs t even fo muft 
the Son of Man be lifted up : That is, upon the Crofs — Joh. 12. 32, 33. 
And J, if 1 be lifted up from the Earth, will draw all Men unto me. This he 
fpake, fignifying what Death he [hould die. And Chrift is lifted up ia 
the Preaching of the Gofpel, in the fight of all Men, Gal. 3. 1. Before 
w.bofe Eyes Jefus Chrift hath been evidently fit forth, crucified among you*. 
Both to tbofe that are near and far off, Ephef. 2. 17. 

4; This 

The G of pel of the occafional Types, 149 

4, This Brazen Serpent muft be looked upon by the Jfraelites when flung, 
Numb. 21.8. So muft Chrijl by the Eye of Faith, Job. 3.15. 

Faith is often exprefled unto us by that Metaphor of looking. Look 

unto me aUye Ends of the Earth and be faved, Ifa. 45. 22 Ifa. 65. 1. 

J [aid behold me, behold me. Faith looks with a fixed Eye, and with a 
Mourning Eye. A Man's Spirit is much feen, and doth much difcover 
it felf by his Eye, 

5. In this way it gave healing unto thofe that being Stung did look upon 
itj Numb. 21. 8. whom nothing elfe could heal ^ Mofes and his Lavr 
could not do it. So Chrift ; Mai. 4. 2. Vntoyou that fear my Name, 
[hall the Sun of Righteoufnefs arife with healing under his Wings — Pfal. 103. 
3. who healeth all thy Difeafes. And none but he can do it, j4tt. 4. 1 2. 
There is no healing of a wounded Confcience, but by Jefus Chrift 
alone, as lifted up upon the Crofs, and beheld by the Eye of Faith. 

The Brazen Serpents being lifted up was not enough, but it muft be 
looked upon ; fo Chrift muft be believed on, or elfe the Soul cannot be 
healed. Ignorant Souls that fee not Chrift, or that defpife him, (hall 
not be Saved by him : As if any of the People had faid, what Virtue can 
there be in fuch a brazen Serpent tp' Health, and fo would not look 
up to it? Such defervedly periflied, fo do Unbelievers and Defpifers 
under theGofpel. 

Tho' they were but weak and' dim-eyed, blear-eyed, dim-lighted, 
&c. yet looking up to the brazen Serpent, they were healed ^ fo, tho' 
Faith be weak, yet being fincere it faveth. 

Tho' in the utmoft parts of the Camp— fome fay it took up Twelve 
Miles •, Yet look unto me all the Ends of the Earth andbefaved, Ifa* 45. 22. 

6. The brazfn Serpent retained this Virtue, only while inftituted by Cod 
for that end - 7 and therefore when the facred Stamp of Inftitution wa& 
taken off", we Read no more of any Miracles wrought by it - and Htz.c~ 
kiah brake it in pieces, 2 Kings 18.4. 

Now this part of the Hiftory cannot be fitly Accommodated to 
Chrijl himfelf but to his Ordipances, thus. That the very fame Things 
and Attions which are good and ufeful when God appoints them, 
are ufelefs, yea abominable, if there be no Stamp of Inftitution upon, 
them. Thus we rray fitly apply it, becaufe the Types (as hath been 
laid) relate to-all Gofpel Truths : And the fame Truth lhines forth in 
all the reft of thofe ancient Types and Shadows. 

The Lord then appointed miniftring Garmtnts % for his Priefts and 
Minifters : But for Miniften ta ufe facred Veftraencs now, is unlawful 
and abominable, 


1 50 The Gofpel of the occafional Types. 

The Lord then appointed a kind of legal Hierarchy and Spiritual Su- 
premacy of the High Prieft, over all the reft of the Priefts and Levites ; 
they were to A& by the appointment of Aaron and his Sons, Numb, 4! 
19. But for one Gofpel Minifter to claim a Supremacy of Jurisdiction 
over another Gofpel Minifter, within his own Charge or Congregati- 
on •, This is that for which we juftly call the Pope Antkhrift. 

The Lord then appointed the Feaft of Tabernacles, and the Pa/fiver, 
.and PerJccofi : But for us to keep thefe Feafls now, under the Names of 
CbYiftmas'y E after, or Whit funtide, or the like, as the Pope hath taught 
us to do-, it is a far greater Sin then People do imagine ; the retaining 
rffuch legal Shadows being an implicite denyal of the Truth of the Gofpel i 
but, Men confider not the meaning of their own A&ions. 

7. The laft occafional Typical Thing, which the Lord gave to his Peo- 
ple of Old, was thofe healing Waters of the Pool of Bethefda. Which in- 
deed are not mentioned in the Old Teftament, but in the New, John 5. 
It was a Miracle ; but yet it had alfo a Symbolical ufe (as many other 
Miracles had) to lead them from the consideration of earthly Things, 
unto heavenly Things. Healing Waters are often fpoken of in the 
Scripture, with a reference to fpiritual healing, as Ezek. 47. 1 , 8, 9, 

u Rev. 22. 1. So Chrift fpeaks of Rivers of Waters flowing out of 

the Heart of a Believer, Joh. 7. 38. which cannot be meant of literal 
Water, but is meant of Metaphorical and Spiritual Waters ; this in ge- 
neral But to unfold the Allegory a little more particularly, that we 
may fee more fully what Inftrudions we may learn out of it. 

1. Thofe healing Waters of that Pool of Bethefda, may fitly repre- 
fent the Ordinances of Chrift in the Church ; which is indeed Bethefda, an 
Houfc of Mercy : For fo the Word may be interpreted f^ion— no Beth- 
chefda, Domus mifericordia, tho* others expound it NTltMvfc— no Domus 
tffnfionis. The Church of Chrift is indeed a Spiritual Hofpital, an 
Houfe of Mercy to the Sick, to poor difeafed Souls, where there be 
the choifeft Waters, the Waters of Life, and all other Medicines of 
Spiritual help and healing. 

z. The healing Virtue of the Water, may hold forth to ustbefpiri- 
tual Good of Ordinances, the healing of our Souls. This is frequent in 
the Scripture, (as was faid before) for bodily healing to Teach and 
reprefent Spiritual. 

3 The motion of the Angel, leads us to take Notice of the effetfual 
Operation of the Spirit of Chrift, in and by the Ordinances in the time of 
love. It is not the Means, it is not the Ordinances, but the Angel 
of the Covenant by his Spirit, moving and .vorking in them, that 
heals and doth good to Souls : The Ordinances are not effectual at all 


The Gofpef of the occafwnal Types. 151 

times, but only when, and as they are moved and influenced by the 
Spirit ; for u was a Place much frequented, as appears by the five 
Porches, and its neernefs to the Temple, and the Text faith many ftck 
lay there. He could have healed all as well as fome : Vtrum ut miracnla 
fuum babent finem, ita & modum habere debent. Calvin in loc. As when 
there were fomany dead, and but one raifed, 2 Kings 432 So ma- 
ny Widows, and the Prophet fent but to one, 1 Kings 17. 9. Luh 4* 
25, 16. 

Who would have looked for help and healing from troubled Water t 
We muft follow God againfl our own Reafon ; the Judgment of Rea- 
fon is often contrary to the Mind of God, 2 Kings 5. 10. Naaman 
thought waftring in Jordan an unlikely Means to recover the Leper—. 
Elifha 2 King. 2. 20. healeth the Waters by calling in Salt, an unlike- 
ly Means -, for Salt is wont rather to caufe Barrennefs, 

The Water here did it not, for then it would have healed all, and at 
alt times, one as well as another. Chrift (ingles out one whofe conditi- 
on w as mod deplorable, his Difeafe inveterate, incurable 38 Years. So 
he that was born Blind, and had been fo, till he grew up to Man's E- 
ftate, Cap. 9. 1 — So Lazarus when dead, buried four. Days, Job. H.39. 
The Woman who had been difeafed twelve Tears, Mat. 9. 20. Ano- 
ther eighteen Tears, Luk. 13, J 1. 

4. Tbefe times were unknown and uncertain, t a the People. They knev7> 
not when the Angel would come to move the Waters. So is the Day. 
of Grace, and the Opportunities of Salvation to Souls : Becaufe Man 
kmwetb not his time, therefore is hejnared in an evil time, when it falieth fud-> 
denly upon bim % Eccl. 9. 12. Ob that thou badfl \nown \ Luk. 19. 41, 
42, Therefore, Eccl. 1 1. 6, In the morning fow thy Seed, and in the Even* 
ing withhold not thine Hand-, far thou know* ft not whether (haU Profper, ei- 
ther this or that, or whether they both (hall be alike good. Lay hold upon 
all Opportunities. 

5. Thefe Excellent Waters did not heal all, but only him that was put 
frrft into them. Which was for our Inftru&ion, that we might learn 1 
to lay hold betimes upon Sea Tons and Opportunities, for our fpiritual . 
Good : They that feek me early [ball find me, Prov, 8. 17. Ee at Work 
for God and your Souls betimes, left you come too late. 

<5. Chrift asks him verf. 6. Wilt thou be made whole ? He prevents him be- 
fore he exprefled any defire to Chrift ; not as tho' Chrift were Igno- 
rant of his defire, but to excite and ftir up defire and Expectation in 
him -, and to ftir up the Attention of thofe who were providentially 
prefent at tb^t time, that they might mind and take Notice of the, 
Miracle, VerL & Jefus faith to him, rife, take np thy Bed and Walh He 


152 The Gofpel of the occafional Types. 

could have faid, he whole •, but he choofes rather to Exprefs it by an 
infallible Effett and Fruit of it. To the Maid he faid Arife, Mark. 5. 
41. To Laz.arns, come forth, Joh.\\. 43. and verf. 44. Let htm go. 
To the Paralytick, Mat*, p. 6. Arife iake up thy Bed. and go unto thine 

On the Sabbath Day, that fo it might be the more taken Notice 
of ; the People would wonder to fee a Man carry his Bed abroad, and 
fo inquire about it. 

There were (befide thefe we have now handled) fome other Occafio- 
nal Typical Things, as Noah's Ark, but that was fpoken to in the Hifto- 
ry of Noah, and fome others may occur afterwards, but thefe are all I 
fhall fpeak unto here. 

Let me Conclude with a few Words oiVfe, to help you to a (radical 
Improvement of all that hath been faid upon thefe Typical Things. 

1. We may here fee the compleat and perfect fulnefs of oht Lord Jefus 
Chrift, to all the Neceffities of our Souls. 

That fpiritual Ladder reprefents him as the Mediator and Means of 
all the intercourfe between Heaven and Earth, between God and us. 

The hawing Bu(h fhews his Prefence with, and Protection of his 
Church and People in the Fires of Perfection, and Afflidtion. 

The Pillar of Cloud and Fire holds forth that everlafting BlefTed Con* 
duel and Guidance of his People, by his Word and Spirit, through the 
Wildernefs of this World to their Eternal Reft. 

The Manna, and Water out of the Rock holds him forth, as our fpiritU- 
al Food. 

And now laftly, The Brazen Serpent, and the Pool ofBethefda teach us, 
that here is Healing alfo ; fo that he is both Meat, and Medicine. The 
fame thing is held forth alfo under other Metaphors, Rev. 22. 2. The 
Leaves of the Tree of Life are for healing of the Nations -, fo that Chrift is 

all in all. 

2. Learn from hence not to defpife thefe Truths concerning the Types, 
how weakly foever they may be held forth by him that fpeaks unto 
you •, for you fee they are full of Gofpel Marrow and My fiery. Any . 
thing of Chrift Ihouldbe fweet and precious, and it is fo to you that 

3. We may here fee the Glory of Gofpel Truths and Myfleries -, and 
withal how dull and flow of Heart we are are to apprehend them, in that 
the Lord teacheth us, and holds them forth in fo great variety of fpi-. 
ritual Reprefentations, to our weak and narrow Underftandings. 
Here is Light and Safety, and Strength, and Meat and Drink, and Me- 
dicine, and ail laid up in Chrift •, and Chrift hereby held for unto 

us : 

The Go/pel of the occafional Types. 155 

us : And all little enough to help us to a true and right Idea of 

4. Here is very great and fceet Encouragement from what hath been 
faid this Day, to difeafed Souls, to repair to this Fhyfician • whatever 
thy Difeafes be, go to him for help. And that you may obtain help 
and 'healing Virtue from him, remember thefe three Rules and take 
them along with you. 

1. Seek to him in his own Means and Ordinances. If he fet his Stamp 
upon apiece of Copper (as he did of Old) do not defpife it. If he 
fend his Angel into a Pool or Well of Water, do not fay with Naa- 
man, are not the Waters of Abana and Pharphar, as good as the Waters 
of Jordan? Are not other Pools as good as the Pool of Btthefda ? 
They may be fo in themfelves, and yet may not have the Virtue that 
meaner Waters have, if the one be appointed of God for this life, and 
the other not. 

2. Do not expeel healing from the Means, from the Well, or Waters 
of it, but by the Angel of the Covenant moving the Waters ; not 
from the Ordinances, but only from the Blefling and Prefence of God 
in them. 

3. Be fure you be found waiting his Time and Leifure : Wait at the 
Pool of Betbefda, tho'youdonot find help in thirty eight Years; yet 
wait, and be ever ready, left you be out of the way, when the An- 
gel moves the Waters. 

May j. &21. 1668. 
1 Cor. X. 11. 

Now aU thefe Things happened unto them for Enfamples : And they are 
written for our Admonition , upon whom the Ends of the World are 

THe occaftonal Types ( beloved ) were referred to two Heads.' 
Things and Afiions. 
Of Typical Things we have fpoken. 
. That which follows next in order is, occaftonal Typical Attions. 

Before we enter into them, it may be ufeful to recal to Remem- 
brance Three Things formerly delivered. 

1. That the Types are not to be reflrained only to the Perfon of 
Chrift, but they extend even to all New Teftament Difpenfations. 

2. That there is a real hiftorical Verity in thefe typical Actions. 

3. That they did ferve for divers other Ends and Ufes, as well as 
for this typical Ufe. 

X I 

1 54 The Gofpel of the cccafonal Types . 

I muft defire you to 1 remember thefe Three Things, and to carry 
them along with you in all that fhall be faid. Thefe Typical Aflions 
may be referred to Two Head. 

i. Typical Deliverances of God's People. 

i. Typical Defiruliion of Enemies. Which, though they might be 
handled together 5 yet for the greater Clearnefs and Diftin&nefs we 
may confider them feverally. 

1. There were typical Mercies, Deliverances, Trefervations of his 
People of Old, which happened to them in Types, and are mitten for our In* 
ftrutlion, upon whom the ends of the World are come. The Lord intended 
thofe ancient Difpenfations to be Types and Patterns, and Pledges of 
what he intended to do for his People in the latter Days. There be 
many fignal Inflances thereof, in the ftory of the Old Teftament. I 
might here inftancein the Lord's protecting Providence over the Fa* 
thers and Anceftors of that People, viz, Abraham, Jfaac and Jacob, in 
all their fojournings and journeyings to and fro at the Call of God, 
Pfal. 105. 12, 13, 14., 1 5. When few in Number, and in the midft of Ene- 
mies, He fuffered m Man to do them harm, mentioned as the flrft 
great and fpeaking Example, how the Lord would protect his People 
in all future Times : But to let pafs the Prefidcnts given in particular 
Perfons, and to inftanceonly in fuch Difpenfations as befel that whole 
People. There were fix famous Difpenfations of Providence, which hap* 
pened unto them in Types, and are written for our Injlruclion upon whom 
the Ends of the World are come. 

1. Their Deliverance out of Egypt. 

2. Their PafTage through the Red Sea. 

3. Their Marching through the Wildernefs. 

4. their PafTage through the River Jordan under Jofhuah Conduct. 

5. Their Entrance into Canaan. 

6. Their Deliverance out of Babylon. 

1. Their Deliverance out of Egypt} Th^Hiftory whereof is recorded 
in the Book of Exodus: And may be typically applied three Ways. 

1. Vnto Chrift himfeif And fo it is exprefly in Matth. 2. 15. It 
is quoted out of Hof. 11..1. Thefe Words are fpoken by the Prophet 
Hofea, concerning the Deliverance of that People out of Egypt : But 
this being typically done to the Members of Chrift, was in the full in- 
dent of it accomplifht in Chrift , the Head, and Antitype : And there- 
pOre is fo applied by Matthew. Look as Ifrael, in the Infancy of that 
people went down into Egypt, and God, brought them forth again: 
Chrift in his Infancy fled thither, and the Lord called him back 

2. Here 

The GofpeJ of the occajional Types. 155, 

2. Here was alfo a Shadow and Reprefentatioa of our fpiritual De- 
liverance, out of Spiritual Bondage and Mifery under Sin and Satan 
and the World, in an unregenerate Eftate, unto the State of Grace 
and Glory. The Scripture hinteth this unto us, io that it doth ex- 
prefly apply the Terminus ad quern of their Deliverance Afyfticaly and 
Allegorically . Therefore the Terminus a quo was alfo Myftical and Al- 
legorical ; for there is the fame reafon of both. 

We made ufe of the like Demonftration before, upon the fkry^Ser- 
pents : So here, fuch as the Rest was, fuch was their Bondage : But 
the State they were brought into, was a State of typical Reft and 
Peace in Canaan, which is made a Type of another Country, even of Hea- 
ven it felf, Hisb. 11. 1 5. Hcb. 4. 8, 9. Jofhua did not give them Rest ; 
But there remawetb a further reft to the People of God. If their Reft in 
Canaan was a Type of Spiritual and Heavenly Reft} Then their Bon- 
dage in Egypt was a Type of Spiritual Bondage. 

Sin ( as fome have well faid) is indeed the Egypt of the Soul, upon 
all Aecounts : Temptations to ir, Actings in it, Troubles for it, are 
its Houfe of Bondage and Vexation. We are all by Nature in a 
Condition ot fpiritual flavery to Sin and Satan, as Ifrael was in out- 
ward 11a very to their Egyptian Task-Mafters : And the Lord redeems 
as Spiritually, as he did them literally. Hence in the Preface to the 
Ten Commandments, which are moral and perpetual, the Lord faith 
to us, and to all his People, as well as to them : / am the Lord thy God 
which b-' ought thee forth out of the Land of Egypt, ont of the Houfe of Bon* 
dage. He redeemeth us out of another and worfer Egypt, 

You may fee the Analogy a little more particularly in Four Things. 

1 . They were under very cruel Bondage, The Egyptians made them to 
ferve with Rigor, Exod. 1. 14. They muft make Bricks: The Monu- 
ments whereof are thought by fome to be the Pyramids. So Jofephus 
Reports. Though fome object that the Pyramids are not made of Brick. 
To which it may be anfwered, That what manner of Brick that was 
which the Ifraelites made, cannot be now determined and found out f * 
any more than what Materials the Pyramids were made of. Yea, they 
muft make Bricks without Straw, an unreafonable piece of Rigor and 
Tyranny: And their Male-Children were to be drowned : A Law 
the moft barbarous and inhumane that ever was then adted amongft 
Men : Which how long it flood in Force, the Scripture exprefleth 
not. ^ The Jews have a Tradition, that it was Ten Months : But whe- 
ther it were a lopger or a fhorter Time, in this blackeft Time and 
Midnight of their Oppreflion Mofes was born, who afterwards deli- 
vered them. But a moft. bloody and barbarQus Law it was: And 

X 2 which 

156 The G of pel of the occajional Types. 

which is yet worfe, thefe Egyptian Tyrants would not let them have 
the Liberty of their Conferences to ferve and worftrip God. 

So is the Bondage of Sin and Satan, very fore and hard Bondage, 
The fervice of a Luft, the bondage of a bafe Luft, is worfe then any 
Turkifh or Egpytian Bondage, 'tis to do the Devifs Drudgery : Thou 
baft wearied thy felf in the greatnefs of thy way, Ifa. 57 10. Sinners take ■ 
much Pains, endure much Labour and hardfhip in the fatisfying of 
their Lulls. 

2. Tho' they did figh under their Bondage, and they had none to 
help -, yet when help was offered, they had no heart to receive it, and clofe 
in with it •, but did foolilhly and forwardly refufe and rejeft it. They 
refhfed Mofes, Exod. 2. 14. Acls 7. 25, 35. So Sinners, in their natural 
Bondage, will fometimes cry out and complain of their Sins, but yet 
refufe offers of Grace. When the Lord comes to deliver them, they 
hold fash Deceit, and refufe to return, Jer. 8. 4, 5. 

3. When they began to think of getting free, Pharaoh pnrfues them with 
all his might : All the Land is in an uproar, whereas all was quiet be- 
fore, Exod. 14. 5,9. And they are brought to a defperate Strait, the 
Sea before them, the Mountains on each Hand, their Enemies behind 
them at Baalz.ephon, Exod. 14, So doth Satan •, when the Soul be- 
gins to break loofe, then Beelzebub roars \ he lets it go on quietly till 
then, but then purfues it with dreadful Temptations, Luke n. 21. 
When the ftrong Man armed keeps the Houfe, all is in Peace -, but when a 
flronger then he comes to difpoffefs him, then he rages, and often 
drives the Soul into defperate Straits and diftrefs of Spirit. 

4. Tet notwithftanding all this Oppofition, the Lord delivers them, and 
brings them forth with a mighty Hand, and with an out-ftretch ; d Arm, 
Exod. 14. So he brings forth the Soul in defpite of Satan from out 
of its natural Condition, by the out-ftretched Arm, and by the Al- 
mighty Power of the Holy Ghoft ; converting Grace is irrefiftible. 

3. Jfraefs Deliverance out of Egypt of old, was a Type of the New 
Teftamenf Chnrches Deliverance from the Yokes of Antichrist. For Egypt 
is exprefly made a Type o/Rome, Rev. 1 1 . 8. To be under the Yokes 
of Men, under Antichriflian Bondage, is worfe than Egyptian Bondage: 
For that was chiefly over the Bodies, but this over the Souls of Men, 
this is Rome's Merchandice, Rev. 18. That Men mufl: have their Con- 
ferences kept in the Pocket of a bafe Prieft at Rome-, for him to op- 
press their Confciences and exercife dominion over their Faith, what 
fearful flavery is this ? 

Hence alfo to make the Parallel yet a little clearer, look as Mofes 
and Jfrael fang, when they came forth out of literal Egypt. So in like 


The Gojpel of the occafional Types. j 37 

manner when the Churches of the New Teftament came forth out of 
Antichriftian Bondage, they are faid to fing the Song of Motes and of 
the Lamb, Rev. 15. 3. 

2. Another typical Difpenfation of Deliverance and Mercy towards 
Ifrael of Old, was their Pafjage through the Red Se:i, as on dry Land : 
The Story whereof is recorded, Exod. 14. A very great and mighty 
Work of Providence, and very often celebrated with triumphing 
Praifes to God, in after times. See Ifa. 63. 12, 13. and Hab. 3. 8, 9. 
and often in the Pfalms. The Sea they palled through is called the Red 
Sea: The reafon of which Name is thought to be from Efait, who got 
the Sirname of Red, and whole Seat and Habitation was bordering upon 
this Sea. The Place where they p3fled over, I find in Geographers, 
that it was four M#es broad. The means was by Mo fes fir etching forth 
his Rod, and the Lord fending an E aft Wind, ver. 21. The Waters 
flood as a Wall : Not in the Shape and Figure of a Wall, ( for then 
it is not likely that' Pharaoh and the Egyptians, as mad as they were, 
would have dated to have purfued them) but probably in the ordina- 
ry Figure that other Waters ufe to have: But they did ferve to the 
Ufe of the Wall on each fide the Camp, to keep off the Egyptians that 
they could not inclofe the Ifraelites, and compafs them about. 

That this was a typical Difpenfation, the Apoftle doth affirm here 
in the Context, 1 Cor. 10. 1,2. The Myflery of it was this -, it repre- 
fented Baptifm, and that both in the outward Form, and the inward Good 
of Baptifm. 

1. Here was a manifeft Reprefentation of the ontward Ordinance : 
For here was an Application of the Element of Water by Mofes the 
Minifter of God, unto the whole Church of God, who were fix hun- 
dred thoufand Men, befides Women and Children : The fe were all bap" 
trfed by Mofes in the Sea : But how was the Water applied to them ? 
The Egyptians were drowned and over-whelmed in it ; but there was 
no contiguous Application of it to the Ifraelites, otherwife than what 
drops of Water might be blown upon them by the Wind, that ftrong 
Eaft-Wind : But they paffed through the Place of that Element, and fo 
here was a Figure and a Shadow of Baptifm. 

2. Befide the outward Form, the inward Good of Baptifm was alfo re" 
prefented and lively fet forth in this Difpenfation, thus : That as Ifrael 
when departing out of Egypt, and purfued by Pharaoh did pafs fafely 
through the Sea, when their Egyptian Enemies were drowned in it 1 
So when the Ifrael of God are departing and making their efcape to the 
Spiritual Reft, they fee before them the fwelling Waves and Billows 
of the Wrath of God ready tofwallow them up, and the Iniquities of 


1 58 The Gofpe! of the occafwnal Types, 

their Heels together with the Prince and Powers of Darkaefs purfuing 
hem •, but Jefus Chrifl drys up thefe Floods, a«d deep Waters of the 
Wrath of God for all hi: People, and is as a Wall of fafety to them 
on each Hand, and leads them fafely through it. But he caufeth thefe 
Floods to overwhelm their Enemies, he Triumphs over them in his 
fury, over Principalities and Powers, and all implacable Adverfaries ; 
he kills and buries Sins and Devils, that they can no more rife up to 
hurt his People, than a drowned Egyptian can, to hurt an Jfraelite. 

The Wrath of God is ofcen compared in the Scripture to Floods and 
deep Waters, Pfal. 69. 1 , 2. God is faid to be with his People when tbty 
pafs through the Water s, Ifa. 43. 2. And he is faid to drown their Sins in 
the depths of the Sea, Micah. 7. 19. And as Ifrael was thus Conducted 
fafe in the morning Watch , Exod. 14. 24, 27. So Cbrift in the morning 
Watch of his Refurreftion, and in the morning of the general Refurredion and 
laft Judgment^ Triumphs over all the Enemies of his People, Pfal. 49. 
i4.Then his Church is fully palled from Death to eternal Life \ then may 
Jfrael ftng the Song of Mofes and of the Lamb, and fay, the Lord {hall reign 
for ever y and ever , Exod. 15. 18. 

Much Teaching, and many other InftrucYions might be learned 
from all the Circumftances of this Difpenfation. The Egyptians here, 
met with a Punifhment fuitable to their Sin. They had drowned the 
Children of Jfrael ; and now fourfcore Years after, they themfelves 
are drowned in the Red Sea. And from the fore diftrefs that Ifrael was 
in, the Sea before them, their Enemies behind them, the Mountains 
on either fide • infomuch that they had no other Choice, in the Eye 
of Reafon, but eicher to be Drowned or Slain. We may here obferve, 
that the mod Glorious Deliverances of the Church, are in their great* 
eft Straits and molt defperate Diftrefles : We may alfo obferve the in- 
vincible Safety of the Church of God in all Tryals, under all Troubles. 
The Fire cannot Burn them, as you have feen before in the burning 
Bufh, which Burnt, and was not confumed : The Sea cannot Drown 
them •, you have formerly heard of Noah floating upon the Waves in an 
Ar\ of Safety, when all the World was Sea , and now you fee Jfrael 
fafe in the bottom of the Sea, 

Oh! Trnft God and follow the Lord fully, when he leads you into 
dangers and difficulties,as deep as the Bottom of the Sea, 2 Chron. 20. 
12. We know not what to do , but our Eyes are unto thee. It was by Faith 
that Jfrael did this, Heb. 1 1. 29. Some make the RedSea a Type of the 
Blood of Chrift, That thro' his Blood we pafs to the Land of Promife. 

3. Their marching through the Wilder nefs, tbofe De farts of Arabia, with 
their God in the Head of them, Pfal. 68. 7. Was Typical of the Wilder- 


The Gofpel of the occafional Types. 159 

- nefs of an unregenerate Condition : So Burroughs of Holy Courage on 
Heb. 1 1. 27. Cap. 25, and 26. interprets and Implies this their Paifage 
out of Egy[t unto Canaan. 

Herein was an Eminent Prefiguration of three Things. 

1. Troubles, Difficulties, Temptations in the way to Heaven. That 
through many Tribulations we mufi enter into the Kingdom of God, Afr. 1 4. 
22. This World is but a Wildemefs, an howling Wildemefs, full of 
Lyons and Leopards, Sins and Troubles, Cant. 4. 8. full of fiery Ser- 
pents, and Scorpions, and Drought -, as thofe Arabian Deferts were. 

2. We may here fee as in a Glafs, the Corruptions of our own Hearts. 
That this was a great part of the meaning of this Type, the Apoftle 
mews at large in many Verfesofthe Context, v. 5. to 10. Look what 
Jfrad did, and how they carried it in the Wildemefs ; we are apt to 
do the like : We are apt to think they were a very murmuring 
froard People -, but if thou hadft been in their Circumftances, thou 
would!!: have done as bad as they. 

3. The perifhing and mifcarrying of many Souls under fome preparative 
and initial Work, is alfo here plainly held forth. For many of them pe- 
rifhed in the Wildemefs, while they were in tranfitu, between Egypt 
and Canaan. So doth many a Soul after fome beginnings aud motions 
Heavenward. The Apoftle applies it thus, Heb. 4. 1,11. left any Man 
fall fhort after the fame Example ofVnbelief •, and here, 1 Cor. 10, 5. ma* 
ny of them weredeftroyed in the Wilder nefs. 

4. Their pajfing through Jordan under Jofliua's Conduct, the Priefts bearing 
the Ark, going in before them, andftanding in the midft thereof, till all the 
People were gone over, Jofhua. 3, 13,17. and 4.10, 18. was another 
Type. The fignifkation of this, was (as the Difpenfation it felf was) 
much after the fame Nature with their Paflage through the Red Sea, but 
accompanied with differing Circum fiances. In general, it reprefented 
and held forth Chrift going before his People, and himfelf bearing 
their Sorrows, which would have funk them : He wafteth them fafely 
through all their Sorrows and Miferies, and through Death it felf over 
unto their Eternal Reft. 

It was at this Place Bethabara *1>iy-nO domustranfitus the Houfe of 
Paflage, from fltt domus and "Oy Tanfire. The Place that 
Jefus Chrift was Baptized at when he entred upon his Mini- cbnraiu in 
ftry, Job. 1. 28. And as Ifrael of Old did pafs over on the 8$ W* 
tenth Day of the fir ft Month, Jofh. 4. 19. Encamping in Gilgal . ^ 

where they kept the Paffover, Jofh. 5. 10. So it feeras that on Pr ^f # in q£ 
the fame tenth Day cf the firft Month, Chrift rode into knd! Hift, 
Jerufalew, where he not only kept the Paffover , but pro- 


1 6c The Gofpel of the occajional Types. 

fented himfelf the true Pafcbal Lamb to be (lain for us •, and encountring 
with the fwellings.of Jordan, the whole Confluence of the Wrath of 
God, and the Sins and Sorrows of all bis Eled •, he hath opened a Paf- 
fage for them through the midft of Jordan, as it were, into the Land of 
their Eternal Reft. 

5. And fo this brings me to the Fifth typical Difpenfation o/Providence 
to them of Old, viz., 'their Entrance into Canaan under the leading and 
condncl of the fame Jofhua, who had led them through Jordan. The 
Hifiory whereof is the main Subject of the Book oi Jofhua. The Adyjltry 
of this Difpenfation is plain and obvious. Canaan was a Type of Hea- 
ven -, it (hadowed forth another and a better Country, that is an heaven- 
ly, Heb. 11. \6. Their Reft in the Promifed Land fhadowed forth ano- 
ther Reft remaining for the People of God, Heb. 4. 8,9. Thefe things were 
partly fpoken to, when we were upon the Perfonal Types, where we 
fpake of Jofhua as a Type of Chrift, the true Jefus or Jofhua. 

6. The laft typical Deliverance thatl fhall mention, is their delive- 
rance out of their Captivity in Babylon. Their Bondage in Babylon was 
a Type of fpiritual Bondage, their Deliverance, a Type of fpiritual deli- 
verance by Chrifl, and of his railing up his fpiritual Kingdom. Hence 
it is obfervable, that the Prophets, when fpeaking of that Recovery 
from Babylon, they pafs from that to Chrifl, and our fpiritual Reftora- 
tion through him : And they fpake more Magnificently of that, than 
was fulfilled in the Letter and Hiftory •, and they often intermix Para- 
ges that are plainly and undeniably meant of Chrift, and of his fpiritu- 
al Grace and Kingdom, of which that Temporal Deliverance was but a 
Tafte and Type. See 3^.32.36,37,40, 41. alfo Jer. 33. 1$, 16. 

and ia very many other Places, the Prophets ftill lead the 
hTtoc? People from that to Chrifl, in whom all the Promifes and 

Prophecies are fully and perfectly accomplifht. 
Moreover, Babylon was a Type of Rome ; and confequently their 
deliverance out of Babylon, a Type of the Churches deliverance in the 
New Teftament from under the Yoke of Antichrifl : and the Circum- 
ftances alfo agree. 

1. That it .was a gradual Work ; for fome came back with Zerobabel, 
others afterwards with Ezra, and others laftly with Nehemiah : So is 
the Reformation out of Popery . The firft Reformers were not infallible • 
therefore could not reform all things at once, 

2. It met with much Oppofttion, and was carried on through great 
difficulties ^ and of all their Enemies, the Samaritans did moftObftru& 
them, of whom you read 2 Kin. 1:7. that they ferved the Lord, and other 
Gods. And Ezra .4, i, 2. when thefe Adversaries were rejected, then 


The Go/pel of the occafwnal Types. 1 61 

they brake out into open Oppofition : And again in the New Te- 
ftament, John 4. 9. whereby it appears that they did believe and ex- 
pert the MeJJisitfs Coming, as well as the Jews, John 4. 20. and a- 
gain, Rev. 3.9. they are there defcribed. The Sum is, they had a 
kind of mongrel Religion made up partly of Judatfm, and partly of 

So now, when the Church of God under the New Teftament is 
coming forth out of Spiritual Babylon : There is a mongrel Genera- 
tion rifen up, whom fome have fitly called Calvino-PapiftM, Calvinian. 
Papists, who are for the Proteflant Dottrine, and for Popijh Worfhip. I 
refer it to every ones Confcience, to judge, whether it may not be fitly 
applied to our late Innovators, who are for a Lin fey- wool fey Religi- 
on, a mixture of found and wholfome Doctrine, with Antichriftian 
Popifh Worfhip \ their Wine is mixt with Water ; the ProteftanE 
Faith, with Popilh Ceremonies and Superftitions : Tbey build Hay and 
Stubble upon the Foundation. The Foundation of our Church is right, 
which is Jefus Christ, and Justification by Faith in his Blood : But the 
Saperftru&ure, they build upon it, is Humane Inventions and Super- 
ftitions : Which is not Gold and Silver, pure Worfhip, and whole- 
fome Difcipline ; but Hay and Stubble, and the Day will difcover it, 
1 Cor. 3. 

2. Typical Vengeance and Dejlruftion upon the Enemies of God? s People* 
For as the Jews were a typical People, and did prefigure and repre- 
fent the whole Church of God under the Gofpel : So the Neigbbonr- 
Nations with whom they had to do, were alfo Typical of Gofpel- Enemies 
to the Church : And their Sins and Judgments, did prefigure and 
lhadow forth fomething Analogous under the New Teftament. 
I (hall refer them to two forts. Typical Prefigurations. 

1. Of Rome. 

2. Of Hettitfelf. 

1 . Types of Rome. There be five Places and People in the Old Te- 
ftament, that feem %o be Types of Rome and Antichriftian Abomina- 

1. Sodom, Rev. 11. 8. for their monftrous Lufts, and unnatural fil- 
thinefs and untleannefs. 

2. Egypt, for their Idolatry, and cruelty to God's People : There- 
fore the Plagues of Rome are defcribed with allufion to the Plagues 
of Egypt, Rev. \6. Here are noifowe Boyles, and Rivers of Blood, and 
Darknefs, and Locujls, &C 

3 . Jericho. Hence that Curfe of Jofhua upon the Rebuilders of it, 
Jofh. 6. 26, 27. This City was the first that ftood out againft the Peo- 

Y pic 

t62 The G oj pet of the occafional Types. 

pie of God. Which Curfe was not in vain, I Kings \6. 34. This 
feems to have had a further meaning, to hold forth the irreparable 
Ruines, and everlafting Definition of all the implacable Enemies of 
God and his Pleople, and eipecially Rome and Antichrift, which is to 
perifb like a Milftone caft into the Sea, never to rife more, Rev. 18. 
• T - This Curfe of Jofhua, will come upon all fuch as 

SffSftS" 8 ft u a11 T^, to u R u ebui ^- R T and reftore p °p er y> 

r : Jt when the Lord hath caft it down. 

4. Edom, and Bova the chief City thereof, that is, Italy and Rome : 
Therefore the fame Expreflions which belong to Babylon, and are fpi- 
ritually underftood of Rome, Ifa. 13. 19, 21. arealfo ufed concerning 

Edom, Ifa. 34.11. and ver. 4. The ruine of Jdnmea is fet forth 

with Expreflions like unto thofe, Rev. 6. 12, 13. The Land/hall become 
burning Pitch, ver. 9. 10. the meaning is, dreadful Vengeance, hideous 
Indignation, Ifa. 63. 1. Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed 
Garments from Boira ? Chrift is there let forth as cloathed with Gar- 
ments, dipt in the Blood of his Enemies. 

5, Babylon. For this the Scripture is eyprefs, Rev. it. 5. and ver. 

From all which we Diould learn both to know and to take heed of 
Antichrift, feeing the Lord fo many ways declared, and fcrellgnified 
him unto us. Shall we lookback toward Sodom ? Remember Lot's Wife, 
Shall we return into Egypt again? Shall we Rebuild Jericho r Would 
we be found in Bozjra or Babylon, in the Day of the Lord's Fury ? 

2. Types of Hell. For as they had Types of Heaven and fpiriruai 
Glory •, fo they had likewife of Hell and fpiritual Torment and Mife- 
ry. They had all things taught and reprefented to them, by thing*. 
outward and vifible. And the vifible Expreflions of Divine Vengeance 
upon Wicked Men of Old, led the People of God further to fee and 
take notice of that Eternal Wrath that is to come. 

I (hall inftance therefore in four Prefignrations of Hell. 

1. The Deluge, or Beflruttion of the Old World by Water. The Apo- 
itle parallels this and the Deftrudlion that fhall be by Fire at the great 
Day together, 2 Pet. 3.6,7. Hence Hell is called in theOldTefta- 
ment crN^n ^m Quabai rephaim Coetas Gigantum. Prov. 21. \6. Prov, 
1: 1 3. Ifa. 14. 9, 10. It fiirreth up the Re^haims fr thee. Gcd that hath 
overthrown the Gyants of the old World, and cal them upon their 
Backs in Hell •, Thofe Men of Renown are now roaring and wailing 
under the Wateis-, as the vulgar Latin reads that Place, job 26. 5, 6. 
Qjgavtts- gemmt fab Aquis ♦, hje who hath conquered thofe Gigantine 
Siaaers, who werecutdown with a Floods as Jcb 2:, 16. He is able 


The Go/pel of the occafional Types. 1 63 

to deal with other Rebels: Never any hardened himfelf againfl God and 
profpered^ Job 9. 4. 

2. Sodom, Therefore Hell is called the Lake that burneth with Fire and 
Brimfione t Rev. 20. 10. and 21. 8. 

3. Egypt, when under the Ten Plagues, efpecially that of Darknefs, 
Exod. 10. 21, 22. For Hell is a Place of utter Darknefs, Mat. 25.3a. 
Inftead of Darknefs the Pfalmift doth not mention that, but faith, He 
fent evil Angels among ft them, Pfal. 78.49. A lively Pre frgu ration of 
Hell, wherein there is utter Darknefs 5 but yet Light enough to fee 
affrighting Apparitions of Devils and evil Angels. 

4. Topbet % an horrid and curfed Place wherein they were wont to 
Sacrifice their Children in the Fire, to Adolech. It was in the Vatiey of 
the Son of Hinnom. Hence Hell is called in the New Teftament >«*!*, 
qnaftyaUvs Hinnom. This Tophet was a Place every way execrable, 
both for the hideous Wickednefs there committed, and for the hide- 
ous Plagues and Judgments there executed. There they did Sacrifice 
their Children to the Devil, with an hideous Noife to drown their 
Cries and Skreetchings. 

For an eternal Deteftation whereof, King Joftah 
polluted it, and made it a Place execrable, ordain- v J d - V N "** °* *■ 
ing it to be the Place, where dead CarcafTes, Gar- fjEgfe T* * 
bage and other unclean Things fnould be caff out; 
for the confuming whereof to prevent Annoyance, a continual Fire 
was there burning. 

Yea the Lord himfelf as it were Confecrated this Place of Execrati- 
on, by making it the Stage of his Fury, and the Field of his Vengeance 
in hideous Plagues and Judgments : For here he deftroyed Senacherib, 
with the reft of that blafpheming Army, that damning roaring Crew. 
Here an hundred eighty- fire Thoufand of them were (lain miraculout 
ly, and their CarcaiTes *( as it feemeth ) burnt with Fire, to prevent 
Annoyance and Infedtion, and putrefaction of the Air. If a. 30.31,33. 
For Tophet is prepared of old. And in the fame Place again in another 
Day of the Lord's Fury, when he did let loofe the Chaldeans upon 
them, the Jews were (lain in fo great Numbers, till there was no 
room left to bury them, fee Jer. 7. 31, 32, 33. 

From ail which this Place came to be the Name of Hell, as being a 
Place every way execrable, and having been made by God the Gate of 
Hell as it were, and the PafTage to eternal Definition, by fo many re- 
markable Executions of his dreadful and direful Difpleafure in that 
Place. We do not find Gehinnom ufed in the Old Teftament for the 
Name of Hell, as the Learned have obferved. But Hell got that Name 

Y 2 during 

164 The Gofpel of the occafwnal Types. 

during the time of the fecond Temple : The forementioned Grounds 
and Occafions of the Name, being not till about that 
Mede Difc 7. time in being, and accordingly the Name is to be found 
}*g*4i* in the Jcwifh Writers of that Time : And was ufed by 

our Saviour as a Name then vulgarly known among 
the Jews. 

You fee then what Types of Hell they had under the Old Tefta- 
ment, namely the Deluge * Sodom, Egypt, and Topket. You have heard 
alfo that they had five Types of Rome, to wit, Sodom, Egypt ^ Jericho, 
Edom, and Babylon. Thefe were typical Prefignifications of Gofpel- 
Enemies, and Gofpel- Vengeance. 

And now I have gone through thefe Occafional Types, whether 
Things or Attions, whether typical Mercies, or typical Vengeance. That 
which next remains, is thofe Perpetual fianding Types which the Scrip- 
ture calls Everlafiing Statutes. For betides thefe OccafionalTypes, which 
were exhibited in a tranfient way, and did exift but for a time •, they 
had alfo other Types, that were of a more enduring Nature, and did con- 
tinue to the end of that Old Teftament-Difpenfation, namely, the 
whole Ceremonial Law, whereof we fliail fpeak hereafter, the Lord af- 



i6 5 



O F T H E 


T Y P E S 

Heb. X. I> >^4>and 7 . 

For the Law having a Shadow of good Things to come, and not 
the very Image of the Things, &c> 

SOme entrance and Progrefs* hath been made upon the Tyfts. 
You have heard ( Beloved ) what a Type is. The Nature of 
it hath been opened from Rom. 5. 14. We have diftributed 
them into two Sorts, Per final and Real ; which Diflribution 
will carry us thro' this whole Subject. 
The Ferfonal Types we have gone through as briefly as we could* in- 
ftancing both in feveral individual Per fins, both before the Law,, and 
under the Law, and in typical Ranks and Orders of Mefl, which were 
deftined and ordained of God to reprefcnt and Ihadow forth Him that 
vas to com:, 

1 66 The Gofpel of the perpetual Types. 

The Real Types we have alfo begun to fpeak unto, and we diftribu- 
ted them into two Sorts, Occafional and Perpetual. Occafional Types 
are fuch as God gave them upon fpecial Oceafions ; the moft of them 
before the ordinary and perpetual ones wete fettled. Such as the Pillar 
of Cloud and Fire, Manna, the Brazen Serpent ', their pajfwg through the 
Red Sea -, and other fuch like occafional and extraordinary Difpenfati- 
ons, of which we fpokefrom i Cor. 10.11. All thefe things happened un- 
to them in Types. 

By the Perpetual Types we intend fuch as God by In fl it ution fettled and 
ftated in that Church, to the end of that Age, of that whole Old Teftament- 
Difpenfation, till the coming of Chrift 9 the Truth Snbftance, and Scope of 

Of thefe we are now to fpeak, as the Lord (hall enable us. It is 
the Scripture Phrafe. It calleth them Perpetual Statutes, or Everlafting 
Statutes. The Phrafe is firft ufed, as I remember, in reference to Or- 
cutncifion, which is called Berith Tolam, a perpetual Covenant, Gen.ij. 
7, 8. Afterwards we have it again concerning the PafTover, Exod. 12. 
14,17. which is called o^y nprt St at ut urn fa cult, an Everlafting Sta- 
tute. See likewife Exod. 27. 21. and 28.43. A Statute for ever and 
29.9. A perpetual Statute : So Levit. 3. 17. and 24. 9. An Everlafting 
Statute, Levit. 16. 34. And indeed this Phrafe of Speech doth occur 
between twenty and thirty times in the Books of Mofes ; It /ball be a 
perpetual Statute, or an Everlafting Statute, or a Statute for ever through- 
out your Generations^ that is, a ftanding Type, and not meerly tranfient 
and occafional. 

Only there hath been fome Miftake and Mifundcrftanding of this 
Phrafe, which muft be cleared before we leave it. The unbelieving 
Jem have feemed to interpret and underftand it, concerning an ab- 
folute Eternity : Which hath been one occaflon or preteace alledged 
by them, for their {tumbling at Christ, and his Gofpel, becaufe he 
hath removed and taken away the Law of Ceremoflies. 

Befides many other things that might be faid, to (hew the Weaknefs 
and Folly of their Pretence in this Matter, I (ball but note thefe 
two Things. 

1. That this Word, for ever, is often ufed in Scripture for a limit- 
ed Duration. As for inftance, it is ufed for Duration till the Tear of 
Jubilee, Exod. 2i.5. He /hall be a Servant for ever, that is, only till the 
Year of Jubilee, in cafe he lived fo long. For then he was to go free 
by Vertue of that Law, Levit. 25. 1 3,28, 40, 41 . Sometimes it is ufed 
for a continuance during Life. As 1 Sam. 1. 22. that he may appear be* 
i fore the Lord, and there abide for ever. Explained ver. 28. Therefore aU 

The Gofpel of the perpetual Types, 167 

fo 1 have lent him to the Lord 06 long at he liveth. Sometimes it is ufed for 
duration to the end of the Old Tcflament- Difpenfation : For all the Land which 
thou feeft, to thee will I give it, and to thy Seed for ever. Gen. 13.15, 
The Land given to thy Seed for ever: Which cannot be interpreted 
concerning an unlimited Eternity, unlefs they will fay, that God bath 
broke his Promife : For they have been Ejected and call forth of that 
Land thefe feventeen hundred Years, 1 Kings 8. 13. I have fur ely built 
thee an Houfe to dwell in, a fettled Place for ihee to abide in for ever, PfaL 
132.14. This is my Re ft for ever, here will 1 dwell, for I have de fired it* 
He doth not dwell, aor rmnifeft his Prefence there now : But God 
hath gives them up to invincible Perverfnefs and Darknefe, and preju- 
dice in this Particular. 

2. There bemanifeft Intimations in the Old Teftament, that thefe 
Ceremonial Laws were not to continue always, but to ceafe and be aboli(h~ 
ed in the fuUefs of Time , Jer. 3,, 16. They (hall fay no more the Ark of tbs 
Covenant of the Lord, Jer. 31. 31, 32, 33- Not according to the Covenant 
that 1 made with their Fathers, but this (hall be the Covenant, I will put my 
Law in their inward Parts, and write it in their Hearts, &c. 

But fo much for the Explication of this Diflinition of the Types, 
into Occaftcnal and Perpetual. You fee the true Senfe and meaning 0! 
it, and what clear Scripture-Ground there is for it. 

Thefe Perpetual Tyfts or Everhftwg Statutes, are no other bntthr! 
which we call the Law of Mofes, or the Ceremonial Law, whereof this- 
Texc fpeaks, and lays down this Proportion. 

Doct. That the Law hath a fhadow of future good Things, but not the 
very Image of the Things themfelves. The fame Thing is aliened and 
held forth, tho 3 in other Words, but to the fame Scope and Senfe, in 
other Scriptures. As Rom. 10. 4. Christ is- the end of the Law for Pigh- 
ieoufnefs, to every one thatbelievetb, John 1.17. The Law came by Mofes, 
that is, the Law as oppofed to Grace and Truth : but Grace and Truth 
by Jefus Christ. Truth here is not oppofed to Falfhood, for Mofes 
fpake no lies •, but to Shadows and Ihadowy Promifes : And fo the 
Truth of them is the Performance or sJccompUfhment of them, in Oppo— 
fition to the bare Shadow and Typical Promife of them. And this is 
called Grace, becaufe there is fo much of that in the Gofpel, 3nd fo 
little of it (but on the contrary much of Rigor and Terror) in the 
Law of Mofes. So the Senfe amounts to thus much : That Mofes de- 
livered Law, that is, Shadows and Ceremonies, which were but legale 
and dark and rigorous : But CbriSl brought in Grace and Truih, thai 
is, the real and tweet AccQmfUfhtmni and Performance, of all the good, 
that Mofes had pro mi ted ia that dark and kwand le.gil way, svlrch 

: s 

I SB The Go/pel of the perpetual Types. 

l s confonant to that we have here in the Text, that the Law bath the 
Shadow, but not the very Image of the Things themfelves. 

Here be Four Things to be cleared. 

i. What is meant by the Law, 

2. What by thefe future good Things. 

3. What by the Shadow which the Law hath, and the very Image of 
them which the Law wanted, 

4. What are the particular feveral parts of this Law of Ceremonies, 
thefe perpetual or everlajling Statutes. 

Queft. 1 . What is here meant by the Law ? 

Anfw, A Law, is a Rule of Attwg given by aSuperiour^ who hath Autho* 
rity and Power of commanding, to his Jnferiottr : This is the general Na- 
ture of a Law. God therefore being the Suprefae Lord and abfoiute 
Sovereign over all his Creatures, is the Great Law-giver, James 4. 12. 
There is one Law-giver, who is able to fave, and to deftroy. All thofe 
to whom God commits Power over others, may be faid to give Laws 
to them : Except ordinary Officers in the Church, whom he hath intru- 
ded no further, but only with the Execution oi his Laws, promulgated 
and recorded by himfelf, by his extraordinary Officers in the written 
Word. But Magiftratesmay be faid to be Legiflators as to Civil Laws j 
of whom Mofes was the firft that delivered Laws in Writing to the 
People under him, which he received from the Mouth of God. 

Now the Laws delivered by Mofes, are referred in the Scripture to 
three Heads. Moral, Ceremonial, and Judicial, which are exprefled by 
three Words, Thorah or Mitfvah, Chuquim, and Mifhpatim -, which 
Words are fometimes ufed and put together in the Scripture, to figni- 
fie thefe three forts of Laws, Bent. 6". 1 . Mitfvah, Chuauim and Mi(h- 
patim : The fame Words, Deut. 26.17. fee Ezjraq. 10. Mai. 4.4. 
Thorah /fher Tfivithi -, the Law which I commanded. 

The firft fort of Laws, viz.. Moral, refpe&s them as Men : the/e- 
cond, as a Church ; the third, as a Commonwealth. The firft fort, viz. 
the moral Laws are ftitt in force and binding unto all Men in all Ages. 
The third fort, viz. Judicial Laws are of a mixt Nature, forae being 
Hedges as it were, and Fences to the Moral Law - 7 and fome to the 
Ceremonial, and fo they participate of the Nature of thofe Laws to 
whofe Defence they ferve. 

The Judicials that ferve to the Defence of the Moral Law, have fome- 
thing of Moral Equity and Reafon in them, and fo are ftill in Force : 
As that, hethatfheds Mans Blood, by Man (kali his Blood be fhed : This 
is a Fence which God hath fet about the fixth Commandment, and fo 
remains in Force in all Nations, to all Times and Ages unto this Day, 


The Gofpel of the perpetual Types. 1 69 

Bat others of thefe Judicials are fet as Fences about the Ceremonial 
Law, and fo mull need * be fallen together with it. 

Now the Law of which the Text fpeaks, is not the Moral, nor the 
Judicial as fuch, but the Ceremonial Law of Mofes called Ephef. 2. 1%. 
the Law of Commandments contained in Ordinances, and Col. 2. 14. the 
Hand-Writing of Ordinances. This Text cannot intend the Moral Law, 
for that had no Shadow of Gofpel Benefits; nor the Judicial Law, as 
fuch • for part of it was an Appendix to the Moral Law, and the other 
part was only for the Defence of the Ceremonies. But the Ceremonial 
Law is here intended -, for that was of a fhadowy Nature, it had t 
Shadow of good Things to come. 

Queft. 2. What are thefe future good Things ? 

Anfvo. Thefe are the good Things of the Gofpel - y which may be faid 
to bz future upon, a double Account. 

1. Future, in refpeftof the Law, and Old Teftament- times*. 

2. Future, in refpect of this Life. So future good Things are eter- 
nal good Things, Calvin in be. fee 1 John 3. 2. It doth not yet appear 
xohat we (hall be. Tho' we have the foretaftes and Beginnings of them 
already, yet the Perfection of them is future, referved in Heaven 
for us. 

Queft. 3. What is meant by the Shadow of thefe future Benefits ? And 
what by the very Image of the things themfelves ? 

Anfw. In a Word, a Shadow here, is a dark and weak refemblance 
and reprefentation of Things. But the very Image of the Things 
themfelves, is a clearer and better Reprefentation of them. The Apo- 
ftle ufeth this Metaphor of a Shadow, concerning the Mofaical Ceremo- 
nies, Col. 2. 1 7. In Oppofition to Chrift the Body and Subftance there- 
of. Here he oppofeth ffx tA and t'X^. Alluding ( as it feemeth ) to 
the rude Draught and firft delineation of a Picture by the Painter, and 
to the full Perfection thereof,when drawn forth in all its Lineaments and 
Colours and whole Proportion. So the Shadow is the firft rude 
Draught : But the Image is a more lively and exaft Reprefentation. So 
the dark Shadow is afcribed to the Law. The more lively Image ro 
the Gofpel. The Things themfelves are in Heaven. So fome Interpre- 
ters carry it, Vide Mayer. Calvin in loc. And the Apoftle hath fome 
Expreflions looking that way in other Scriptures, as when he faith, 
that tare we fee but in a Glafs darkly, that is, the Glafs of Gofpel- Ad- 
miniftrations, wherein we fee the lively Image and Pidture (as it were) 
of Chrift: crucified, Gal. 3. 1. 2 Cor. 3.18. fee as in a Glafs. He is 
there comparing the Law and the Gofpel, But in Heaven we floaU fee 
Face to Face, fee 1 Cor. 1 3. 12. Under the Law they had no more but 

Z the 

1 70 The Gofpel of the perpetual Types. 

the Shadow ^ but now under the Gofpel we have the very Image, we 
fee Things m in a Glafs ^ but in Heaven we have the Things them- 

And now to Turn up all that hath been faid in Explication, the Do- 
ftrine amounts to thus much : That the Ceremonial Law hath a Shadow, 
or a dark and weak Reprefentation of the good Things of that eternal future 
Happinefs \ the more lively Image and Portraiture whereof, we have un- 
der and by the Gofpel. 

Queft. 4. What are the feveral parts of this Law of Shadows and 
Ceremonies, thefe perpetual Types, or ever lofting Statutes ? 

Anfw. This is a large Field. I (hall refer them at prefent to five 
feveral Heads, omitting Sub-divifions, left they be troublefome to weak 

r. The initiating Seal, to wit, Circurocifion. 

2. Their Sacrifices and Purifications of Sin and of Uncleannefs, 

3. The Temple and Tabernacle, and other holy Places. 

4. The Priefthood, with the whole legal Miniftry. 

5. The Feftivals or legal Times and Seafons. 

Thefe five general Heads will carry us thro* this whole SubjecT: of the 
Types. For the whole Ceremonial Law^ and all or mofl of the Sta- 
tutes of it, will come in under fome of thefe Heads. 

1. The initiating Seal ofthofe Times, which was Circumcifton. The firfl 
Initiation whereof we have in Gen. 17. 10, if. This is my Covenant 
which ye (hall keep between me and you, and thy Seed after thee : Every 
Man-child among yen fhaU be Circumcifed. And ye fhatt circumcifc the 
Flefh of your Foreskin, anditfhall be a Token of the Covenant betwixt me 
and you. Which is contracted and epitomize into a few Words by 
Stephen, Ads 7. 8. And he gave him the Covenant of Circuwcifion i And 
fo Abraham begat Ifaac, and Circumcifed him the eighth Day : And lfaac 
begat Jacob, and Jacob begat the twelve Patriarchs. Wherein he briefly 
tells us the Subftance of this Shadow, and the meaning of this Type, 
namely, that it (ignified and Oiadowed forth the Covenant of Grace. 

2. Their Sacrifices and Purifications for Sin, and for Vncleannefs : Of 
which Pfal. 40. 6. Sacrifice and offering thou did Ft not dtftre : Burnt* of- 
fering and Sin-offering hah thou not required. With Heb. 10. 5, to. Ma- 
ny Things will come in under this Head : For they had both Sacrifices 
of Expiation for Moral Sins, and Ceremonies of Purification for Legal 
tlncleannef3 and Impurity. I put them both together, becaufe they 
did both aim atone Scope, uamely the clcanCng and purging away of 


The Go/pel cf the perpetual Types. 1 7 1 

They had Burnt- offerings, Meat-offerings, Peace- offerings, S*f*bf- 
ferings, Trefpafs- offerings. 

They had legal Jlncleannefles of-feveral Sorts: They had unclean 
Meats, unclear ferfons. unclean Houfes, unclean Garments, unclean 
P'effcls', the faddefl of all their Ceremonial UncleannefTes, was the Lc- 
profy : For all which they had Purifications anfwerable. 

The general Scope of all which was to fhadow forth Jefus Chris? 
in his purifying, cleanfing Power and Virtue, as cleanfing us from the 
Guilt of Sin by his Blood ftied and facrificed for us -, and from the Filth 
and Power thereof by his Spirit dwelling and w T orking in us. There- 
fore he is faid to offer up himfelf a Sacrifice for us, Ephef. 5. 2. and to waft 
us, andcleanfe us, ver. 26 27. 

3. The Temple and Tabernacle, and the Vtenfils thereof, yith all their 
holy Places. For they had many and divers of them : The whole Land 
of Canaan was an holy Land. They had Cities of Refuge. Jerufalctn 
was an holy City, Moont Sion was an holy Hill, the Temple was an 
holy Houfe. And before they kad a fixed Temple, they had ( which 
was equivalent in Signification, as w r ell as like unto it in outward form) 
the Tabernacle, Heb. 9. 1. to ver. 6. All which flgnified and fhadow- 
ed forth both Christ, and the Church : Chrift in his Humane Nature, 
the Church both as vifible, and as militant and myftical, and likewife 
as triumphant in Heaven. Therefore the Church of God is called his 
Houfe, 1 Tim. 3. 15. 

4. The Brief hood, rvith all the reft of the Temple Mimftry. They had, 
befide the High Priefl, the other Priefls, and the Levites, fome where- 
of were Porters, forae Singers ; And here the Temple-Mufick comes 
to be confidered : The High Priefl was an eminent Type of Cbrilt, 
the true and great High Priefl of his "Church. And all this Temple- 
Miniflry was a Shadow of the true Gofpel-Miniflry : Which tho' they 
cannot be called Priefls in the Popifh Senfe, yet they may be called 
Antitypical Priefls. The further Myfleries of all which legal Mi- 
niflry, we fhall open more particularly afterwards, the Lord ena- 
bling us. 

5. A Fifth of thefe perpetual Types was the Feftivals, or holy Times 
appointed by the Law. Whereof they had many ; their weekly Seventh- 
day Sabbaths ; their New-moons ; their yearly Feafls : That of Ta- 
bernacles, PafTover and Pente.ofl -, their feventh Year; their Jubilee 
of fifty Years, containing the Revolution of feven times feven ; all 
which vfere a Shadow of goodThings to come, Col. 2. 16, 17. 

r ^fe 1. This Text and Doctrine gives much Light for the Refoluti- 
on of that Queflion, irrxtber the Lav? fl/'Mofes xcas a Covenant of Works 
vr Grace? 2 2 The 

172 The Gofpel of the perpetual Types. 

The Anfwer is, That the Law hath a Shadow of the goo&Things oftkt 
Gofpel, but not the very Image of the Things them/elves. There Was a 
mixture in that Difpenfation. You may take the Anfwer more fully in 
three Propofitions. 

i. The thing it felf adumbrated and fhadowed forth in this Law of 
Ceremonies, vs the future good Things of the Gofpel -, fo that it 
was indeed a Covenant of Grace which they were under. 

2. The wanner of Re pre fetation of them was legal", and in the way 
of a Shadow, not of a full and lively Image: So that it was a. kind of 
legal Gofpel they had in thofe Times. 

3. The carnal Jews made it tneer Law, by flicking 
Vide on Htb, 4. 2. in the Shell and Shadow, and reje&ing the Gofpel, or 
the Thing it felf that was adumbrated and fhadowed 
forth unto them. 

Vfe 2. See the Juftice of God inthe re]etlionof thejtws. For might 
not Jfrael have underftood? They did not want a competency, of out- 
ward Means, but they wanted Hearts, Dent. 29. 2, 3,4. 

Vfe 3. Encouragement in the Search we are now upon as to the Types ; 
for it is the Gofpel, and the good Things of the Gofpel that we look 
into, when we enquire and fearch into the Types. The Law having 
a Shadow of them, Vide on Rom. 5. 14. Serm.i. Vfe, p^.77.78. where 
there are three Rules for the better underftanding of them. To which 
let me add this as an Appendix to the firft, feek Light from God, PfaL 
119. 18 Open thou mine Eyes, that I may behold wondrous Things out of 
thy Law. You may fee wondrous Things indeed, Jefus Chrift and the 
Gofpel; and many precious Myfteries in this Part of the Law of God \ 
this Lav/ of Ceremonies,, if God open your Eyes • but otherwife all will 
be dark to you. 

Vfe 4. Encouragement to believe and receive the Gofpel -, For it hath 
beerv held forth to the Faith of God's People all along, and they 
have retted upon it, and found Peace. We have it declared in thq 
cleared way, and indeed every way, for we reap the Fruit of thofe 
former Difpeafations : Therefore how fhali we efcape, if after fomany 
ways of teaching, we do not receive Inftru&ion, titHeb. 2« 3, 4,, 







m\&S VII. 8. 0&ob. JO. 1666, 

And he gave him the Covenant of Circumcifwn, and fo Abraham 
begat Ifaac, and circumcifed him the eighth Day : And Ifaac 
begat Jacob, and Jacob begat the twelve Patriarchs. 

TH 1 S excellent Sermon and Apology ofStefbe^ the firfi 
Martyr of the New Teftament ^ the Scope of if, is to 
fhew them the variety of God's Difpenfations towards 
his People, together with the various Rebellions and 
Oppofitions of the Sons of Men againlt him, and fo to • 
convince them that the Scope and Tendency of them all was to lead to 
Jefos Chrift : And that as former Difpenfations had been defpifed, fo 
was this, which was the Glory of all the reft. He goes over the Hi- 
ftory of the Church, from Abrahams Titne to the time of Chrift, in 
fundry molt eminent and principal Difpenfations of God towards his 
Church. In this Verfe he is fpeaking of the Difpenfation of God to 
Abraham. He had fhewed before how he had called Airaham out of 
hi9 own Country, how he had promifed him a PoJsiTio;], the Land of 

Canaan g , 

174 Tbe Gofpel of Circumcijion. 

Canaan •, how he had foretold the Affliction of his Seed for four hun- 
dred Years, and therr-Deliverance afterward • how the Lord had gi- 
ven him the Covenant of Ckcumcifton, ami how ( under the Influ- 
ence of this Covenant ) Jfaac was born, and JarA f and the reft of the 

And he gave him the Covenant ofCircumcifion. 

I (hall give you no other Do&rine but the Words themfelves. 

Boil. That God gave to Abraham the Covenant of Circumcifjon. That 
which I defign and intend, is a little Explanation of Circumcifion, and 
of the Covenant thereof, ( for that is the Phrafe here) and that in re- 
ference to our Attendance upon God in this Ordinance of the New 
Teftament-Girciimcifion, which we are now to wait upon him in. 

To open to you the Nature of Circumcilion. You know there is 
an outward, and an inward part of it, as there is in all Other Signs and 
Sacraments whatfoever. 

Something muft be fpoken. , 

i. Of the Sign, the Nature of the external Ordinance. , 

2. Of the Covenant that it relates to, 

3. What thofe Refpecls aye wherein it doth relate to that Covenant. 

1. For the external part of this Ordinance of Circumcilion. It was 
the cutting away the Foreskin of the Flefh of Abraham, and his Male- feed 
upon the eighth Day. The fhft Inftitution cf this Ordinance is re- 
corded, Gen. 17. io,U. Thvs is my Covenant which ye [hall hep between 
me and you, and thy Seed after thee, every Man-child among you fhaU be 
Circmncifed : And ye fhall circumcife the Flefh of your Foreskin, 6\C The 
Lord did appoint the Seal of this Covenant to be in that part of the 
Body, in his infinite Wifdom and Soveraignty, a thing which carnal 
Reafon would defpife. There feems to be two principal Accounts 
of it. 

1. Becaufe thofe Members of the Body are fo much abufed to Sin, 
in the way of Uncleannefs and Filthinefs ; therefore the LorS would 
now fanttify them, and feperate a Seed and Generation to ihimfelf : 
And ufually the greatefl Wrath 6? God to the Souls of Mep, is ex- 
prefled by giving them up to abufe thofe Parts of the Bo&f. The 
World was grown very degenerate, and the Lord was refolved to 
leave a Monument, an everlafting Monument of his Wrath for thofe 
Sins in all Ages, and therefore deftroys Sodom, Gen. itf. and before 
this Deftru&ion, he appoints this Seal and Ordinance. 

2. Another Account of it is this, that it might be a fnr'c and a 
ftrong Wall of Partition, between the Jewifh and Gentile Nations of the 
World. It made the Partition Wall the furer, becaufe carnal Reaibn 


The Go/pel of Circumcifion. 175 

could not but defpife fuch an Ordinance. Thofe that know not God 
have no Spiritual Sen fe of the Thing, therefore we find the Heathens 
fcofF at it : As Hot at. 

Curtofqtte Jncltos, & 

—Credat Judam JpeUa. 
becaufe by their carnal Reafon they could not fee the reafon of it, 
Therefore when the Lord would have both united to Jefus Chrift in 
one Body, heabolifhes Circumcilion. 

This Ordinance was difoenfed to the Males: The Females were inclu- 
ded and comprehended in the Males, and as fully and clearly compre- 
hended in them, as the Land and the Trees are faid to be Circum- 
cifed ; fo are all the Daughters of Abraham, as they came of circum- 
cifed Parents, and married to circumcifed Husbands : And their Sons 
were circumcifed, fo that it was a circumcifed Nation and People. 

It was to be done upon the eighth Day after the Birth of the Child ; 
and fo fn this Text, He gave him the Covenant of Circumcifion, and fo 
Abraham begat Ifaac, and circumcifed him the eighth Day. The reafon 
of this limitation might be, partly becaufe of the Infant- Irate of the 
Church in thofe Times ^ therefore the Lord teacheth them, and limit- 
eth them even in fuch fmall particulars, which are now left to be de- 
termined only by the general Rule of the Word, even the- parti cu4ar 
Time and Seafon of our Circumcifion. 

It's- thought arfo-this might have fome further Myftery in it, in re- 
ference to the Chrifiian Sabbath • which h the Eighth Day in one re- 
flect, the firft in other ways of numbring. And to refpeft a new State 
and Life, after the corapleatand full number of the Days of this Life 
here are gone through • after the Week is ended, (the Week of this 
Life here) we come to Heaven and Glory, which was one thing in- 
timated in Circumcikon, as you will hear afterwards. But fo much for 
the external part of this Ordinance, the cutting off the Foreskin of Abra- 
ham and bii Male- feed, and that upon the Eighth Day. 

2. To fpeafc a little to the Myftery of this Ordinance, the meaning of 
it, the Spirit of this external Difpenfation. For befides the Shell, 
there was a Kernel •, betides the Letter of the Law of the Ordinance, 
there was much Spiritual Mvftery intended and aimed at in ft. Now 
then what is the Myftery of Circumcifion, the inward part of it, that is 
the Covenant ? And be gave him the Covenant of CrrcHmcifton. 5o that 
Circumcifion is the Covenant, and it is the fame Exprefltoa where this- 
Ordinance is firft inftitured : Ton fbal) have my Covenant in your Flefk, 
Gen. 17. It is called a Covenrfnc^ as other Signs' and Sacramento are • 
it is a Sacramental Phrafe ; The Lamb is called tbft i\^mr, the Bread 


176 The Gofpel of Circumcifion. 

the Body, the Wine the Blood of Chrift : So Circumcifion is the Cove- 
nant of it. 

But what Covenant is it that Circumcifion doth relate to ? This is the 
great Qnejlion. 

You know there be Two Covenants, that of Works, and that of 

Now Circumcifion was not the Covenant of Works ^ but the Cove- 
nant of Grace. 

That it was not a Covenant of Works 5 takcthefe five Confuta- 
tions to make good that Ground, before we proceed any further ^ for 
if it be the Covenant of Works, it cuts off all that is to be faid, as 
to the Spirit and Myftery of -this Ordinance: All that you will hear 
afterwards, will be things belonging to the Covenant of Grace ; there- 
fore let us prove, that it is not the Covenant of Works that Circum- 
cifion doth relate to. 

Argum. 1. Jefus Chrift is not the Covenant of Works: But Chrifl: 
is the Covenant of Circumcifion ; and therefore it is not Works, but 
Grace. He is fo called in Jfa. 49. 8. / will give thee for a Covenant to 
the People. Now Chrift was in Circumcifion, he was the Minifter of 
Circumcifion, he is the Seed which Circumcifion relates to, I will be 
the God of thy Seed. This Seed is Chrift, Gal. 3. 16. Now to Abraham 
and his Seed were the Promifes made. He faith not, and to Seeds, at of 
many £ bat .as of one, and to thy Seed, which is Chrift. Chrift is the Sum 
and Subftance of the Covenant of Grace : Now this was the Covenant 
which God made with Abraham, and fealed in Circumcifion, that he 
would give him a Seed, which Seed is Chrift. 

2. The Gofpcl is Grace and not Works: But the Covenant of A- 
brahamvjsis the Gofpel •, and therefore it is Grace, not Works. It is 
the Apoftle's Expreflion that the Gofpel was preached to Abraham, Gal. 
3. 8. The Scripture, fore feeing that God would juflify the Heathen through 
Faith, preached the Gofpel before to Abraham. There is no Gofpel of 
Works*, for Works is Law, and bad Tidings: If it be the Gofpel, 
it is the Covenant of Grace. 

3. If it was a Covenant of Works, it will follow, that Abraham 
and all the Old Teftament-Saints either were not faved, orelfewere 
faved without Chrift, neither of which can be admitted. The truth is, 
if it were Works, it will follow, they were all damned, for by Works 
fbaU no Flefh be juftified and faved. If they were faved, and yet by 
Works, they were faved without Chrift, but without Chrift there is 
no Salvation. In him, in this Seed (hall all the Nations of the World be 
blejfed, that is* by Jefus Chrift : No Blefling and Salvation without 


The Gofpel of Circumcifion. 1 7 7 

bim ; and therefore he and his Seed were favec^ by Chrift ^ for Grace 
was in this Covenant. 

4. To be a God to any Man, this is not carnal, this is not Works, 
but Grace. It is true, God was a God to Adam before he fell : But 
to be a God to Sinners y this is Grace ^ he was a God to Adam in Innocency 
by virtue of the Covenant of Works, but he is not a God to an/ 
Sinner but in a way of Free Grace. Now that was the Covenant, / 
wiU be a God to thee and thy Seedy Gen. 17. 7. Abraham was a Sinner, 
and a Child of Wrath by Nature, as well as others ; yet God was his 
God truly. For God to be a God to thofe that never finned, there 
may be Merit : But for God to be a God to thofe that have finned, 
this is Grace indeed. Angels are faved by Works, Sinners cannot be 
faved but by Grace. That ever the Lord fhould eondefcend to engage 
in fuch a Relation, as to give a Sinner Intereft in him, and Propriety 
in him as his God, this is Grace; they that do not think this is Grace, 
they do not need Arguments, but Pity and Prayer. 

5. Confider that it was the fatal Error and Mifcarriage of the car- 
nal Jews, that they did underftand Circumcifion and all the reft of 
thofe ancient Types and Ceremonies, as a Covenant of Works, and 
herein they loft Chrift and their Souls. It is every where charged up- 
on them as their Sin ; all the Prophets and Apoftles do endeavour 
with all their might, to beat them oat of thofe Mifconftrudions of 
Circumcifion, and the Covenant of God in thofe Times. The Apoftle 
proves it at large in Rom. 4. that it was Grace and not Works, that 
Abraham was juftified by. Now this was the Error that all the car- 
nal Jews fell into, that they took it to be a Covenant of Works ; As 
the Pbarifees they had a Righteoufnefs of their own, they were all of 
that Spirit •, they took it all as Law, even the Gofpel and the Grace 
that was in the Covenant, and fo fell ihort of the Bleffings of it : 
Therefore if our New Teftament-Ctrcumciflon be pra&ifed by any as the 
Covenant of Works, as the Jews did when the Apoftle preached to 
them, they will fall fhort of Heaven. Now if they took it to be a 
Covenant of Works, (hall we juftifie their Errors and Mifcarriage 
againft the whole preaching of the Gofpel ? This is enough to 
fhew that it is the Covenant of Grace, that Circumcifion doth relate 

Now briefly, What is this Covenant of Grace ? And what is the Grace 
of the Covenant which Circumcifton relates to ? This is a very large Field. 
There were there parts of this Grace of the Covenant that the Lord 
made with Abraham and his Seed. 

1. To be a God to him. 

A a 2 # To 

178 The G of pel of Circumcifwn . 

2. To give him a Seed. 

3-. To provide an Inheritance both for him and them. 
And thefe three general Heads will comprize and take in the whole 
Myftery of Circumcifion. 

1. The firft part of the Covenant is this, that God would be a God to 
htm and his Seed : And this indeed is moft comprehenfive, and includes 
all tftfc reft. 1 will eflablifh my Covenant , and be a God to thee and thy 
Children after thee. Gen. 17. 7. 4nd what is it for God to be a God to 
a Man? thy God, or a God to thee ? It is, when he gives to a poor 
Creature afpecial Inter eft and Propriety in himfelf ; fo that God in his 
Al-fnfficiency and Efficiency is ours, and we are his. All his Attri- 
butes and Works are ours, for our Good. 1 xcild be thy God, that is, 
all my Attributes fhall be thine, and for thy Good, as really as they 
are mine for my Glory. The infinite Wifdom of God fhall contrive 
their Good, whofe God he is •, the infinite Power of God {hall effect 
it : The infinite Love of God is theirs • his Mercy, Truth, and all his 
Attributes are theirs. As his eflential Power : So his working-Power, 
or his actual-Power. As he will be all to them : So he will work all 
for them. • Now this, as I faid, includes and infers all the reft; : This 
is the firft and moft general. 

2. That he would give him a Seed ; that was another part of the Co- 
venant, Gen. 1 7. 5, 6. Thou [halt be a Father of many Nations, thy Name 
fhall be no more called Abram, but Abraham. / will make Nations of 
thee. As God did lengthen out his Name-, fo he would lengthen out 
his Pofterity, even to length of Time. But now what is this Seed the 
Lord promifed to Abraham! The Queftion is, whether it be a meer 
natural Seed, or a jpiritual Seed ? Certainly it was not meerly a natu- 
ral Seed } it is true, that is one thing, that was the Shell and out- 
fide of it} but the Kernel of this Promife was a Spiritual Seed. There 
was a four-fold Seed promifed to Abraham, above a natural Seed, and 
I (hall prove each Particular out of plain Scripture 

1. That great Seed, who was not only the Seed of the Woman, but 
the Son of God: This was the firft and chief Seed here intended, Gal. 
3. 16. He faith not as to Seeds, but to thy Sfed, which vs Chrift, fuch a 
Seed in whom all Nations are bleffed. Now it is in Chnft only that all 
Nations are Bleffed, therefore He was this promifed Seed. The Lord 
had not before limited the Seed Mejfiak to any particular Family, but 
left it at Lrge ( fo far as appears) among the whole Race of Mankind. 
It was faid to Adam, the Seed of the Woman ^ there was then no fur- 
ther Lin "nation till Noah's Time. And then in Abraham's Time, the 
Lord limits the Covenant to his Seed. It was afterwards confined to 


The Gofpel of Circumcifion. 179 

Judah, one of the twelve Tribes : At laft the Lord went further, to 
one Family \njadah, namely, David's: But here he limits it to Abra- 
ham, that of him fhould come that great and blejfed Seed : This was the 
main thing indeed, as without which, all other fropufes could pever 
bebeftowed and fulfilled -, but through Him they are Tea and Amen. 
Abraham (axe my Day and rejoyced, he. faw the Mejfiws was to come of 
his Loyns^ this was the Seed in whom he believed, and by whom he 
was (aved. 

2. There was a Church- feed promifed. The meaning is this, That 
the Church of God fhould be continued in his Race and Pofterity, the 
true Religion fhould be fetled there. There were other godly Perfons 
before and afcer : We read of Mrfchizedtk and Job and his Friends, 
and it is very like there might be others : And when God had fetled 
Salvition to Abraham, it was the Duty of all others to join themfelves 
to that Church. The Lord entailed by Covenant all his Ordinances 
to Abraham and his Poftei ity. He gave them his Statutes and Judg- 
ments, he chofe them to be a peculiar People, a People to the Lord ^ 
and that vs a Church, 3 Society intruded and inverted with the Ordi- 
nances : And thus he dealt with the be jhewedhis Statutes to Ifrael: 
This is no fmall Priviledge and Vp rcy to enjoy the Ordinances : This 
is called the Kingdom of God. This Chrift tare* ned the Jt ws, fhould 
be taken from them and given to other People, Matth. 21. 4.3. that 
is, God would fettle his Church among the Gentiles, and give them his 
Ordinances. And that this is a Priviledge, we fee by that Expreflion 
of the Apoftle to the Epheftans, wherein he mentions it as a part of the 
dreadful Mifery of the 'Epbefians, that they were Aliens to the Common- 
wealth of Ifrael. 

3. There was a third thing intended, and that is a believing Seed ^ 
fuch as (hould be truly Godly ; And of this the Aportle fpeaks in Gal.$.j. 
Know ye thin fore that they which are of Faith, are the Seed of Abraham : 
So that all true Believers are his Seed in thatSenfe. He is called the 
Father of the Faithful, all Believers are his Pofterity. There were Mul- 
titudes that were truly Godly of Abraham's Seed, and all that are 
Godly are his Seed ^ they walk in his Steps, they are the Seed of tke 
Covenant, they are fpiritually related to him. He was the Pattern 
and typical Head of that Covenant, which we all believe ; the Pattern 
of Fiith to us : He is called our Father. It is fjid of him, that he be- 
lieved against Serfe and Reafon, this was not writen for his fake alone, 
but for us alfj that we might follow his Steps. 

4. There was included in this Covenant an ingrafted Seed. It is the 
Apoftle's Expreflion in Rom. 1 1. 17. I mean, a Seed cot only of the 
Jews, but of the Gentiles. God dj^ not only engage to Abraham that 

A a 2 there 

i go The Gofpel of Circumcijion. 

there fhould be a Church of his own natural Seed, and that there 
ftiQuld be Saints of his natural Seed, but that the Gentiles fhould be 
ingY^fted into his Covenant, and fo become his Seed. Thou being a wild 
Olive Tree vcert grafted in among them, and partakeft of the Root and Fat' 
nefs eftbe Olive Tree. God did above and beyond the ordinary Courfe 
of Things, ingrafc the Gentiles into that Covenant that he had once 
made with Abraham. 

And thus you fee what the Seed is which the Lord did promife in 
the Covenant, whereof Circumcifion was the Seal. He did promife to 
give to Abraham that Seed, firftly and chiefly, who was the Son of 
God-, and a Church-Seed ; and a believing Seed; and not only a Seed 
of the Nation of the Jews, but a Seed ingrafted into that Grace and 
Covenant from among the Gentiles. So we have gone through # two 
Branches of the Covenant : The third is this. 

3. That God would give an Inheritance to Abraham and his Seed. This 
was the third part of God's Covenant with hiro. It is the greateft de- 
fire in Nature to have Children, and it is a good defire, it is of God. 
And what do Parents defire next ? A comfortable Inheritance for 
them : And this did the Lord promife to Abraham. And in that Text 
which hath been fo often alledged, God firftpromifes to make him 
exceeding Fruitful •, and then, / will give to thee and thy Seed after tbee- r 
the Land wherein thou art yet a Stranger. The Lord promifed an /»- 
heritance^ and that Inheritance was the Land of Canaan. 

Now the Queftion is, whether this was a temporal or fpiritual Inhe- 
ritance ? 

Doubtlefs the Lord did not promife to Abraham Canaan meerly as a 
temporal Inheritance, but as a fpiritual Inheritance. Canaan was not as 
other Lands are, a meer outward Thing ^ but it was a typical Land, it 
was the Land of Emmanuel, it is the Land of Glory. Canaan was 3 
Type of Heaven, and in that refpeft they did fo earneftly prize it, and 
look upon it as being Heaven in an earthly Shadow, therefore Jacob 
and Jofeph mufl needs be buried there: Therefore the Apoftle a fibres 
us, they did feefc abetter Country, they profeflTed themfelves Stran- 
gers and Pilgrims here upon Earth •, They that fay fuch Things declare 
plainly they feek another Country which is an Heavenly one \ wherefore God 
is mt afhamed to be called their God. It is a heavenly City, whofe Buil- 
der and Maker is God : So that under that Shadow the Lord dicf pro- 
mife Heaven to Abraham. And this was the third part of this Cove* 
nant. This Land of Canaan is called the Mountain of Holinefs : What 
Expreflion can be higher ? Dan. \ 1. and therefore the Saints did look 
beyond that to another Country, 

* You 

The Gofpel of C i rcumcifwn. 183 

You fee what the Covenant was, and what were the Principal 
Things and Branches of it : That God fhould be his God, that God 
fhould give him a Seed, and that God fhould give an Inheritance to 
him and them. 

You fee what the Covenant is that Circumcifion doth relate to. 

Now the lafl thing propounded was this, What refocl Circumcifion 
bath to this Covenant ? He gave him the Covenant of Circumcifion. The 
reafon of this Queftion is, becaufe, altho' aU the Ordinances and In- 
ftitutions of thofe Times, did relate to the fame Covenant : Yet every 
Ordinance did fo, withfome peculiarity, with fome facial refpecl, and 
in a peculiar manner. Now, for the peculiar Re foil which Circumcifion 
hath to this Covenant : Note thefe five Things. 

1 . Circumcifion re foils the Covenant, as the Sign or Seal, or Sacrament 
of Initiation into the Covenant. The Scripture ufeth all thofe Words, 
and they are fitly ufed, Rom. 4.. 11. it is called a Sign and Seal of the 
Rtghteoufnefs of Faith : And allthe^zx^ Signs of the Covenant of Grace 
are Seals alfo •, there are no nuda Signa. As they are Signs to repre- 
fent, fo they are Seals to ratify and confirm the Covenant of Grace,, 
and the Bleftings of it, and alfo means to exhibit them, as you know 
the Nature of Sacraments is fb. 

So then Circumcifion was a Seal and a Sacrament, in the way of a 
Type : It was a typical Sacrament. We have Sacraments now, but ours 
are not Typical, are not Shadows of good Things to come, and of the. 
Gofpel and MeJJias yet to be exhibited •, for they are pad and done. 
in our Times : But Circumcifion was fuch a Sacrament, as was to be a 
Type of the future Exhibition of the Covenant and Blefiings of it: And 
it was the Type, or Sign, or Seal, and Sacrament of Initiation, or En- 
trance, or fokmn Admijfion into the Covenant: For it was to be the 
firtt; it was to precede the Paflbver ; as you know it was appointed 
and ordained in Exod. ia. Circumcifion was fir ft to be adminiftred. 

Not that Perfons were admitted by Circumcifion into the Covenant 
or Church of God; no, they were in the Covenant before, elfe they 
were not to be admitted to Circumcifion •, they have no right to ths 
Seals of the Covenant, who are not firifc in the Covenant. It is a 
common Miftake in our Times, that many think that Baptifm doth. 
make a Perfon a Member of the Church of God, it dGth Seal Member- 
fhip, or elfe they have no Ground to have it adminiftied to them. Thi3 
is the firft. 

2. As holding forth the Suffering of Jefus Chrift : He is the principal 
Seed whereof the Covenant fpeaks. Circumcifion was a bloody Sacra- 
ment, and the firft Blood that Jefus Chrift (hed, was in Circumcifion ; 

Yo u . 

152 The Gofpel of Circumcifion. 

You know he was circumcifed the eighth Day, and fo it had a refpeft 
to that, to fhadow forth that, and the whole State of his Humiliati- 
on : And fo it was fame part of that Attonement and Expiation which 
Chrift made for our Sins. It is not only the last A& and the I a ft Suf- 
fering, the reparation or his Soul and Body • but all his Sorrow he 
underwent from the Cradle to his Grave : All thefe were parts of the 
Price paid to God's Juftice fpr us. Now Circumcifion did forefhew 
this, for it was a Sacrament very painful to the Flelh, and a Sacra- 
ment wherein fame Blood was (hed in the circumcifed part. 

3. It did in afpecial manner Jhadow forth the great and glorious Righ- 
teoufnefs which rve receive by Faith, the Righteoufnefs ofjefus Qorifi for our Ju- 
ftification. The Apoftle is exprefs in Rom.^.n. He received the Sign of 
Circumcifion, a Seal of the Righteoufnefs of Faith. Circumcifion was not 
a Seat to Abraham before he did believe, that were a ftrange thing in- 
deed : But in the true nature of the Thing} and in the Defign and In- 
tendment of the Ordinance, it was a Sign and Seal of the Righteouf- 
nefs of Faith. We are juilified by Chrift's Righteoufnefs, and that 
Righteoufnefs we believe in, is imputed to us for our Juftification : 
Therefore the Apoftle difputes very clearly and ftrongly, That Abra- 
ham did receive Circumcifion after he did' firft believe unto Righteouf- 
nefs } and fo Circumcifion was a Seal of that Righteoufnefs which he 
was po(Teft of, before his Circumcifion •, Rom. 4. for they were all to 
look to Chrift by Faith, by virtue of their Circumcifion ; and if they 
did not, it was their great Sin, Folly and Error, as indeed the carnal 
Jews did not. 

4. Circumcifion Lad a fpecial Refpecl to another great Bleffing of the 
Covenant, and that is, Mortification, or the cutting off the fuperfluity of 
Naughtinefs and Corruption. Therefore the Lord promifes to Circum- 
cife their Hearts, or to cut ofFthe Foreskin of their Hearts, JDeut. 30. 6. 
therefore he often blames them, that they were not circumcifed in 
Heart. That fhews that Circumcifion did look at the Work of Morti- 
fication in the Heart •, and not only at Mortification, but alfo at Ho- 
linefsor Regeneration of the Heart, Life and whole Man : It looks 
at the cutting off the fuperfluity of finful Corruption, therefore Cor- 
ruption is expreft in that way of Uacircumcifion : The Unfan&ified- 
nefsof any part, is in Scripture expreft by thellncircumcifednefs of 
it ; 1 am a Man of uncircumcifed Lips : You know his Complaint, that 
is, corrupt, not fo mortified as I fhould be, Atl. n. 51. Te ft iff- necked 
and uncircumcifed in Heart and Ears. This is called the Circumcillon 
made without Hands, Col. 2. u. In whom alfo ye are circumcifed with 
the Circumcifion made without Hands. What mean by this ? 


The Gofpel of Circumcifion. ig% 

But putting off the Body of the Sins of the Flefb, thro' the Circumcifion 
of Chrift. 

5. It bad a facial refpett to fhew and fhadow forth, the New Teft ament- 
Ordinance of Circumcifion. And what is the Ordinance inicead of Cir- 
cumcifion under the New Tefhment ? Ic is Baptifm : Therefore the 
Apoftle makes an exprefs parallel between Circumcifion and Baptifm, 
Col* 2. 1 1, 12. he makes them to be the fame ; Buried with him in Bap- 
tifm, and circumcijed with fpiritual Circumcifion. For look as Circumcifion 
was the initiating Seal then, fo Baptifm is now. As in Circumcificu 
there was cutting off the fuperfluicy of the Flefh : So in Baptifm,there is 
a wafhing away of the Fikh of the Body, they both refpeft Mortification. 
And fo you have fecn both what the outward part of Circumcifion is,whac 
the inward part is,what the Covenantit relates to is, and in what peculiar 
manner it doth refpect the Covenant : He gave him the Covenant of Cir- 

And now all that I (hall add, fhall be this ; look as there was a grofs 
abufe of the Ordinances under the Old Tcftament, particularly of this 
Ordinance of Circumcifion ; fo there is of our Gofpel- Circumcifion : 
Look as this Ordinance of Circumcifion might be made of none EfTecl, 
and might be turned into a Nullity, their .Circumcifion might become Vri- 
circumcifion : So it is with many in their Baptifm, their Baptifm is no 
Baptifm. It is the Apoftle's complaintin Rom. 2. If thou art Circumci- 
fed,it profits thee, if then be a keeper of the Law ; but if thou be a breaker ofit 
thy Circumcifion is become Vncircumcifion, Rom. 2. 28, 29. For he is not a 
Jew, which is one outwardly, neither is that Circumcifion, which is outward 
in the Fie ft) ; but he is a Jew which is one inwardly, and Circumcifion is that 
of the' Heart, in the Spirit, and not in the Letter,, wbofs Pr/iife is not of Men-, 
but of God. The fame holds concerning tftij Ordinance which Circum- 
cifion doth hold forth. He is not a Ctirifttan who is one outwardly, nei- 
ther is that Baptifm which is outward in the^Flefh ; but he is a Chriftian 
that h'one inwardly, and Baptifm is that of the Heart, in the Spirit, and 
mt in the Letter, whofe Praife is not of Men, but of God. Th# Apo- 
ftle's Scope, is to deprefs the External part of the Ordinance as of no 
Worth and value, feparated from, or compared with the Spiritual part - 7 
foit is with our Ordinances, which we enjoy under the New Telia- 
ment. What is the wafhing away of the filth of the Body, if the Heart 
be not waflied 1 But it is, as Ciraimcifion was to them, an Aggravati- 
on of their Sin and Condemnation. J it ill f unfit (mt\\ God Jer. 9, 25, 
26.) all them which arc Qhcumcifd together, with the weir curncj feet. Egypt 
and Juddh and Edom, and the Children of Amrnon and iMoab, and all 
thai are in the utmofl Corners, di\ 1 11 in the Wilder ;, for all thefe Na- 
tions are imcircumcif ), and all the Hcufe of lfrad are uncircHmc'ifed hi 

184 The Gdfpel of the Sacrifices. 

Heart. So God will Punilh the Baptifed with the Unbaptifed together. 
For many People are unbaptifed in the Flefh, and many of the Houfe of 
Jfrad, many profeffing Chriftians are not Baptifed in Heart. They 
have the Circumcifion, but not the Covenant of Circumcifion ; they 
have the Water, but not the Spirit of Baptifm. Therefore take heed 
of feparating the outward part from the inward part of the Ordinance, 
do not reft in the external Priviledge, but look after the Siprit and 
Bleffing of every Ordinance ; get God to walh thy Heart, and the 
Heart of thy Seed. 'Tis not enough to have thy Body waihed, if thy 
Heart and Soul be not waihed from its Filth. 



June 14. 1668. 

Levit. 7. 37, 38, 

This is the Law of the Burnt-offering, of the Meat-offering, and of the Sin- 
offering, and of the Trefpafs-offering, and of the Confecratfans, and of the 
Sacrifice of the Peace-offerings, &c. 

TH E Perpetual Statutes of the Law of Ceremonies, have been re- 
ferred to Five general Heads. 

1. The initiating Seal of Circumcifion. 

2. The legal Offerings and Sacrifices and Purifications. 

3. The Temple. 

4. The Priefthood. 

5. The Feftivals. 

Of the initiating Seal of thofe Times, we have formerly fpoken from 
Ads. 7. 8. 

That which next follows in the Method propounded, is the Legal 
Offerings, Concerning which, the Text lays down Two Aflercions or 
Points of Do&rine. 

1. That there was a Divine Jnflitution, and Command of Cod for the 
Offerings and Sacrifices which were under the Law. 

2. That there were fix kinds or forts of Propitiatory Sacrifices under the 
Law % viz. the Burnt-offering, the Meat-offering, the Peace-offering, 


The Go/pel of Sacrifices. 1 8 5 

the Sin-offering, the Trefpafs-offering, and the Offering of Corifecra- 
tion. This is the Scope oiverf. 37. The former Do&rine is the Scope 
of verf. 38. but that which is laft mentioned in the Words of the Texr. 
is firft in Order of Confideration. 

Dodt. 1. That there was a Divine In flit ution and Command of God, for 
the Offerings and Sacrifices which were under the Law. The Text indede 
fpeaks properly of propitiatory Sacrifices •, but there is a general Truth 
in the Proportion concerning all their Sacrifices, and all the forts and 
kinds of them. This Book of Leviticus begins thus, And he called, Vai- 
kra •, that is, the Lord called by an audible Voice from his dwelling 
Place, the Throne of his Glory, which was upon the Mercy Seat be- 
tween the Cherubims, as he had promifed Exod. 25. 22- fee Numb, 7 1 
89. It is true, it is (aid Jer. 7. 22. concerning Burnt-Offerings or Sa* 
crifices, that God commanded them not, &c. But the Senfeand Meaning 
is comparative, tho 5 the Grammar of the Words found as if it were 
Negative. It cannot be explained better than the Old Note hath 
done it ^ (hewing, that it was not his chief Intent and Purpofe, that 
they mould offer Sacrifices, but tbat they mould regard wherefore they 
were Ordained, to wit, to be joined to the Word as Seals and Confir. 
mations of Remiffion of Sins in Chrift ^ for without the Word, they 
were Vain and Unprofitable. 

To open this Doclrine a little to you, we mult firft Confidet what 
a Sacrifice or an Offering is. 

Now an Offering in general, is any thing prefented to the Lord to become 
peculiarly bis, and to be typical of Chrifl and Gofpel Myfteries, The for- 
mer part of the Defcription extends to Anti-typical Offerings , as well 
as typical ; to Gofpel, as well as Legal Offerings : For our Souls and 
Bodies and all our Services are offered and prefented to the Lord, but 
not as Types and Shadows of another Gofpel ; but they become his ia 
a fpiritual and peculiar Propriety as theirs of Old did. Their Offerings 
by being offered became the Lords,they prefenting,and the Lord accept- 
ing them : Therefore they are called/Zo^as being Separated to the Lord, 
feparated and fet apart from common life to Holy life. Hence they are 
called Gifts, Quorbanim, as being given to the Lord : a Qnarab, appro- 
pinquavit : So in the Text, their Oblations or their Corbans, fee Mark 
7. 11. 

All this holds true of GofpeUOfferings under the New Teftament' : 
But the Legal Offerings were fet apart for God, with refpeft to Chrifl and 
his great Sacrifice and Offering of himfelf up unto God for us : They all 
had fome Relation to this, either as to the thing it felf, or the Bieffed 
Effects and Fruits of it. 

B b Some 

1 86 The G of pel of Sacrifices . 

Some have diftinguifhed them into three Sorts, 
i. Such cvs were offered at the Brazen Altar, or the Altar of Burnt- 
Offering ; which reprefented the Death and Sufferings of JefusCbrHL 

2. Such as were offered in the Sanftuary, more near to the Holy of 
Holies, viz. the Shew-bread, and the Incenfe at the Altar of In- 
*enfe ; which had refpeft to his Intercejjion for us at the Throne of 
Grace, in the Virtue, and by the Merit of that Sacrifice, which he be- 
fore had fhed and offered up to the Juftice of God for us. 

3. Such as were offered in the Holy of Holies , where the High Prieft 
came upon fome extraordinary and fpecial Occalions ^ which did re- 
prefent the fad Attainment of the Ends of both the former ^ namely, our 
full Accefs unto, and Communion with God through the Influence 
both of the Death and Oblation, as likewife of the Prayers and Inter- 
cejfion of our Lord Jefus Chrift for us. 

The two latter of thefe we fhall fpeak unto, when we come to 
thofe Parts of the Temple where thefe Services were to be performed 1 
But the fir ft fort, viz. the Sacrifices and Offerings at the Brazen Altar 
we are now to fpeak unto. 

Thefe Sacrifices that were offered at the Brazen Altar, are com- 
monly diftributed into two Sorts : Propitiatory, and Eacharifiical \ 
i\*ijt%<i & iux*p'Ax*i or Sacrifices of Expiation, and Sacrifices of 
Thankfgiving, Pfal. 107. 22. 

It is the former fort whereof the Text fpeaks, and they are here 
called Corbans, a Term which ( as fome affirm ) is ufnaily appropria- 
ted to this fort of Offerings, though the notation and original, 
Signification of it be more General. For the opening whereof unto 

1 . I fhall give you a fhort Defcription of them. 

2. Annex fome additional Rules for the further Enlightning and IUuft ration 
of them. 

1. You may fee the nature of them in this fhort Defcription: Thefe 
propitiatory Sacrifices were Holy of Holintffes, or Offerings mofi holy to the 
Lord *, for atonement , or for the appeafing of his Wrath 5 by the defiruclkn of 
the Sacrifice ; to (hadow forth the true atonement and expiation of Sin y 
by the Death of Jefus 3 and our Reconciliation to y and Communion with God 
through him. 

1. That they were Holy of Holineffts, or Offerings mo ft Holy to the 
Lord : It is the Phrafe which the Scripture ufeth concerning them, 
Lev. 2. 3, 10. So are called in the Law thofe facred things, which 
ought not to be touched, and thofe Meats whereof none were to eat, 
bos only the confecrated Priefls in the holy place, near the Altar 


The Gofpel of Sacrifices* 187 

Deodab in for. \uodefh auodefhim : only there is fome limitation about 
the Peace- Offerings, of which afterward. 

It is a diftin&ion that doth occur in Lev. 21. 22. He (haft cat the 
bread of his God, both of the mofl holy, and of the holy, 

The old Note is this, the wo/2 Holy, as of the Sacrifice for Sin: the 
Holy, as of the Tenths and Firft Fruits. 

Deodat. thus, [ mofl Holy 2 as were the Shew-Bread, the Meat-Of- 
ferings, the parts of Sin- Offerings, and Trefpafs- Offerings. 

C Holy 2 fuch as were the Firft Fruits, Tithes and Offerings of 

By Holy of Holineffes, is meant mofl: Holy ^ that Language elegant- 
ly exprefling the fuperlative Degree by fuch a Reduplication: As 
King of Kings , Song of Songs , Heaven of Heavens , that is , 
the molt excellent in their Kind : So Holy of Holies, that is, mofi 

The other fort are but Holy, or Holinefs of Praifes, quodc/h hillulim 1 
As the Phrafe is in Lev. 19. 24. Te (hall count the Fruit thereof as uncir- 
cumcifed three Tears, hut in the fourth Tear all the Fruit thereof fh all be 
Holinefs of Praifes to the Lord. 

The ground of this Double Degree of Holinefs feems to be chiefly 
this : The more immediate and diredk Relation they had to the Per- 
fon, A&ions and Sufferings of the Meffiah, the more Holy thefe Legal 
Things of old were : Therefore thefe Sacrifices of Expiation, rela- 
ting dire&ly to the great Work of our Redemption and Reconcilia- 
tion unto God by the Death of his Son, they were Holy of Holineffes 
unto the Lord. 

2. The End of them was Atonement of their Sins, or appeaftng the of- 
fended Juflice of Cod. Hence they are faid to have a fweet Smelly Lev. 

1.9. Gen. 8. 21. This is the Phrafe, Lev. 1.4. Lecapper, to make At- 
tornment, applied to Chrift, Rom. 3.25. 1 John 2 2. and it is a Phrafe 
often ufed. Hence arifeth the Difiinllion of Sacrifices • From their 
Ends and Vfes • fome being for Atonement, as thefe whereof we now 
fpeak : And others for Thankfgiving, of which fomething may be 
fpoken hereafter if the Lord will. God is angry with Sinners, Juftice 
is provoked and burns like Fire : Therefore fome Satisfa&ion muft be 
made, that Juftice may be fathfied, and God atoned and reconciled to 
the Sinner. 

3. This Atonement was made by the Death or Deflruclion of the 
Sacrifice : This is the Nature of all Propitiatory Sacrifices, nothing 
can atone God, nothing can frppeafe offended Juftice, but Death and 
Deftru&ion. The Sacrifice muft be deftroyed, either in whole, or in 

B b 2 part; 

|$8 Tbe Gofpel of Sacrifices. 

pare, and this was done by Fire. Hence they are called Fire>Offir- 
wps % or Offerings made by Fire : lDWN*. jgnitiones, Fireings : Obiac 
tio ignita. And if they were living Creatures, they mull be flain and 
killed : Hence called Ztbacbim, in Greek h v9t «y as much as to fay, a 
fiaughtered Offering *, in which Senfe Zebacb is contradiftinguifhed 
unto Mincba y the former being of living Creatures, the latter of 
Meat and Drink ^ but in both there was a Deftrutlion of the Thing 
Sacrificed-, either by Fire, if it were of Inanimate Things 7 or if it 
were a living Creature, both by Blood and Fire. 

4. The End and Defiga of all this was to prefigure and reprefent the 
JDeatb of Jeftis Chrift y and our Reconciliation unto God thereby , For the 
Law had threatned Death for Sin, and the Blood of Bulls and Goats 
could not take away Sin y Heb. 10. 

Some of the very Pagans have had' fo much glimmerings of Light, as 
to fubferibe to the Truth of this : And thence Satan triumphing over 
the fallen Sons of Men, and abufing and perverting their Convictions, 
feduced them in the diftrefs and horror of their- Con fciences, even to 
Sacrifice Men to appeafe their aagryGods-, wherein they a&edupon 
this Principle, Quod $ro vita hominis nifivita hominis reddatur, nonpofie 
aliter Deorum immortaiium numen placari arbitrantur y as Cafar de Bell. 
Gal, lib, 6. reports of the ancient Druids y they thought that unlefs the 
Life of Man were facrifked for his Life, the Deity of the immortal 
Gods could not otherwife be appeared, Fid. Lee Temple pag. 332, 
Homer alfo ibid, wherein the old Pagans had more Light than the 
Apoftate Jews have at this Day. 

Chrift therefore is called n Sacrifice , Epbcfi 5. 2. 1 Cor. 5. 7. Christ 
but Pafcbal Lamb is facrificed for as. And as they refer dire&ly unto 
Cbritt bimfelf : So the Scripture teacheth us to apply them, in a lower 
way, to the Saints alfo y wbofe Souls and Bodies and Services are living 
Sacrifices, acceptable unto God through Jefus Chrift, Rom.M. 1. 
Heb. 13. with fuch Sacrifices Cod vs mil -{leafed. The Sacrifice Chrift 
doth placare Deum, appeafe an incenfed God: Our Sacrifices do but 
flacere Deo, pleafe an appeafed God. 

Thus you fee the Description made good in thefe Four Things put 
together,, wherein you fee the Nature of thefe Legal Offerings and 
Sacrifices, thajt they were Holy of Holinefles, or Offerings moft Holy 
to the Lord, for Atonement, or for the appealing of his Wrath by 
the. Deftru&ion of the Sacrifice, to fhadow forth the true Atonement 
and Expiation of Sin, by the Death of Jefus Chrift : And fo much 
for the Nature of them •, which was the fir ft Enquiry, 

2, For 

The Go/pel of Sacrifices. 1 89 

2. For further Rales of JUufiration, take thefe Propofltio&s. 

Prop. 1. That the Inftitution of Sacrifices was prefently after the Sin 
and Fall of Man : But the Renewed Inftitution and farther Viretlion and 
Regulation of them, was by Mofes unto Ifrael. I fay the first Inftituti* 
on of them, was prefently after the Sin and Fall of Man: For there 
neither was, nor could be any life of them before. The firft Intima- 
tion, (though fomewhat obfcure ) which we have of them, is in Gen. 
3. 21. the Lord made them Coats of Skins and cloaihed them, but they 
could not wear the Skins until the Beafts were {lain : And flain they 
were (it is like) for Sacrifice, there being no need of them for Food 
at that time, nor any mention of the Ufe of fuch Food till Noah's time 
after the Flood, Gen. 9. 

But we read of Sacrifices more plainly, Gen. 4. 4. where Abel is fatd 
to have brought an Offering to the Lord of the fir filings of his Flock, and 
of the Fat thereof, which, being a godly Man, he neither would nor 
durft have done, had not the Lord appointed it: So like wife Noah-. 
Gen. 8.20,21. builded an Altar unto the Lord, and took of every clean 
Beafts and of every dean Fowl, and offered Burnt -Offerings on the Altai. 
And the Lord fmelled a fweet favour •, fo Abraham, Ifaac, Jacob. God's 
Acceptance of Noah's Sacrifices, and before that of Abels, is a fuffici- 
ent Proof and Evidence of his having infiituted and appointed them; for 
Cultus non injl Status, non eft accepts, Worfhip. not commanded is not 
accepted. See like wife Fxod. 10. 25. and 18, 12. where they were 
ufed among the Jews, before the giving of the Law upon Mount 

But from this ancient Inftitution, with fome further help from the 
Jews, the Fie at ben had a traditional dead Knowledge of this Truth : 
But as they forgat and loft the true Object, to whom they mould have 
offered up their Sacrifices, fo they had nothing but a dead Form of 
Sacrifices, wholly perverted from their true and right End and life; 
Therefore God by Mofes, reflores and^ renews this great Infiitation • 
therefore the Text faith, ver, alt. This is the Law, which the Lord com* 
manded Mofes, in the I)ay that he commanded the Children of Ifrael to of- 
fer their Oblations unto the Lord. The Inftitution was fo corrupted, that 
there was need of fome renewed Light and Reformation about ir, 
But being of fo great Antiquity, before there was any Tabernacle or 
Temple, or Prieft-hood, or Feftivals appointed; therefore I put Of- 
ferings and Sacrifices before the reft, the Inftitution of them being 
much .more ancient. 

Prop. 2. In this renewed inftitution and Regulation of their Offer- 
ings, and Sacrifices, there were fundry Adjrwfts and Ceremonies^ fome where- 

1 96 The Gofpel of Sacrifices. 

of were required, and fome feverely forbidden to be added to them, aU 
voUch were myftical and fignificant. It may be truly faid of them which 
hath been falfly boafted concerning Humane Ceremonies, that they 
be neither dark nor dumb, but myftical and fignificant, and fit to ftir 
up the dullMind of Man to the remembrance of his Duty towards God, 
by fome fpecial and notable Signification, whereby he may be edifi- 
ed. They had their fpiritual Significations by God's Intendment and 
Appointment, ( as indeed it is God's Prerogative to appoint myftical 
and fignificant Ceremonies in his Worfhip.) That they had fo, will 
appear in the Particulars, both ex natura ret? from the very nature of 
the Thing it felf, and by conference of fundry other Scriptures ^ by 
the Light whereof, we muft fearch and find out the Interpretation. 
They may be interpreted and applied ( many of them) to the Church % 
in a fecondary way, in regard of the Union and Communion it hath 
with Chrift, as well as unto Christ himfelf primarily and chiefly. 

The Adjuncts rehired and annexed to Sacrifices were many, which 
will come to be fpoken to, when we come to the feveral forts and 
kinds of Sacrifices : Only fome Generals may be now mentioned, de- 
ferring the explication of them, to the Places where their Inftitution 
is firft mentioned. As, 

1. Sacrifices were all tied and appropriated by Divine Inftitution, to the 
Brazen Altar at the Door of the Tabernacle. This was a new Addition 
in Mofes's Reformation \ for they had Sacrifices (as hath been (hew- 
ed ) from the firft Promife of the Gofpel, after the entrance of Sin ; 
but there was no Tabernacle, nor one only Altar appointed and in* 
ftituted, till Mofcs's Time. 

2. Another Appurtenance of all the Sacrifices was Salt, Levit. 2. 13. 
Marl 9. 49, every Sacrifice is falted with Salt. 

3. Mufick. Temple Mufick both Vocal and Inftrumental, whereof 
the former fort indeed was Moral, but the latter, Ceremonial. While 
the Sacrifices were offering, the Trumpets were founding, and other 
Mufical Internments. 

4. Incenfe. As foon as they had offered the Sacrifice, and the Mufick 
and Trumpets ceafed, the Prieft went into the Holy Place to offer In- 
cenfe, and the People without prayed. 

5. Many ceremonious Aclions-, partly of the Sinner that brought the 
Sacrifice, but chiefly of the Priefts and Levites in ordering and facri- 
ficing of it : And here ( amongft the reft ) the Ceremonies of Purifi- 
cation from legal and ceremonial "Un.cleannefs, may come to beconfi- 
dered. Such as thefe, were the Adjuncts required. 


The Gojpel of Sacrifices. 1 9 1 

The AdjunQs forbidden, were in general, any Conformity or Comply ance 
with the Pagans in their Rites and Ceremonies ; Dent. 12. 4, 30, 31, 32. 
Te fhaUnot dofo unto the Lord your Cod. What thing foever I command 
you, obferve to do it : Thou (halt not add thereto, nor diminifh from it. So 
Rev. 14- 9, to. complyance with Poptfh Worfhtp is forbidden, under pain 
of God's Wrath. 

Particularly • Two things were feverely interdi&ed and forbidden 
in all their Sacrifices, ( except fome peculiar Cafes, of which after- 
wards ) Leaven, and Honey, Levit. 2. 11. the Myfteries of all which, 
we lliall endeavour to open to you by the help of Chrift, in our further 
Frogrefs upon this Subject. 

Prof. 3. The Occdftom upon which they were to be offered, were of 
all Sons-, I (hall but inftance in four Heads of Things. As, 

1. When under guilt of Sin : For this was the di- 

reft Intent and Scope of them all, they were to ^i^twiS^T 
offer a Sacrifice for Reconciliation. * 

2. For the obtaining of any needful Mercy • and for the preventing 
and removing of any Judgment or Danger, either impending or in- 
flicled, as 1 Sam. 7. 9, 10. Samuel offered a Lamb for a Burnt -Offering, 
and it found great Acceptance with God, when Jfrael was fighting a- 
gainft the Philiftines. So the Jfraelites, Judg. 20. 26. when feeking^un- 
toGod by Fading and Prayer, for Succefs and Vi&ory in their War 
againft the Benjamites. So David to remove the Plague, 2 Sam. 24. 
*lt. The negleft whereof in great Enterprizes, hath fometimes caufed 
a good Caufe to mifcarry, as Judges 20. 26. this feems to have been 
one of the fatal Errors in their Management of it the two former 
Times : For we read not that they offered Sacrifice, till their third 

3. To teftify their Joy and Thankfulnefs for Mercies received, as Noah 
when he came out of the Ar\, Gen. 8. 20. and Solomon when he had 
obtained Wifdom, 1 Kings 3. 15. 

4. In the inftituted Seafons of them. For befides Vows and Free- Will- 
Offerings, upon fu;h Emergencies of Providence as thofe before-men- 
tioned, there were many Cafes wherein they were inflituted and re- 
quired ; as when a Prieft was to be Confecrated ; an unclean Perfon to 
be purified ; any Feftival or Holy-day to be Celebrated \ they had all 
their refpe&ive Sacrifices and Offerings appointed by the Law. 

Thus you fee the Nature of thefe Legal Sacrifices^ as alfo thefirfi: 
Infiittttion • the Ad)nn[is, and Occafms of them. 

As to the feverai Sorts and Kinds of them, the next DoOrine will in- 
form you, viz., 


■i8a The Gofpel of the Sacrifices. 

Doft. 2,. That the Sacrifices of Propitiation under the Law, may be re- 
ferred to thefe fix Kinds or Sorts; namely, the Bnrnt -offering, the Meat- 
offerings the Peace-offering, the Sin-offering, the Trefpafs- offering, and 
the Offering of Confecrations. They are, and may be feveral ways di- 
ftinguifhed and diftributed \ but I fliall content my felf at prefent with 
this Diftribotion in the Text-, the Words whereof are a fhort Reca- 
pitulation of the general Heads of the feven firft Chapters of this 
Book ; all which treat upon thefe feveral Sorts of Sacrifices and Of- 
ferings, with the Rules and Rites appertaining to them \ which, ha- 
ving been delivered and laid down at large, the Text concludes and 
windsup all thus, This vs the Law of the Burnt -offering and of the Meat- 
ifftringy &c. 

Queft. Wherein lay the difference between thefe feveral kinds and 
forts of Sacrifices ? 

Anfxo. There were fome Things wherein they all agreed ; namely, 
in all thofe general Things before- mentioned in the Defcription and 
Explication of them. As, 

i. They were all offered at the Brazen Altar ; and fo were Offer- 
ings of a lower Nature alfo. But, 

2. Thefe were all Quodefh, Quodefhim, moB Ho\y^ Holy of Holi- 

,3. They were all Jfhim, Offerings made by Fire. 

4. They were all Propitiatory, they did ferve for Expiation and A- 
tonement. Therefore they differed not in the general Nature, or in 
the general Scope and intent of them, which was the fame in all ; 
namely, to fhadow forth Chrift in his Death, as the true Sicrificefor 
our Sins, and in other Myfteries of his Wifdom and Grace and Love, 
in the Gofpel of our Salvation. 

But the difference confifts in three Things. 

1. Partly in the different Matter of them; as an Ox or a Sheep in 
fome ; Flower and Wine in others of them. 

2. Partly in the : particular Ends, and Defigns, and Occafiens of them*, 
fome being for Sins of Ignorance, as the Sin-Offering: Some for Sins 
againfb Knowledge, as Trefpafs-Offerings : Some for Confecration of the 
Priefls, ire. 

3. Partly, yea principally in the different Ceremonies accompanying 
them: Some were cut in Pieces, as Sheep and Oxen; but fome were 
only flit in the Middle, but not cot afunder, as Birds. And various 
other Ceremonies there were, as you will fee farther when we come 
to open and explain the feveral forts and kinds of Sacrifices. At 


The Gofpel of the Sacrifices. 195 

prefent I fliall conclude with two Words of life, from ail that hath 
been faid. 

Vfe . Let usJearn this great LefTon, to hep clofeto the Rule of Di- 
vine Inftiiution in Matters of Worfhip. I befeech you mark the Text, 
how emphatical the Expreflions are, This is the Law of all the ftv.ral 
Sorts of Sacrifices which the Lord commanded Mofes, when he commanded 
the Children of Ifrael to offer their Oblations, &c. As they did nothiog 
but what the Lo^d commanded Mofes ; fo we Ihould do nothug, but 
VihztChrift hath commanded us. M'ke that your great Enquiry in 
all Things, that concern the Worfhipof God ; bath the Lord command- 
ed it f Is the Command gone forth from Mount Sion for it. Yea or 
No ? The Apoftles were limited, Mat 28. nit. in their Preaching, 
to teach only what Chrifi had commanded them ; had they taught their 
own Inventions, they had exceeded their Coramiffion ; they had not 
been faithful to their Truft -, but they were faithful in teaching and 
tranfmitting to the Churches, what the Lord himfelf had taught and 
commanded them, 1 Cor. 11. 23. What 1 received of the Lord, that I 
delivered unto yon, that the Lord Jefus the fame Night in which he was be- 
tray ed^ took Breads &c. When a Minifter baptifeth with the Sign of 
the Crofs, or any fuch like Superflition, he cannot fay, I received 
this from the Lord. Praclife nothing which the Word doth not re* 
qoire ; omit nothing that the Word doth require, whatever worldly 
Troubles or Dangers you incurr. 

Vfe 2. See the Worth and Value of the Sacrifice of Jefus Cbrifi, and the 
Neceffity of it, for the Juftification and Salvation of loft Sinners* For 
what was the meaning of all thefe Offerings and Sacrifices whereof they 
had fo great a Multitude, and fo many feveral Sorts and Kinds of thent 
under the Law, but to lead us by the Hand to Jefus Cbr$&, to the 
true Sacrifice and Atonement which is in his Death and Blood ; for 
he is the Propitiation for our Sins, 1 John 2. 2. This was the Scope and 
Defign of them all •, for it was impoffible that fuch Sacrifices mould 
do the Work of making Satisfaction to Divine Juftice, and reconci- 
ling God and Sinners ^ therefore they were not to terminate their 
Thoughts there, but to look beyond them to Jefus Chrifi , in whom 
both we and they are reconciled to God. That this was the Scope of 
them appears throughout the New Teftament ; therefore Chrifi is cal- 
led a Sacrifice, Ephef. 5 2. and a Propitiation for our Sins, 1 John 2. 2.' 
And hence the Apoftle fo argues, Heb. 9. 13, 14. If the Blood of Bulls 
and Goats, and the jifhes of an Heifer, fprinkling the unclean fan&ifittb to 
the purifying of the Flefh: How much mote (ball the Blood ofCbrift, who 

C c through 

194 Tbe Gofpel of the BurnP-Offering. 

through the eternal Spirit offered himfelf without Spot to God i purge your- 

Conference from dead Works to ferve the Living God. 

T H E 

Gofpel of the BURNT-OFFERING 

fane 21. and 28. Levit. Cap. 1. 

Of the Burnt-Offering. Yola. 

THE firfl: fort of Propitiatory Sacrifices under the Law, is the Burnt' 
Offering ; this is fet down firft in that Enumeration of them, 
Levit. 7. 37. and taught firslr in this Book, as being the chiefs and of 
raoft common- -and continual life. I (hall fpeak to it fomewhat the 
more largely, becaufe jt will give Light .unto the other Sorts of Sa- 
crifices that follow, wherein we may be more brief. The Inftituti- 
on of it being recorded in this Place, I know not how to fpeak to it 
better than in the way of an Expofition upon this Chapter, borrowing 
alfo fome further Light out of other Scriptures, and out of other Chap- 
ters of this Book, and particularly the 6th. where fomethings are 
further explained. 

It is called the Burnt-Offering, or the whole Burnt- Offering, becaufe 
it was to be wholly burned and confumed in the Fire, except only the 
Skin. In Hebrew j-j^y from the Root n^y afcendtt, becaufe being 
wholly Burnt, it afceaded. and went up to Heaven in Smoak and Va- 
pour ^ in Greek obptaul&iwik foe^u/lov. 

Confer on Lev." 7:37,38, of" ^he fpecial Occa/idns upon which it was to be 
the general ocafwns of $$-- offered, were many and various - 7 they may be 
mfces. Antea pag. 240. referred to three Heads. 

1 . Such as were providential, as upon all emergent Occafions, when 
they had Guilt or Judgments to be removed or prevented, or Mercies 
to be, bejlo wed, and acknowledged. Of thefe, fee Lev. 22. 18. 

2., Such; incidental Occafions wherein they\ were required by the 
Law^'as at the Confecration of Prieffrs, Exod. 29. 18. And of the Levites, 


The Gofpel of the Burnt-Offering. 195 

Numb. 8. 12. At the Purification of nnckan Perfons, and upon feveral 
other Occafions. 

3. At their ftated Feftivals and appointed Seafons, which were both 
daily, weekly, monthly, and anniverfary. Of which hereafter. A- 
rnongthe reft, there was a conftant Burnt-Offering every Day, or ra- 
ther two Burnt-Offerings, the one in the -Morning, and the other at 
Evening, Exod. 29. 38,42. Numb. 28. 3,4. called the Juge Sacrifi- 
cium. ^Qn rV7p whereof Daniel fpeaks, how it was profanely inter- 
rupted by Aniiochus, Dan. 8. 11, 12. 

The £W of it (as of the reft) was Atonement, reconciliation and 
remifion of Sin ; Vcr. 9. a Savour of Reft r or a fweet Savour. For as a 
fweet fmell refrelheth and quieteth the Senfes : So Chrift's Oblation 
appeafeth God's Spirit, in Ainfw. in he. Hence is that Phrafe, Ezra 6. 
9, 10. Sacrifices of Rett, or of fweet Savours to the God of Heaven ; 
fo Epbcf. 5. 2. Chip gave himfelf for 11s, an Offering, and a Sacrifice to 
Cod for a fweet fmelling Savour. 

The Laws and Ordinances of the Burnt- Offering were either con- 
cerning the Matter of it, or the Aclions to be performed about it; 
which being different, according to the different Matter of it, will 
come in under the feveral forts of Matter whereof the Sacrifice was 
to confift, which was in general clean Creatures. This Rule was to be 
obferved in all the Sacrifices ; and it was very Ancient; for we read 
of this Diftin&ion of Beafts into clean and unclean, even in Noah y % 
Time, Gen. 7. 2. and Gen. 8. 20. 

There were two forts of Qeanneffes of the irrational Creatures, clean 
for Sacrifice^ and clean for Food, 

Of the Cleannefs for Food, we read in Lev. 1 1. which feemsto have 
been then firft appointed ; for to the Sons of Noah there is no fuch 
Reftri&ion given, but a large and general Commiffion to eat any 
wholefome Flefli, Gen. 9. 3. Every moving thing that liveth^ fhaU he 
Meat for you, 

But the cleannefs and uncleannefs for Sacrifice, feems to have been 
from the very firft Inftitution of Sacrifices. The Rule whereof in ge- 
neral is this, ttyat there were no wild Beafts or Fowls, no ravenous^ 
carnivorous Beafts or Birds of Prey allowed in Sacrifices, but fuch as 
were of the milder fort. The reafon whereof is thought to be partly 
from their Properties being more harmlefs and innocent, more ufeful 
and profitable, and ferviceable Creatures to Man's life, and fo fitted: 
to fignify the like Things in Chnfi , and in his People ; Aud 
partly becaufe of Man's peculiar Poffejfwn and Propriety in them, be- 
ing more fully in his Power and Pofleffion, than the Wild Beafts of 

C c 2 the- 

pgf The Gofpel of the Burnt-Offering. 

the Field. Or if no reafon for it could be afligned, we muff acquiefce 
in the fupreme Authority of God, fo ordaining and appointing, as 
why not a Hen, as well as a young Pidgecn. 

How abominable it was to tranfgrefs in the Mattef of their Sacri- 
fices, you may fee by thofe £*preflions in I fa. 66. 3. He that killed an 
Ox, is 06 if befltw a Man : He that facrificetb a Lamb, as if he cut off 
a Dogs Neck : He that offer etb an Oblation, as if be offered Swine $ Blood. 
In all which, the Lord exprefTeth the greateft Deteftation by thofe 
Refemblances and Comparifons.But in this the Heathen greatly corrup- 
ted themfelves -, for as they forgat and loft the true Object of Worftup, 
offering their Sacrifices to Devils, and not unto God, 1 Cor. 1 o. 20. So 
they facrificed aU forts of Creatures, without any difference of clean ot 
andean, even Swine • wherein the Jem alfo did corrupt themfelves, at 
leaft fofar as to the eating of it, as appears out of 7/d. 65.4. yea, they 
proceeded fo far as to Sacrifice Men ; their Sons and Daughters ( an. 
Iiorrible Thing ) which the Lord commanded not, and which never came 
into his Heart, Jer. 7. 31. For as it was not poffible that the Blood 
of Bulls and Coats fhould take away Sin: So neither could the Blood 
of Man do it, but only of that Man who is God alfo, Ads 20. 28. 

The Matte* of the Burnt-Offering which was approved and ap- 
pointed of God, was of three Sorts : Of the HerJ^ that is, the bigger 
fort of Cattle ; and of the Flocks, that is, the lefler fort of Cattel, and 
9/ tbs Fowls ; and fo this Chapter divides it felf into theie Three PartSo 
1. The Burnt-Offering of the Herd, to vtrf. 10. 
a. The Burnt-Offeiingof the Flock, verf 10. to verf 14.. 
3. The Burnt-Offering of Fowls, verf 14. to the End. 
1. The Burnt- Offering of the Herd. We may here confider the Mat* 
ier of it •, and the Atlions to be performed about it. 

1. The Matter (A the Offering is a Bullock, a Male without blemifc 
verf 3. fee this Law repeated and confirmed, Lev. 22. 20, to 24. fee 
Mai. 1. 7, 8, 14. And being fo vehemently infifled on, we may well 
think it is not without fome fpecial Myftery : The Beft and moll Per- 
fect, h fitteft for fo great a God. Moreover this did alfo figure and 
reprefent Jefiis Christ's Perfection in himfelf, and ours in him. He was 
a Male and without fpot or blemifh., 1 Pet. 1. 19. a Sacrifice of abfolute Pu- 
rity and Perfection. And the like Exprefilons are ufed concerning 
Chrift'mvftical, in Fphef^iq. without fpot or wrinkle, or any fuch thing, 
looly^ and without bkmifh : We (hall be fo perfectly at that Day. And 
in this Life ( in fome degree ) there is a Perfection of Sincerity here \ 
*&re is a blamelefs fgottefs Coaverfation. 


The Gofpel cf the Burnt-Offering . 197 

As the Burnt-offerings of old: So fhould we end all our Sacrifices and 
Offerings to the Lord be. We mould ferve him with the belt we have, 
the beft of our Time and Strength, the Vigor of our Spirits, the ut- 
moft Improvement of all our Abilities in bis Service, and to his Glory, 
we fhould Sacrifice all to him. 

2. The slftioris to be fey formed about it. The Lord was plea fed to 
ordain and appoint fundry myftical and flgnificant Rites and Ceremo- 
nies, to be ufed about the Burnt- Offeiing, which were full of Teach- 
ing, and ipiritual Myftery. For what hath been vainly and taifly 
boafted and arrogated to religious Ceremonies of Mens devifing, is moft 
true concerning thefe Divihe Ceremonies : That they be neither dark 
nor dumb, but Myitical and Significant, and fie to ftir up the dull 
Mind of Man to the remembrance of his Duty toward God, by frme 
fpecial and notable Signification, whereby he may be ed fled. I [hall 
enumerate theai with fome lhort Hints of Infttti&iori from them, in 
Nine Particulars, as they lie before us in the Text, which mentions 
atleaftnin: ceremonial Actions about the Burnt-offering. 

1. The Offerer was to bring it to the Door of the Tabernacle of the 
Congregation, before the Lord. 

2. La/ his Hand upon it. 

3. The Priefl: mult kill it 

4. He mud pour out the Blood and fpr inkle it round about. 

5. Flay and cut it in pieees. 

6. The ^eices to be lalted. 

7. The L~gs and Inwards wafhed. 

8. AU muft be laid upon the Altar and burnt with Fire. And, 
. 9. The Afhes carried out of the Camp into a clean Place. 

i . The Offerer was to bring it to the Door-of the Tabernacle of the Con- 
gregation^ before the Face of the Lord, verf. 3. Great weight is laid npoo 
this, Lev. 17. i.«— 9. 

We may learn three or four things out of this. 

1. Here was a voluntary A& of the Offerer: For the Priefl was not, 
tb go to him to fetch it, but the Man himfelf is to bring it, vtrf$ of 
his own voluntary Will : So Chrift died willingly, and offered up bim* 
felf a Sacrifice and a whole Burnt-offering unto God for us, Ephef. 5. 2. 
Job. 10. 18. Hay-down my Life of my felf: So fhould we in all our Ser- 
vices be a wilting Peofr ; we ihould come before the Lord with willing^ 
Minds, when we prefent our Gorbans, our Gifts, Services, and Obla° 
tions to him : God laves a cbearful Givtr, 2 Cor. 9. 7. 

2. This leads us by the Hand, and point* every way to Jefus Chrift as 
the caufe of our Acceptance with the Lord , in thai they were to 


1 98 The Go/pel of tie Burnt-Ofering. 

bring it to the Door of the Tabernacle of the Congregation, to be of- 
fered upon the Altar which ftood there. For Chrift is both the Door 
and the Tabernacle, and the Altar, and the Prieft : He is the Door of 
the Sheep, John 10. 7. And he is the the true Tabernacle and the San- 
tfuary which the Lord hath pitched^ and not Man, Heb. 8. 2. A greater 
and more per fed Tabernacle not made with Hands, Heb 9.11. And he 
is the Altar, Heb. 13. 10. which fanclifies the Gift, and makes it ac- 
cepted, Matth. 23. 19. And Chrift is the Priefi alio, that prefects and 
offers up our Sacrifices to the Lord : He is often called a Pried, and 
our great High Prieft. This therefore teacheth us, That all our Ac- 
cefs unto, and Acceptation with the Lord, is only in and through Jefus 
Chrift: It is through hirn alone that, our Services and Sacrifices are 
accepted: There is no Acceptance out of Chrift : For he that neglect- 
ed this, was to be cutoff, Lev. 17. 8, 9. 

3.They are to bring it hither before the Face of the Lord,ot the Prefence 
of the Lord: This refers to the holieft ofall,where Goddwelt,and where 
his Prefence did appear. So the meaning is, that we are to fee God ia 
all our Services,, and to eye the Prefence of God 5 and that he is to be 
feen there, and there only, even in and by the Lord Jefus Chrift, 

Luke 1. 75. that we might ferve him before him- 2 Cor. 4.6. the 

Light of the Knowledge $f the Glory of God, in the Face of Jefus Chrift. 

4. The Tabernacle was a Type of the Church ^ which is often cal- 
led the Tabernacle and Temple and Houfe of God. We are to wor- 
fhip God in his Church, in the Afftmblies of bis People, Heb. 10. 25. and 
12. 22, 23. So much for the firft Ceremonial Action about the Burnt- 

2. The Sinner that brought the Sacrifice, was to lay his Hand upon 
the Head of it, verf. 4. this was not required in the Sacrifice of Fowls, 
but only of Beafts, fee the like, Exod. 29. 10. There is fome Contro- 
verfy here, whether he was to lay on his right Hand or his left Hand, 
or both : But feeing it is in the fingular Number, and feeing it is 
expreily commanded, that the Priest fbould lay on both his Hands, Lev. 
16. 2t. that is, both for his own Sins and the Peoples : Therefore ft 
it is thought by fome not improbably, that when any of the People 
offered, he laid on but one Hand. But whether the* right, or the left ? 
We may fuppofe that whatfoever was not limited by God, was left at 

This Ceremony relates to the Confejfton of Sin, and the Tranflation of 
the Guilt of it upon the Sacrifice : The Offerer in this Ceremony dif- 
burthening himfelf of Sin, and putting over his own Guilt upon the 
Sacrifice; fo it is explained, Lev* 16. 21. He (haU lay on his Hands 9 


The Gofpel of the Burnt-Offering. 199 

and confefs over him the Iniquities of the Children o/Ifrael. So Cbrift bath 
born our Sins, and 'carried our Sorrows , Ifa. 53.4, 5. And wearetocon- 
fefs our Sins over him by Faith in Chrift ; and through the Blood of 
his Sacrifice, it thall be forgiven us, 1 John 1. 7, 9. 

3. The Sacrifice mud be killed and flam, and that upon the North fide 
of the Altar, verf. 5. and vef. 11. It isquefiioned here, who did this ; 
whether he that brought the Offering, or the Pried ? But doubtlefs it 
was the Prieft -, for it isfaid of him that kills the Offering, that he [hall 
flay it. verf. 5.6. but that was the Prieft's Work. And to the killing 
of the Sacrifice of Beafts, anfvvers the wringing off the Head of facrificed 
Fowls^ But this is Exprefly affirmed to be the Prieft's Work, verf. 1 5. 
Only this we find, that the Levites were added to the Priefts to affift 
them, and help them in the whole Work of their Miniitry, Numb. 8. 
19. and we find it often Recorded that they did fo, 2 Chron. 29. 34, 
Therefore in verf. 21. in that Chap, where the Killers and the Priefts 
are diftinguifhed^t is not to be underftood concerning the People, as if 
they had killed the Offerings, but rather the Levites -, fee likewife 
1 Cron. 23. 28, 31. and 2 Chron. 35. 10, n. 

So much for the literal Explication of this Ceremony ^ now for the 
Myftery and Meaning of it. 

What might be Noted from hence, concerning A&ions and Admini- 
flrations properly and peculiarly Miniflerial, we (hall obferve when 
we come to that Place, to the legal Priefthood and Miniflry. 

But it is Plain and Obvious, that it holds forth the Death of Chrift., 
the Meffiah was (lain and cut off*, Dan, 9, 26. His Sottl war made an^Qf* 
fer'mg for Sin, Ifa. 53. 10. 

'As to that Circumftanceof killing it on the North Side of the Altar, 
verf. 11. the fame Rule is given concerning the Sin-Offering, Lev. 6, 
25. and the Trefspafs- Offering, Lev. 7. 1, 2. There be various Appli- 
cations of this. Some think there is no further Myftery in it, but that 
the Tabernacle-Door and the Altar were fo fituate and placed, that 
on the North Side there was more Space for fuch Ads as required moft 
Room, as the killing and dreffing of the Sacrifices did -, fo our own 

But others conceive this Law-was not without fomething of Myfte- 
ry in it: Some Note how their greateft Troubles and Sufferings were 
from the North ; Jeremiah fees a Seething Pot, and the Faee thereof was 
towards the North, Jer. 1. 13. and then verf. 14. Out of the North an 
Evtl (hall break forth upon all the Inhabitants of the Land. Therefore 
fome conceive, that to reftrain the Evils and Judgments of God, the 
Offerings were flain on the North Side of the Altar ^ alfo that the Si- 
tuation 1 

200 The Gofpel of the Burnt-Ofering* 

tuation of the Temple was on the North Side ot the City, Pfcl. 4 S. 2 . 
Mount Sion on the fides of the North. 

Moreover here is no regard had to theS/w, and to the Faft, but thi- 
ther the Afhes vere carried forth, as verf. 16. Whereas the Heathen 
were accuftomed to Sacrifice, and to direct tneir Woifhip towards the 
Halt, and towards the Sun, which they made an Idol of. In Opposi- 
tion to which Idolatry, (as fome conceive) the Lordrappointed hi* Peo- 
ple to Sacrifice towards the North. 

Andlaftly. the Gofpel hath prevailed more in the Nothern H.Mnif- 
phere of the World,(which alfo is more inhabited) than in theSouinern. 
Ez.ekiel in his Vifion of the Holy City, doth firft defcribe the North 
Gates of the Holy City reftored \ which fome think is not without fome- 
Ihhgoi Myftery, Ezek. 48. 1, 16, $0. Tydings out of the AW/>, Dan. 
11 that is (fay lome) the Reformation in thefe Northern Countries, 
the Tydings whereof is Evil News to Antichrift, ind the continual 
Progrefs of that Work, hath been a continual Trouble to him thefe 
hundred and fiftj Years. 

But I think we may acquiefce in what was firft mentioned ; Aynf- 
twifchath this Note on Lev. 6. 25. hereby was figured that Chrift our 
Sin-Offering, fhould be killed by the Priefts in Jtrufalem and Mount 
Sion, which was on the fides of the North, Pfal. 48. 2. Crucified on 
Mount Cavalry, which was on the North- Weft tide of Jerufalem ; as 
by the Jews Tradition, the Morning-Sacrifice was killed at the North- 
Weft Horn of the Altar. 

4. The Blood mud be poured forth at the Foot of the Altar y and fprink- 
led upon it round about. The former indeed is not exprelTed in this 
Chapter, but it is neccflfarily implyed, and «you find it exprelTed Chap. 
8. 15. for we muft borrow Light from other Scriptures ^ ponredfortb^ 
Lev. 8. 15. fprinWed in this Chapter verf. 5. And almoft all things in 
the Law were purged by Bbod .• Heb. 9. 22. and without /bedding f 
Blood there is no Remijfion. This was a great Myftery ^ a Type ot the 
Blood of Chrift} it leads us to the Effufion, and to the Application of 
the Blood of Chrift. 

1 The Effuflon of it, to the Satisfaction of Divine Juftice; J fa. 53* 
12 He hath poured out his Soul unto death. 26. 28. my Blood which is /bed 
for many, for the remifflon of Sins. Jefus Chrift did often bleed for us 
in the Days of his Humiliation, under the Guilt of our Sins. As at his 
Circumcifion, then were the firft drops of that pure and precious Blood 
fhed,that Sin-Expiating,that Soul-Saving blood: and in his Agony in the 
Garden, he did fweat clodded Blood : and when he was fcourged, 
then he bled again for us : and when Crowned with Thorns ; and in his 


The Gofpel of the Burnt-Offering. 201 

Death and Crucifixion : And finally, when they pierced his Side with the 
Spear, when that facred Blood and Water iflued forth, which John 
faw and bare Record of, Job. 19. 34, 35. One of the Souldiers with a 
Spear pierced his Side, and forthwith there came out Blood and Water, and he 
that faw it bare Record, and his Record is true, and he knoweth that he faith 
true, that ye might believe. Thus was the Blood of the Sacrifice poured 

2. It was Mo fprinkled. So is Chips Blood, and therefore it is called 
Heb. 1 2. 24. the Blood of fpr inkling. Sprinkling is a Ceremony very 
fignificant of Spiritual Things ♦, but where was this Blood fprinkled i 
The Text faith, It was fprinkled upon the Altar round about. From this 
Expreffioii, we may Note the miftake of fueh as think the fetting of 
the Communion-Table clofe to the Wall, like a Drefler or Side- Ta- 
ble, is to fet it Altar-wife. For it is molt clear and certain, that their 
Altars were ever fo Situate, as that they might be compaffed round about. 
This Exprefiion doth occur no lefs than Twelves times in this Book, 
of fprinkling upon the Altar round about, fo Pfal. 26. 6. fo will 1 compafs 
thine Altar. As to that Conceit no other Account can be given of it, 
but the profound Ignorance of Papifls and Prelates. 

Now the Alcar was a Type of the Deity of Chrift, as being that 
which Supported and Sanctified the Sacrifice, Mat. 23. 19. It is the 
the Altar that fanclifies the Gift. It was the Deity of Chrift which gave 
that infinite Value and Virtue to his Sufferings : Therefore look, as 
the Altar was a Type of the Divine Nature of Jefus Chrift, and the 
Blood was his Sufferings in the humane Nature, fo the pouring forth, 
and fprinkling this humane Blood upon the Divine Altar, may lead 
our Thoughts to Confider the Conjunction of the Humane Nature to 
Divine, and the Influence of that Conjunction into all the Sufferings of 
the Humane Nature. Were not the Blood at the bottom of the Altar, 
and fprinkled round about upon the Altar, it could have no Merit, 
no Value nor Efficacy, it could have no Soul-Redeeming Virtue and 
Efficacy, and Acceptation with the Lord. But it is the Blood of God, 
Aft. 20. 28. and therefore infinitely Valuable and Meritorious, the 
Offering being fanclified by the Altar of his Deity. 

It was fprinkled alfo upon the Book. The Scripture and Ordinances 
muft be fprinkled with the Blood of Chrift, if ever they be made Effe- 
ctual to us for our good. And upon the People, Heb. 9. 19, 20,21. 
This fhews the Application of it to our Souls and Confciences, 1 Pet. 1. 
2. Jfa. 52. 15. 

5. The Fifth ceremonial A&ion about the Burnt-Offering was this 1 , 
the Priefl it to flay it and cut it into its pieces, verf. 6. The Skin m it be 

D d taken 

20.2 The Gofpel of the Burnt-Offering. 

taken off, and the Body of the Sacrifice muft be cut afunder, yet not 
meerly chopt in pieces and mangled, but according to the feveral 
Joynts and Pieces of the Body ; for God will have Order in the Things 
of his Worlhip. The Skin was the Priefts Portion, fee Cap. 7. 8. 

As to the My fiery oi this, I would not make too curious an Appli- 
cation of it - but there may be Four Things we may Obferve and Learn 
out of it. 

1, It related in general to the Sufferings of Christ-, for great Suffer- 
ings are fet forth by fuch Expreflions, Micah. 3. 2, 3. Who hate the 
Good and love the Evil, who pluck off their Skin from off them, and their 
Flefh from off their Bones : Who alfo eat the Flefh of my People, and flay 
their Skin from off them ^ &c. Pfal. 22. 1 5, 16'. 

2« Something we may note here as to fpiritual Clothing : Skins were 
firft ufed for Apparrel, God clothed kfam with Skins, Gen. 3. 21. And 
much of our Clothing at this Day, is either the Skins of Beads, or 
the Hair and Wool taken from thofe Skins. As the Sacrifice being 
dead and (lain, did leave a Skin for clothing to the Prieft by whofe 
Hand he died : So Jefus Chrijl our true Sacrifice, who was lead as a 
Sheep to the Slaughter for our Sins, yet being dead, leaves a Garment 
of Righteoufnefs to cloth Believers with ^ therefore we are faid to 
put on Chrifl: as a Garment. Rom. 13. 14. rut ye on the Lord Jefus 
Chrifl. 'Ej/<fuW8r'. 

Jacob got the Blefilng, having his Hand and his Neck covered wich 
Goat-Skins, and being clothed in the Garments of his Elder Brother. 
So Believers are Blefled of God, being clothed with the Righteoufnefs 
of Jefus Chrifl. 

3. Whereas the Sacrifice in this Aclion was laid open, and the in- 
ward Parts of it difcovered to open View -, fo is Jefus Chrifl fully and 
openly difcovered in the Preaching of the Gofpel, Gal. 3. 1. before 
whofe Eyes Jefus Chrifl hath been evidently fet forth, crucified among you,, 
like a Sacrifice that is flayed and cut afunder. 

Moreover God fees t\\z inward part of every Service, of every Sacri- 
fice we prefentunto him. As the Sacrifice was ywfo & rffcexnA/rpiriy 
flayed and cut up^ Heb.4.12, 13. fo all Things are yvnv* & nlfax^ffixtya. 
before him with whom we have to do. The Sword of the Spirit which is 
the Word of God fearcheth the Heart, as the facrificing Knife did the 
Bowels of the Beaft *, there is no Skin, no cloke of Hypocrify that 
can hide thee from the Lord. 

4. The Skin of the Sacrifice went to the Puefl : It was part of his Main- 
tenance. See Gap. 7. 8. and the Prieft that offer eth any Man's Burnt-Of- 
fering , even the Friefl /hall have to himfelf 7 the Skin of the Burnt-Offering 


The Gofpel of the Burnt-Offering* 303 

which he hath offered. As before the Law the Sacrificer had the Skin, 
he enjoyed the Benefit of that, either to cloth him, as Adam and Evc t 
Gen. 3. 2i. the Lord God made them Coats of Skins, and clothed them. Or 
to boy Clothing with, or what elfe he needed. And under the Law 
there was hardly any Sacrifice, of which the Prieft had not his Part. 
It teacheth us that they that ferve at the Altar , fhould live of the Altar, 
1 Cor. 9. 13, 14. from whence the Apoftle argues to the Care that 
ibould be taken for the Maintenance of Minifters under the Gofpel. 
So much for the fifth Ceremony about the Burnt-Offering \ namely, 
the flaying it and catting it in Pieces. 

6. The Pieces were to be falted. This indeed is not exprefled in Cap. 1. 
but you will find it in other Places ; for as I fa id at firft, wemuft 
borrow Light from other Scriptures, Levk.2.13. Every Oblation of 
thy Meat-Cffcring /halt thou ftafon with Salt, neither (halt then faff er the 
Salt of the Covenant of thy God to he lacking, Ezek 43. 24. the Frieftsfhall 
caft Salt upon them. The Rule is general to all Sacrifices, as well Burnt/ 
as Meat- Offerings, Mark 9. 49. every Sacrifice fliall he Jalted with Salt, 

1 find by Conference with other Scriptures, a Two-fold Myflery hiii-. 
ted and aimed at in this. 

1. Salt doth pre ferve Things, and keep them from Putrifa&ion : This 
therefore fignifies and fhadows forth the Perpetuity of the Covenant of 
Grace. Hence is that emphatical Expreflionin the Text, Levit.2. 13. 
the Salt of the Covenant of thy God, So Salt is ufed, Numb. 1 8. 19. It 
is a Covenant of Salt for ever before the Lord nntothee, and to thy Seed with 
thee ; that is, faith the Margin, lure, ftable and incorruptible. «So 

2 Chron. 13. 5. Ought ye not to know, (hat the Lord God of Ifrael gave 
the Kingdom over Ifrael to David for ever^evento him and to his Sons by 
a Covenant of Salt ? That is, Perpetual, becaufe the Thing that is fal- 
ted is preferved from Corruption, faith the Geneva Note upon the 

2. Salt makes Things favory and wholefome, which without Salt 
would ft ink and putrify, Col. 4.6. let your Speech be feafoncd with Salt. 
That is, contrary to that corrupt Communication, ( Epbef.4.,2 9. wife 
and favour y and gracious Speech, Mark 9. 49, 50. when there is no 
Salt, no Savour in a Man's Words, his Speech ftinks and is corrupt : 
The Sacrifice is unfalted, and fo it ftinks. 

7. the Legs and Inwards mnsl be wafked, verf 12. the Feet and the 
Inwards are the fowleft part of a Beaft : Warning away the Filth, 
fignifies fpiritual Warning and Clean fing. So the Bodies of Believers 
are faid to be wajhed with pure Water, and their Hearts fprinkled from an 

D d 2 evil 

204 The Gofpel of the Burnt-Offering. 

evil Confcience, Heb. 10.22. they are made clean both within and with- 
out, and their Fikhinefs wafht away through Jefus Chrift. 

8. The fever al Parts of the Offering muft be laid upon the Altar and burnt 
with Fire, tiU it be con fumed and burnt to Afhes. Seeing the Fire which 
once fell from Heaven, Levit. 9. 24. was to be continually kept and 
preferved upon the Altar, Levit. 6. 12. and the Ufe of all other Fire 
forbidden in Sacrifices, Levit. 10. 1. putting^ of Fire upon the Altar 
in this Place, can fignify nothing but kindling of it, Diodat. in Levit. 
1. 7. See Levit. 6. 9. the Fire burnt all Night. The Wrath of God is 
the Fire, and Sin the Wood or Fuel that feeds it. 

This is the Fire of the Juftice and Wrath of God from Heaven, 
which feized upon Chrift \ and every part of him ( as all the parts of 
the Offering) was burnt } his Head crowned withThornes, his Side 
pierced with the Spear, his Hands and Feet with Nails, his whole Bo- 
dy did fweat drops of Blood, yea his Soul was heavy unto the Death, 
yea burnt to Alhes as it were, brought to the utmoft Extremity of 
Mifery : His Saints alfo endure tbe fiery Tryal, 1 Pet. 4. 12. Though 
theirs is not a Eire of Expiation, as drift's was, Heb. 12. i«. but on- 
ly a Fire of Purgation which they pafs through in this Life, to prepare 
and fit them for Heaven : But after this Life, there is no Purgatory as 
the Papifts dream. 

9. The Afhes muft be carried out of the Camp into a clean Place y Levit. 
6. io, 11. The contrary isfaid of the Rubbifh of a Leprous Houfe, that 
the buft and Stones thereof, (hould be poured forth into an unclean 
Plnce, Levit. 14. 40, 41. For they came from a polluted Houfe. But 
thefe from the Lord's holy Dwelling-place, and were the Reliques of 
an holy Thing which the Lprd here manifefts that he hath a fpecial 
regard of. 

This Ceremony is applied by the Apoftle to Chrift, Heb. 13. u, 
12,13. Look as the Afhes of the Sacrifice being burnt, fignified the 
dead Body of Chrift ; fo the carrying of the Afhes out of the Camp, 
figaifiedhow his crucified Body fhould not be buried within the City, 
but carried, into a clean Place, into a new Sepulchre where never any Man 
lay before, John* 19. 41. So the dead Bodies of all his Saints, when 
they are fpent and confumed to Afhes, they are regarded and prefer- 
ved in the Duft by God, as facred Reliques ^ and he will raife them 
up again unto eternal Life. 

So much for the Burnt-Ofiering of the Herd 3 and the Ceremonies ap- 
pertaining to it. There were alfo fome other A&ions about it, as 
that in Pfal. 118. 27. of binding the Sacrifice with Cords, even unto the 
Horns of the Altar. But this, as it is not mentioned in this Chapter : 


The Go/pel of the Burnt-Offering. 205 

fo it fcems rather to be an Aftion of natural Neceffity onto fuch a 
Work, as the flaying of a Bead, then to have any fpecial Myftery in 
it. Therefore let this fuffice for the Burnt-Offering of the greater 
fort of Cattel. 

Now the « ther two forts that follow, are the Burnt-Offering of the 
Flock, thatislefler Cattel, Slxep or Goats, ver. 10. And of Fowls, viz* 
Turtle Doves, and young Pigeons, ver. 14. 

Ouefl. Whv the Lord appointed thefe lefTer Sacrifices ? 

An[w. He did it, that fo none might be able to plead excufe to 
be exempted from his Service : For you know Men are very apt to 
make Excufes. If the Lord had only appointed Oxen and Sheep, fome 
might have pretended Poverty, and have fajd, we would offer Sacri- 
fice but we are not able. Therefore thefe leffer Sacrifices were ordain- 
ed, thatfo both Rich and Poor might ferve the Lord : So that here is 
no room left for any Excufe. If they cannot bring an Ox, the Lord 
will accept a couple of Turtle Doves, or young Pigeons : The Lord 
accepteth thefe fmal^er Sacrifices from the Poor, as well as greater from 
the richer fort of People. See Verf. 17. it is ofafweet favour to the 
Lord. This Offering was brought by the Parents of Jefus Chrift, 
Luke 2. 24. 

As at the building of the Tabernacle, he that could not offer Goldcr 
Silk or Purple, wight bring Goals-hair, Exod.35.5,6. Therefore let not 
poor People be difcouraged ; alas, I have no Eftate, I have no Parts 
or Learning : It may be fo •, but God accepts of mean Services, where 
there is but jnean Ability. For if there be fir ft a willing Mind, it is ac- 
cepted according to that a Man hath, and not according to that he hath not, 
2 Cor. 8. 12. 

1 might add, that the Burthen is much eafier under the Gofpel : 
God doth not put us upon fuch coftly Service^ fuch a chargeable Reli- 
gion as theirs was under the Law, efpecially in thefe latter Days. 
There is not a Servant in a Family, but may be able to buy a Bible,, 
and fo to read the Word of God. 

Now for the Particulars -, they were of two forts, leffer Cattel, and 

Concerning the Offering of the leffer fort of Cattel, there is nothing 
peculiar in the Rites and Ceremonies t hereof, fave only that of killing 
it at the North Side of the Altar, which belongs indeed to other Sa- 
crifices alfo ; and was therefore fpoken to before, upon the Burnt— 
Offering of the bigger fort of Cattel. 

The third and laft part of the Chapter is, concerning the Burnt- 
Offering of Birds or Fowls, verf. 14, to the end, 


106 The Gofpel of the Burnt-Offering. 

We are to note here what Birds they were ; and what were the Cere* 
monial Actions about them. 

The Birds were not Ravens and Vultures and fuch like • but Doves 
and Pigeons and Sparrows^ at leaft in that peculiar Cafe of the Leprofy, 
Levit. 14. The Dove is often commended in the Scripture, for Inno- 
cency and Harmleffnefs • Matth.10.16. Be ye wife as Serpents, and harm- 
lefs as Doves. The Spirit appeared as a Dove, Mat. 3. 16. So are the 

Saints, Pfal. 74. 19. deliver not the Soul of thy Turtle Dove and often 

in the Song of Solomon , my Love, my Dove. All the practical Appli- 
cation I fhall make of it, fhall be this ^ Believers themfelves are living 
Sacrifices unto God: But if thy Sacrifice be accepted, thou muft be a 
Dove, not a Bird of Prey, but harmlefsas Doves. 

The ceremonious Attions about them, aim at the fame general Scope 
with the ceremonious Actions about the Burnt-Offering of CatteJ, 
whereof we fpoke before, and divers of them are the fame. There be 
only three differing Ceremonies in the Burnt-Offering of Fowls, where- 
of we are now to (peak. 

1. That the Prieft /hall wring off his Head^ verf. 15. which the old 
Geneva Note explains thus 

The Hebrew Word fignifies to pinch off with the Nail, p^Q ungue 
fecuit. It occureth only here, and in Levit 5. 8. where the fame 
Rule is given concerning the Trefpafs-Offering. The Rule concerning 
the Burnt- Offering of Cattel, is only to kill them; that is, with the 
facrificing Knife to cut the Throat, and fo let out the Life and Blood 
of the Beaft, and then cut off the Head, and cut all the Parts afunder, 
as verf 5. 8, 

The reafon of this Difference in the outward Ceremony, feems to 
be from the different Afatter of the Sacrifice : Both aiming at the fame 
general Scope, viz.. to fhadow forth the Sufferings of Jefus Chrift, and 
the Violence done to him for and by our Sins. For as the Blood of 
the Turtle Dove was wrung out with Violence: So was the Blood of 
Jefus Chrift, when he made his Soul an Offering for Sin. Seme note 
farther, that the Head was not to be quite wrung off, as the Parts were 
to be divided afunder ; of which by and by. 

2. The Prieft was to pluck away his Crop, with his Feathers, and c aft 
beftde the Altar^ on the E aft part by the Place of 'the Jfhes, verf. \6. Why 
tothe£^f They had a Place on the Eaft Side or the Court, to 
which they carried forth the Alhes. Becaufe this was the ^urtheft off 
from the Holy of Holies ; For the Temple flood dire&Iy Weft, as 
you may fee Tiefo 8: 16. Which the Lord did in Oppofition to the 
common Idolaters of thofe Times, who were wont to Worfliip to- 

The GpJpeJ of the Burnt-Offering. 207 

wards the Eaft. There was therefore a Place Eaftward from the Ta- 
bernacle where they threw the Filth of the Sacrifices, as in reverence 
of the Divine Majefty, as far as might be from the Ark of the Tefti- 


We muft abandon whatfoever is uaclean, when we come into God's 
Prefence-, all Filthiaefs mud be removed far away out of his Sight, 
As we come to an holy God in an holy Duty *, fo we fhouid come in 
an holy Manner, and with holy Hearts: / will wa/h mine Hands in In- 
nocency, and fowitt I com pa fs thine Altar, O Lord, Pfal. 26.6. 

3. He (hall cleave it with the Wings, but (hall not divide afunder. verf. 

17. ckave it, that is, long ways ; fo as there was a Wing on 

each Side. This Ceremony of not dividing the Fowls, was very an- 
cient •, for Abraham ufed it, Gen, 15. 10. And in reference to the 
fame Scope, it was, that the Head and Body were not quite disjoyaed, 
but only the Neck pinched with the Prieft's Nail. 

Now what is there in Chrifi the Anti-type, that may anfwer this? 
Not a Bone broken, John 10.33,36- Moreover the Divine and Hu- 
mane Nature were never totally feparated, notwithftanding all his 
Sufferings, tho' his Soul was feparated from his Body ; yet neither 
Soul nor Body was feparated from the Son of God, but incomprehen- 
fibly and ineffably United, when in the Grave, and in the Dull of 
Death. His Deity as the Head or principal Part, was not divided 
from his Humane Nature ; Nor was he who is the Plead of his Church, 
divided from his myftical Body by all his Sufferings^ but remains in- 
diflblubly and everlaftingly united to them. 

So much for the Explication of the Burnt- Offering, whether of the 
Herd r or Flock, or Fowls, with the Ceremonies appertaining to them z 
Now for the Vfe of all. 

'Vfe 1. See here the difference between God's Ceremonies, and 
Mens ; between religious Ceremonies of Divine Inftitution, and of 
Humane Invention. Divine Ceremonies are full of Light, full of Spi- 
rit, full ofGofpel-Marrow and Myftery. But Humane Ceremonies in 
the Worfhip of God, are full of Darknefs and Vanity, thick Darknefs, 
their is no Light, no Signification in them : As Men cannot blefs their 
own Ceremonies, and make them effectual for fpiritual Ends : So they 
cannot fo much as make them fmvable and fignificant ; they are com- 
monly fo Foolifh, fo impertinent and ridiculous, that it is hardly fit 
to name them in a Pulpit, left they provoke Laughter. 

As for Inftance } for I will give you an Inftance or two, becaufe 
there i3 an Holy Scorn, and an Holy Laughter. A Man muft wear a 
White Garment in a ridiculous Manner like a Shift on the top of his 


208 The Gofpel of the Burnt-Offering. 

Cloths, to fignify Purity and Holinefs: A Man mull bow down like 
a Fool to a thing made of Wood or S r one, call it a Cruanx, or an 
Altar, or what you pleafe ♦, to fignify I Know not what, unlefs it be 
that they are Imps of Antichrift, and in Heart Members of his pre- 
tended Monarchy that do fuch 'Things. 

But 1 hope you fee, that it is not thus with God's Ceremonies, If 
the Lord open our Eyes, we may fee wondrous Things out of his Law, 
Pfal. 119. 18. I fuppofe the things that have been fpoken, may not 
have the fame Light and Evidence with ail that have heard me this 
Day, as I hope through Grace they have with fome : But yet I hope 
there is Light enough even for the Weakeft, to fee and difcern a 
Difference between God's Wifdom and Man's FoUy •, between Divine 
Ceremonies in Religion, and fuch as are meerly Humane. Humane 
Inventions are teaching Signs • but they are Teachers of Lies, Heb. 
2. 18. But God's Inftitutions teich Gofpel Truths. 

Not to mention all the other Evils of them : Our Confciences are the 
Throne of God. But will they needs reign in our Confciences, and 
fo fit down in the Throne of God, and pluck the Scepter (as it were) 
out of Chr ill's Hand, and the Crown trom his Head : He will freak to 
them in his Wrath for this, and vex them in his fore Dijpleafure ^ he will 
break them with his Rod of Iron, and da(hthem in pieces like a Pottefs 

Vfe 2. See the fiercenefs of the Wrath of God againft Sin. And it may 
be a Word of awakening to fecure Sinners. It is nothing but Death 
and Blood and Slaughter, that will appeafe offended Juftice ; God muft 
and will have a Sacrifice , and the Sacrifice muft beflain, and burnt with 
Fire, Our God v$ a confirming Fire, Heb. 1 2. ult. If thou haft not a 
Burnt-Offering to prefent him with, to be (lain and facrificcd for 
thee, thou muft perifh. 

It is not enough to fee the Power and Bondage of Sin,but thou muft fee 
thy felf under Guilt • and that there is a Neceflity of a Sacrifice to ex- 
piate thy Sins, and make Atonement if ever thou art faved. You 
need Cbrifi for your Juftification to be your Righteoufnefs, as well as 
to be your SancJification. If there be no Senfe of this, if you go on 
refilling and defpifing fuch Convi&ions, if you live fo, and die fo • 
thou art the Man, the Woman againft whom the Lord hath Indignation 
for ever, and thy Sin will not be purged with Sacrifice nor Offering for ever, 
as the Lord faid of Elieh Sons, 1 Sam. 3.14. 

Vfe 3. Direction under the Guilt of Sin what to do, and what Courfe to 
take, to make Atonement and Reconciliation between God and thee. Go and 
bring your Sacrifice to the Prieft, and by him unto God. Jefus Chrift 


The Gofpel of the Burnt-Offering. 209 

is both the Sscrifice and the Prieft, and the Altar \ he is ail in all : 
Go with him into the Prefence of God, and prcfent him to the Lord 
by Faith: And this Sacrifice that he hath offered lhal] be accepted for 
thee, to make Atonement for thee, for thy Sin whatever it be, and 
it Ihall be forgiven thee. 

Vfe 4 Vnfpeakable Confolation unto themwho have taken this Courfe, 
and have fled for Refuge thither *, here is Peace and Comfort under 
the Guilt of Sin, of what Kind foever. Two things may quiet any 
Man's Confcience, under the greateft Guilt. 

1. Is there not a fuffcient Sacrifice f Is there not Satisfa&ion and 
Axonement in the Blood of drift ? is not this a fufficient Sacri- 
fice ? 

2. Is it not thine ? This, I know, Unbelief is apt to dagger at. But 
therefore do but lay thy Hand upon the Head of the Sacrifice , confefs thy 
Sins over the Head of thy Burnt- Offering, lay thy Burthens upon 
him by Faith, and he is thine, and all that he hath done and fufFercd 
was for thee, and (hall be as effectual for thy Good, as available and 
effectual with the Lord for thee, as if thou thy felf hadft fuffered, 
yea, infinitely more. See Verf 4. He {hall put his Hand upon the Head 
of the Burnt-C ffering, and it fhall be accepted for him , to make Atonement 
for him. The Apoftle faith, we have received the Atonement , Rom. 5. 
11. and he infills upon this Notion of receiving, Verf. 17. receive a- 
bttndance of Grace, and the gift of Right eoafnefs. Now this is done by 
fait h } and what is the efFeft of this ? Therefore we joy in God, Verf. 
1 1. and 17. We reign in Life through one JefutChrift. It puts the Soul 
into a triumphing Frame. 


Ee THE! 



Gofpel of the MEAT-OFFERING. 

SW s, 12, 19. Levit. Cap. 2. 

2. 7fo Mincha, 0>* Meat-Offering. 

THis is mentioned in the fecond Place in that Enumeration of the 
Legal-Offerings, Levit. 7. 37. and treated of in the fecond 
Chapter of this Book, next after the Burnt-Offering ; and therefore 
comes now to be fpoken of out of this Chapter, with help and con- 
ference of other Scriptures. 

It is called, in Hebrew Mincha $ concerning the Notation or Ety- 
mology of which Word, which may give fome Light to the Senfe of 
it, there be divers Conjectures. Some derive it from Nacbab, to 
bring or offer ; hence Mincha^ mttmis : In like manner as Mizrooh, 
jraceptum \ from Zivab y praceftt. And though the Rabbins read the 
Plural Number Menacboth, whence fome derive it from a feigned Root 
Manacby that fo \_Mem~\ may be a radical Letter ^ yet the Plural 
Number is read Minchoib in tfdt. 20. 3. It is ufed in Scripture in 
three Senfes. 

1. It is often ufed generally for any Gift or Vrefent, whether to God 
or Men \ which confirms the Etymology before given, as Gen. 32. 
13, 20 Gen. 43. 1 1 I Sam. 1 o. 27. 

2. It is ufed not only for Gifts or Prefents to Men, but for ail forts 
of Offerings to God ; even fuch Sacrifices wherein Beads were (lain, 
as Gen. 4.4. where AbeW Sacrifice of the Firftlings of his Flock, is 
called his Mincba •, fo it agrees with Quorban, and is of as large ex- 
tent in Signification. 

3. It is frequently ufed in a narrower Seufefor aD Offering of the 
fruits of the Earth, as contra-diflinguifhed unto Sacrifices of Living 


The Gofpel of the Meat-Offering. 2 1 1 

Creatures. So Quorban is the general, and Mincba a fpecies of Quorban ; 
fo in this place Lev.i. Quorban Mincba, and in many other Scriptures. 

All propitiatory Sacrifices being referred in Scripture unto thefe two 
Heads, Zsbacb and Mincba : as Dan. 9. 6 — Tfal 40. 6. which the A- 
poftle renders ®v™ *! *6W&i Heb. 10. 5. that is, Slain Sacrifices of li- 
ving Creatures, which were offered both by Fire and Slaughter; which 
are called Zebacb ©c^*, boflia, viclima, facrificium matt at um : And 
Offerings of Meat and Drink , called Mincba, mnnus facrum, frumtnta* 
ceum libum, lib amen : Which being not living Creatures could not be 
ilain, but were offered only by Fire and pouring forth. Our Tran- 
flators render it, ( and not unfitly ) the Meat-Offering 5 from the mat- 
ter whereof it confifted, and from the Rite and manner of Offering, 
the greateft part of it being to be eaten for Meat. 

Now concerning this Mincba or Meat-Offering, there be thefe Six 
things to be enquired into. 

1. The Materials of it -, which were Corn, Oyl, Frankincenfe, and 

2. The Attions to be performed, about it : It was to be brought to the 
Prieft, the Memorial of it burnt upon the Altar, and the Refidue eaten 
by the Prieft in the Holy Place. 

3. The meaning and (ignification of it : To be a fweet Savour before 
the Lord. 

4. The Additions prohibited to be annexed to it •, which were Two, 
Leaven and Honey. 

5. The Appurtenance of Drink- Offerings by Divine Inftitution added 
to it. 

6. The feveral Seafons and Occaftons, *on which the Meat-Offering 
was to be offered. 

Thefe Six things we (hall enquire into, (the Lord enabling us) chiefly 
out of this Chapter, and partly alfo out of other Scriptures -, efpe- 
cially in the two laft Enquiries, which are not exprefly fpoken to in 
this Chapter. 

1 . Tbe Materials of it. They were thefe Four, Corn, Oyl, Frank- 
incenfe, and Salt. 

1. Bread Corn, Wheat, or Barley, 1 Chron. 21. 23. Wheat for the 
Meat-Offering. See alfo Ezek. 45. 13, 1 5. where Wheat and Barley are 
mentioned for the Meat-Offering. This was drelfed and ordered fe- 
veral ways. 

They might offer the Meat-Offering of Wheat : Either only ground 
and ftfted into Flower , without any farther preparation, verf. 1 . So- 
uth, finite, the Flower of Wheat ; or dreffed and cooked into Cakes and 

E e 2 Wafers, 

212 The Go/pel of 'the Meat-Offering. 

Wafers, verf. 4. Or baked, verf. 5, 6. Or fryed in a frying Tan, ver. 7 
Or Firft Fruits ; not fo much as grinding it into Meal or Flower, only 
dyed and beaten, verf. 14. 

This Meat-Offering of Firft Fruits was of Barley : Bccaufe that was 
firft ripe in that Country : Therefore the name of the firft Month in 
the Year was called Abib, Exod. 13. 4* quaft menfis fpicarum the 
Month of Ears of Corn. 

Out of all which Corn-matter of the Meat-Offering, I fhall rnark 
Three things, 

1. It mull be fine Flower, purged from the Bran. Which fhews the 
pure eftate of Chrift, and of all Chriftians, with their Services in him 
being purged, as it were, from the Bran of natural Corruption- 
j4ynfw. in loc. J fa. 66. 20. it appears, their manner was to bring them 
in a clean Veffel. We mould labour in all our Offerings and Sacrifices 
to be pure and clean in his fight, and to come with purged and re* 
fined Spirits: God muft have the bed. As the Flower muft be fine 
and not courfe ; fo in the Burnt-Offering the Beads were to be with- 
out Blemifh : And whatfoever they offered to God muft be of the 
befti All betokening the Purity and Perfection of him, of whom 
they were Types -, to wit, Jefus Chrift • and befeeming the Excel- 
lency of him to whom they were offered : Engl. Annotat on Numb 

28. Hit. 

2. There was a Meat- Offering of Firft- F>uits. What this is, the 
Apoftle informs us, 1 Cor. 1 5. 20. Chrift is the Firft-Fruits, by whom 
the whole Lump vs fanttified There may be alfo fome further accommo* 
dations of it, whereof we may fpeak further, when we come to the 
Feaft of Firft-Fruits. 

3. It muft be ground, fifted, baked, fryed, beaten, and the like -fome 
fuch bruiting and contufion of it there muft be. So Chrift was bruiftd 
for our Iniquities, and beaten with ftripes for our Sins, I fa 53. 5. W here- 
in his Members are partakers with him, Col. 1. 24. Hence Ignatius 
fweetly and fpiritually, when he was to fuffef Martyrdom, by being 
devoured of wild Beafts, he fpeaks how his body was the Lord's 
Corn, and muft be ground by the Teeth of the wild Beafts, to be 
prepared for the Lord: As in the Meat- Offering, the Corn was to 
pafs under fome fuch preparation. 

2. The fecond Ingredient in the Meat- Offering, was Oyl, verf 1, 
4, 5, 7, 15. The quantity of Oyl is not expreffed, but the meaning 
was, there mould be a quantum fufficit, a fit proportion of it mingled 
with the Flower. Much ufe of Oyl there was under the Law, and 
fk we [hall have occafion to fpeak further to it. It fignified in' gene- 

The Go/pel of the Meat-Gffmng. 2 1 5 

ral, the Spirit of God in his Graces and Comforts, J fa. 6\ . 1. which 
Spirit Jefus Chrift did receive above meafure, and from him al] Be- 
lievers in fome degree, do partake of his anointing. There is, and 
muft be, this facred Oyl in all our Offerings, the influence of the Spi- 
rit of God. 

3. Frankincenfe. The ufe of this was to make a fweet perfume in the 
Air, when the burning of the other things might have caufed an ill 
fcent. It figured the acceptablenefs unto God of the Perfons and Ser- 
vices of his People, through the Mediation and Interceffion of Jefus 

Chrift : He is fet forth by Hilars of fmoke, perfnmed with Myrrhe and 
Frankincenfe, tcith all Powders of the Merchant, Cant. 3. 6. And with- 
out him our Offerings are not acceptable, nor our Sacrifices fweet unto 
God, Jer. 6. 10. Hence there was no Oyl nor Frankincenfe in the Sin- 
Offering, Lev. 5. it. nor in the Jealoufy- Offerings, Numb. 5. 15. 
Becaufe though it was for a Memorial, yet it was not to bring the Per- 
fon, or his Services to remembrance with acceptance before God j but 
to bring his Sin to remembrance. 

4. Salt, Verf. 13. Which being required in all their Offerings, aDd 
foin the Burnt Offering, there we fpoke to it, and (hewed, that it 
was to teach them the perpetuity of the Covenant of Grace that God 
had made with them • and the wholefome and favoury carriage and 
walking of his People. 

Now put ail this together, and it fpells thus much : That our Meat- 
offerings, our good Works, being anointed with the Spirit, and per- 
fumed with the Incenfe of thrift's Mediation, are accepted of God, 
and that in a Covenant of Salt, through the unchangeable taithfulnefe 
of God in the Covenant. 

So Hfluch for the Materials of the Meat- Offering, Corn, Oyl, Frank- 
incenfe, and Salt. 

2* The Atlions to be performed about it. And they were Three, verf 

1. It muft be brought to the Prieft. 

2. He is to burn a part of it, the Memorial of it before the Lord* 

3. The Remnant of it muft be eaten by the Prieft. 

1. They were to bring it to the Sons of Aaron the Prieft j, verf. 2, 
There was the fame Action before in the Burnt-Offering, and there 
we (hewed the meaning of it •, that it imports a voluntary act of the 
Offerer, and a making ufe of Chrift for acceptance, in all our fervices 
and approaches unto God. 

: The 

1 14 The Gojpel of the Meat-Offering. 

l. Tke Trie ft is to burn the Memorial of it upon the Altar? before t\x 
Lord, verf. 2,9,80(1 16. [For a Memorial^ This (as Interpreters well 
obferve) is fpoken after the manner of Men, to put God in remem- 
brance of thePerfon, or rather of his own Love to him, and Covenant 
with him in Jefus Chrift: Pfal. 20. 3. The Lord remember all thy Offer- 
fais % and accept thy Burnt -Sacrifice — Acts 10. 4. Thy Prayers and thine 
Alms are come up for a Memorial before God. Hence Nehemiah prays, 
Remember me, O my God, concerning this, Neh. 13. 14, 22. The mean- 
ing is, That the Smoke thereof was to come up before God with ac- 
ceptance ; therefore there was Frankincenfe burnt with it, to make a 
fvveet Smell. 

3. The Remnant was Aarons and his Sons, verf. 3. And again, verf. 10. 
That is, To eat it in the Santluary, Levit. 6. 16, 18. Except the Meat- 
offering of the Priefts, which might not be eaten, but was to be all 
burnt for a whole Burnt- Offering, Chaf. 6. verf. 23. 
This may be applied Two ways, 

1 . To the Communion and Participation of Chrift, by all Believers ^ 
For they are all Priefts unto God, Rev. 1. 6. A Royal Priefthood, 1 Pet. 

2. 9. Verf. 5. An holy Prieftbood to offer up Spiritual Sacrifices. And 
Chrift is our Meat- Offering, he is the Bread of God, the Bread of Life y 
John 6. 33. So then the Priefts eating the Meat- Offering, is, Be- 
lievers feeding upon Chrift by Faith. 

As the Meat-Offering was partly burnt upon the Altar, and partly 
eaten by the Priefts •, fo Jefus Chrift having offered up himfelf once 
for all, doth always continue a fpiritual Meat-Offering, and Food for 
the hungry Souls of all Believers to feed upon. His Flcjh is Meat in- 
deed, his Blood vs Drink indeed, John 6. 

2. This was part of the Priefts maintenance. As indeed they had fome- 
thing out of every Offering •, fee Numb- 18. 9, 10. From whence we 
fee, that they who ferve at the Altar, fhould live of the Altar ; they 
that preach the Gofpel, fhould live of the Gofpel. 

3. The Third thing concerning the Meat-Offering, is the Scope and 
Intent of it ; or, its Meaning and Signification. This is hinted in verfe 

3. To be an Offering made by Fire of a fweet Savour unto the Lord. More 
particularly, there was a fourfold Myftery fhadowed forth by it_; I fpeak 
now as to the general Scope of the whole : For the myfteries of par- 
ticular Rites and Ceremonies about it muft be fpoken to under each 
particular Rite. 

1. It did prefigure and fhadow forth the Atonement or Expiation of 
Sin, by the Righteoufnefs of Jefus Chrift, both by his Sufferings and 
Actings, his aftive and paffive Obedience. That this was one part of 


The GofpeJ of the Meat-Offering. a 1 5 

the myftery of the Meat-O.Tering, the Scripture is exprefs : 1 Sam- 
3. 14. The Iniquity of E\is Houfe /hall not be purged or expiated 
rQQ nmail with Sacrifice, or Offering for ever. Neither by (lain Sa- 
crifices, nor by Meat- Offerings for ever : So 1 Sara. 16. 19. // the Lord 
have fiirred thee up againft me, let him accept a Mincha. And />/#/. 40. 
6. fpeaking of propitiatory Sacrifices, he faith, Zebacb and Mincha -, 
/lain Sacrifices and Meat- Offerings thou would fi not. 

The Apoftle applies this to the fufferings of Chrift, for the Expia- 
tion of our Sins, Heb. 10. 5, 10. Therefore when Chrift was come, 
he did caufe both Zebacb and Mincha to ceafe, Dan* 9. 27. both the 
flain Sacrifices, and the Meat- Offerings. And it is exprefly faid of 
the poor Man's Meat-Offering for his Trefpafs, that it fhall make 
Atonement, Lev.%. 11, 13. 

This is thought to be fome account of the Apoftle's limitation, Heb. 
9. 22. where he faith, Thai undtr the Law almoft all things were purged by 
Blood. For it was not always done by /lain Sacrifices, but fometimes by 

And as the Scripture is clear for it ; fo indeed the thing it felf fpeaks. 
For there was in the Meat- Offerings an exprefs adumbration of both 
the parts of that jollifying Righteoufnefs of Jefus Chrift, by which we 
are reconciled to God. His Sufferings or pajjive Obedience. For there 
was a deftroying of the Mincha by Fire, and pouring it forth ; as well as 
of the Zebachim by Fire and Blood. Here was alfo an adumbration of 
his afiive Obedience, or fulfilling all Righteoufnefs, which was his Meat 
and Drink •, John 4. 34. My Meat, is to do the Will of him that fent 
me, and to fimfh his work. I know fome have made fome queftion of 
this, Whether the Meat-Offering were Propitiatory, or on-ly Eucharifiical ? 
Bat you fee how clear it is r both from the Scripture, and from the 
Analogy of the thing it felf. 

2. The Meat-Offering fignified alfo the Perfons> 0/ Believers, who 
(through Chrift) are fancYified and cleanfed to be a pure Oblation or 
Meat-Offering unto God. They are compared in Scripture to a Meat 
and Drink- Offering ^ Ifa. 66. 2c. They {haU bring their Brethren for a 
Mincha or Meat-Offering unto the Lord, which was fulfilled in the Con- 
verfion of the Gentiles, as the Apoftle fpeaks, Rom. 15, \6. and rn the 
Sufferings of the Saints • efpecially when they fuffer unto Death and' 
Martyrdom in the Caufe of Chrift. They are a Drink-Offering to the 
Lord, exceedingly accepted of him •, Philip. 2. 17. Tea, if 1 be offered* 
up as a Brink-Offering (fi pro libamento offerar Beza) upon the Sacri- 
fice and Service of your Faith, 1 joy and rejoice with you all. 2 Tim. 4. 6, 
For 1 am now ready to be offered, o-*h&yA^ and the time of my departure is 


216 The Gofpe! of the Meat-Offering. 

at band. The Note upon i: is this, I am ready to be offered for a Drink- 
OrTering •, and he alluded! co the pouring out of Blood or Wine, which 
was ufed in Sacrifices. 

3. The Meat-Offering fignified not only their Perfons, but their Ser- 
vkes, thofe Fruits of Grace and Good Works that Believers do per- 
form, whether towards God or towards Man *, which are often com- 
pared to Fruits, and to Meat and Drink. And the Meat-Offering you 
know, confifled of the Fruits of the Earth, of things to be eat and 
drunk. Good Works are called Fruits, Phil 1. 6. and again Phil. 4. 17. 
And Meat and Drink, John 4. 32. / have Meat to eat that ye know not 
of\ and what was that? See verf 34. My Meat is to do the IViU of 
him that fent me y and to finifb his Work. As the Meat-Offering confifted 
of the Fruits of the Earth, things to be eat and drunk. 
To in fiance in particulars. 

1. Prayer. Pfal. 141. 2. Let my Prayer be fet before thee as Incenfe, 
and the lifting up of my Hands as the Evening Mincha, or Meat-Offering ; 
So when the Lord told the Jews, J will not accept a Mincha, or Meat- 
offering at your hands ; he addeth, that inftead of them, Mai. 1.10,11. 
Prom the rifing of the Sun to the going down of the fame y Jncenfe {hall be 
offered to my Name, and a pure Mincha, a pnre Meat Offering ; which 
is fulfilled when Men pray every where, lifting up pure Hands % &c 
1 Tim. 2. 8. 

2. Praife, and thankful acknowledgment of God's Goodnefs and Sove- 
raignty, and the intereft God hath in us, and in all our Comforts and 
Enjoyments; which, as they come from him, are thus acknowledged by 
way of Chief-Rent in Sacrifice. This fmall Rent (as a Pepper-corn in 
fome Leafes) being an acknowledgment of their Homage, that he is 
the great Landlord and Owner of all the Good they enjoyed : There- 
fore while his Worfhip was neglected, he blafred them in all their out- 
ward Comforts, Hag. 1. 9, 10, 11. But when they acknowledged 
him, he remembred them * 7 Cap. 1. verf. 19. And left a Meat Offering 
and a Drink-Offering in the houfe of the Lord, as Joel 2. 14. This is a 
fecond Duty taught in the Meat- Offering. 

3. Some conceive here was a' prefiguration alfo of the Sacrament of 
the Lord's Supper. And indeed fomething of Analogy doth appear : For 
the Meat-Offering did confift of Bread and Wine, as the Loid's Supper 
doth. And as the Meat was eaten by the Priefts : So is the Bread by 
Believers, who are Gofpel- Priefts. 

But yet, as in all Similitudes and Types ; befide the Analogy, there 
bealfofundry difpr opart tons and difpar hies, between the Type and the 
thing typified ; fo here : For the Meat-Offering was both a Feaft and a 


The Gofpel of the Meat-Offering. 217 

Sacrifice, part of it being burnt upon the Altar. But the Lord's Sup- 
per is only a Feafi^ and not a Sacrifice, being wholly eaten by the Priefts, 
The Meat-Offeringdid refer to what was fat arc, the Lord's Supper to- 
what is paft : That was a pr efigur ation of the true Sacrifice } the Lord's 
Supper is a Commemoration of it. In the Meat- Offering the Wine was 
only poured forth before the Lord : But in the Lord's Supper, the Com- 
municants are to drink it. Drink ye all of it, Mat 26. 27. In a word, 
that was a Type ; this a Sacrament, 

4. There is a fourth Duty which the Sacrifice of the Meat-Offering 
may refer to, and that is, Alms, Bounty and Liberality to the Saints^ 
and to the Poor. This is a true Sacrifice, and a Gofpel Meat- Offering, 
* The Apoftle feems to fpeak of it under fuch a Notion: Heb. 13. 16. 
To do good, and to communicate, forget not^ for with fuch Sacrifices God 
vs well plcaftd. And Phil. 4. 17, 18. 

4. The Meat- Offering fhadowed forth the Acceptation of our Perfons 
n and Services with the Lord : So in the places before alledged, Philip. 4. 
17, j 8. the Apoftle calls what the Philippians fent unto him for his 
fupply, An Odour of a fweet fmell, a Sacrifice acceptable, well pleafing 
unto God, Mai. 1. 10. God rejects the Jews, but accepts the Gentiles 
in their ftead, together with their Prayers and Services, verf. 11. 
Upon this account, Frankincenfe was an Ingredient in the Meat-Offering, 
to make a fweet Smell : Hofea 9. 4. They (hall not offer Wine-Offerings 
to the Lord, neither fhall they be pleafing unto him: The Lord hath 
fometimes given fignal Evidence and Teftimony of his good acceptance 
of this Sacrifice, and of his People therein: See 2 Kings 3.9,10, 

So that look as our Reconciliation to God, was in a fpecial manner 
taught and held forth by the- Burnt -Offering •, fo our Santtification and 
Acceptation with him, is in a peculiar manner taught and fhadowed 
forth in the Meat-Offering : Which" hath occafioned fome to reftrain it 
to this Scope only, though that is a miftake, as hath been (hewed. 

Thus you fee the general Myfteries adumbrated and fhadowed forth 
in the Meat-Offering •, namely, Jefus Chrift his atoning and recon- 
ciling us to God : As alfo Believers, their Perfons, their Services, the 
Acceptance of both before God. 

4. The Fourth Enquiry touching the Meat-Offering is, concerning 
the Additions forbidden to be annexed to it-, which were two, Leaven 
and Honey, verf. 11. The reafon and intent of this is worthy to be 
confidered and enquired into. 

And firft for the literal fenfe and meaning of the Prohibition. It is 
concerning Fire- Offerings at the Brazen Altar: Leaven and Honey might 

Ff not 

2 1 8 The Gofpel of the Meat - Offering. 

not come upon the. Altar ^ but yet Leaven was permitted and allowed 
in Thank-Offerings, Lev. 7. 13. and in the Offerings of Firfl: Fruits, 
Cap. 23. 17. So here in this fecond Chapter, verf. 12. it is thought 
to be fpoken by way of Caution •, they might offer it leavened, but 
not facrificed at the Mar. Honey alfo is numbred among the Firft- 
Fruits, 2 Chron. 31.5. Though fome underftand that of Dates, which 
are as fweet as Honey. This nth verfe fome explain thus : Ye (hall 
offer them to the Lord for a Wave -Offering, but not for an Oblation 
at the Altar. This is ftri&ly forbidden both in this and in divers 
other Scriptures, as in reference to the Paffover, and that very fevere- 
ly under the pain of Extermination, or cutting off, Exod. 12. 19, 
And in Amos 4. 5. they are farcaftically reproved for it : For that in- 
terpretation agrees beft with the Scope. 

Now for the Reafons of the Prohibition. 

And firft for Leaven ; Leaven you know hath a fower tafte, it hath 
its name (one of its names) in Hebrew sen from the fowernefs of 
the Tafte. Vinegar is a Conjugate from the fame Root, Numb. 6. 3. 
Cbometz. Jajin. And it hath a fowring and a fwelling Quality and 
Property, and an infe&ing fpteading Quality, when it is put into a 
Batch of Dough, it ceafeth not till in hath made all the reft like 
untoitfelf: As our Saviour fpeaks of it, Mat, 13. 33. Leaven which 
a Woman took and hid in three meafures of Meal^ till the whole was leaven- 
ed. And fo the Apoftle, Gal. 5. 9. A little Leaven leavencth the whols 

The Heathen did retain by blind Tradition, fome 
Aul. GeUius. footfteps of this Ceremony : For the Flamen Dial'vs^ 
Lib.%. cap. 15. or Roman Prieft, might not by their Canons touch 
Plut auefi Rom an X unleavened Meal. Plutarch fcanneth the Reafon 
tpud Aynfw /»" °f lt ^us \ becaufe Leaven it felf proceedeth from 
Exod. 12. 1$. Corruption, and corrupteth alfo the Meal with which 
it is mixed. 

And therefore by the way, that Metaphor of Fermentation fo much 
ufed by fome late Philofophers, it might be doubted, whether it be 
always fo congruous, and fo full of light to clear up the myfteries of 
Nature, as they fuppofe, who make fuch continual ufe of it , for it 
is but one kind or way of Corruption. 

But for the fpiritual myftery of it. 

Leaven argues Corruption, and therefore unleavened is as much as 
to fay uncorrupted. I find Leaven applied in Scripture to Sin and 
Sinners-,, and Corruptions of all forts, and particularly to thefe four. 

1. To 

The Gofpel of the Meat-Offering. 219 

i . To falfe Doctrine, Mat. 1 6. 6, 1 1 , 1 2. The Leaven of the Pharifees, 
is the falfe Doctrine of rhe rharifees. 

2. To fc indalous and wicked Practices \ 1 Cor. 5. 6, 7, 8. Purge out 

the old Leaven, that ye may be a new Lump as ye are unleavened Let 

us keep the Feafl not with old Leaven, neither with the Leaven of Malice 
and Wickednefs, but with the unleavened Bread of Sincerity and Truth. To 
Difconunt ; Pfal. 73. 21 . Thus my Heart was grieved- Or according to 
the Hebrew Metaphor ', Thus was my Heart leavened or fowred s 
Ki Jithchametz.e lebahi, or rather leavened and fowred it felf. To 
Malice and Cruelty, the Leaven of Malicioufnefs • Pfal. 71.4. Deliver 
me, O my God, out of the hand of the unrighteous and cruel Man, the lea- 
vened Perfon, Chometz.. So likewife Pride is fitly compared to Leaven, 
becaufe it puffs and fwells the Heart. 

3. To Hypocrify and fecretSins^ Luke 12. 1, 2. The Leaven of the 
Vharifees, which vs Hypocrify. 

4. To promifcuous Communion, and carnal mixtures in Church So=. 
ciety ; 1 Cor. ^. 6. A little Leaven leaveneth the whole Lump. 

Some are apt to fay, their Sin will do me no hurt : But you may be 
deceived in this. I tell thee their Sins may i.rfeft and damn thee ; 
One Fornicator or profane Perfon mufl not be allowed in the Church, hfi 
many be defiled, Heb. 12. 1 5, 16. This is a Truth fo dear throughout 
the whole Scripture, that if I were to choofe what Death I would die, 
I think 1 could never choofe to die in a better Caufe, than for bear- 
ing wicnefs to this Truth -, That the Church of God ought not to be made 
a Den of Thieves, and a Refuge and Receptacle for wicked Livers : There 
mult be no fuch Leaven in the Hqufe of God. 

Now put all thefe together, and put them into the Affirmative, and 
you fee a fourfold Inftru&ion in this Prohibition of Leaven. Ifc teach- 
eth us (1.) Soundnefs in the Faith of Chrifi. (2.) Holinefs of Life! 
(3.) Sincerity of Heart. (4) Purity of Church-Communion. 

2. Honey was forbidden aifo. It may feem ftrange, that fo fweet 
and fogood athingfhould be fo feverely interdicted. How often is 
the Land of Canaan commended as a Land flowing with Milk and Honey ? 
But to eat too much of it is not good, Prov. 25. 16, 1 7. It cloys and loads 
the Stomach, and turns to choler and bitternefs ; and if poured upon 
the Fire it fwells and rifeth up in Froth. Three things we may learn 
out of this Prohibition of Honey. 

1. That God will be wor (hipped according to his own Inflitution and 
Command : His Will is the Rule we mud: fubmit unto, tho ? we cannot 
well fee the reafon of it. We muft not follow any Invention of our own, 
tho* to our carnal Thoughts it feem as fweet as Honey, tho* it feem 

F f 2 never 

220 The Gofpel of the Meat-Ofering. 

never fo decent, never fo orderly: As that is the common pretence, 
it is for decency and orders fake. But what think you Friends, is not 
Honey fweet and decent too ? But God requires it not : Therefore 
away with from the Meat- Offerings of the Lord. 

a. Learn that holy temperature aad equability of Spirit, which be- 
cometh Saints in all the Conditions and Viciffitudes they pafs through ; 
we mufl: take heed of Extremes. There mould be neither Leaven nor 
Honey •, neither too much fower, nor too much fweet ; neither inordi- 
nate forrovoj nor inordinate pleafures in the Meat-Offering of the Saints ; 
they mould neither be dejeded nor lifted up, but in an even well-com- 
pofed frame and temper of Spirit, 2 Cor. 12. 7, 10. neither leavened and 
fowred with difcontent under worldly Troubles, nor furfeited with the . 
Sweetnefs and Honey of carnal Pleafure, and delight and contentment 
of the Creature. 

3 . Some apply it unto Cbrift himfelf, thus : That there Chrifl our 
Meat-Offering, no fuch Sweetnefs which turns to loathing, nofuch Plea- 
fure whereof a Man can take too much ^ there is no glutting, no fatiety, 
no after Sorrows, no fuch Delight as proves bitter in the latter End, as 
much Honey doth. But on the contrary, the more any Man taftes of 
the Sweetnefs and Comfort that is in Him, the more he fhall long for it, 
and fay, Lord evermore give us of this Breads as John 6. 34. more of this 
Bread, more of this Comfort, this Communion with God. He is not fweet 
at firft, and bitter afterwards : but his Yoke feems heavieft at firft, but 
lighter afterward: He fpeaks firft of the Crofs, then of the Crown of 

Thefe four are all in this Chapter : For the other twoEnquiries,we fhall 
borrow Light out of other Scriptures, further to illuftrate them, 

5. The fifth Enquiry concerning the Meat-Offering is, concerning the 
appurtenance of Drink-Offerings y by Divine Inftitution affixed and annex- 
ed to the Meat-Offering. I reckon it as an appurtenance to the Meat- 
offering, for two Reafons. 

1. Becaufe it is not mentioned as a diftinft Species in that Enume- 
ration of the Legal-Offerings, which hath been fo often quoted Lev. 
7. 37. The Drink-Offering is there omitted, as being included and 
underftood in the Meat-Offering. 

2. Becaufe it was never offered alone under the Law, but always in 
conjunction with the flainSacrifices,to compleat the Meat-Offering belong- 
ing to them. It is true, before the Law we read of Drink- Offerings 
alone •, Jacob) Gen. 35. 14 he fet up a Pillar in Bethel, and he poured a- 
Drink-Offering thereon, and he poured Oyl thereon. But after that 
Regulation and Reformation of the Offerings by Mofes, we never 


The Go/pel of the Meat-Offering* 221 

read of any Drink-OfFering alone, but only in Conjunction with 
Meat- Offerings, and Slaughter- Offerings. As Numb. 15^5. And the 
fourth part of a Hin of Wine for a Drink-Offering (halt thou prepare, with 
the Burnt -Offering, or Sacrifice for one Lamb. And verf. 7. For a Ram^ 
thoit (halt offer for a Drink-offering the third part of a Hin. And again, 
verf. 11. For a Bulloch And Numb. 28. 7. The DrinhOffering thereof 
fhallbe the fourth part of an Hin for one Lamb, &c. Levit. 23. 18. They 
(haU be for a Burnt-Offering unto the Lord, with their Me at -Offerings, and 
their Drink-Offerings. And in Hczeha's Time, when he purged the 
Houfe of God, it is faid iChron. 29.3$- The Burnt -Offerings were in 
abundance, with the Fat of the Peace-Offerings, and the Drink-Offerings for 
every Burnt- Offering. 
1 fhall fpeak to three Things npon the Drink-Offering. 

1 . The Matter of it. 

2. The Rite and manner of Oblation, 

3. The My fiery of it. 

1 . Firfl then for the Matter of it, it was Wine ; Numb. 1 5. 5. Wine for 
a Dr ink- Offer ing jh alt thou prepare. Called Shekar in Numb. 28. 7. front 
whence the Greek Sikera, that is, a ftrong inebriating Wine; our 
Tranflators here render it ftrong Wine. Hence Hof. 9.4. They fhall 
not offer Wine-Offerings tQ the Lord. Hence Judg. 9. 13. in Jotham's 
Parable the Vine faith, fhould 1 leave my Wine which cheereth God and 
Man i How doth Wine cheer God? It cannot be faid to cheer God 
other wife, than jn Offerings and Sacrifices. 

The Heathen fell into an horrible Corruption, as to this; for they 
mingled Blood, in their idolatrous and fuperftitious Rage, in Drink- 
Offerings, whereto the Pfalmisl alludes, Pfal. 16. 4. and declares how. 
he abominates fuch a Pradtife ; Their Sorrows fhall be multiplied that ha- 
ft en or give Gifts to another God : Their Drink-Offerings of Blood will I 
not offer. It is not unlike the Health-Drinkers of our Times, of whom 
you may have heard -, fome ( in their raging Profanenefs ) have ming- 
led their own Blood with Wine, and fo have drunk it in Healths to 
the Devil, and to the Confufion of Sion, and Sion*s King. 

2. The Rite and manner of Oblation was, by pouring it forth before the 
Lord, Numb. 28. 7. In the holy Place [halt thou caufe ftrong Wine to be 
poured out unto the Lord for a Drink Offering, that is, up on the Altar fay 
fome, but not upon the Fire • or as others, befide the Altar : For it is 
likely the Wine of the Drink-Offering was to be poured forth, where 
the Blood of the flaughtered Sacrifices was poured forth : But that 
was at the bottom of the Altar, as you have formerly heard upon Cap, 
1 . with Cap. 8, 1 5. lag, 2 j 2. Hence it hath its Name in Hebrew 2Vfc-. 


222 The Gofpel of the Meat-Offering. 

f&, libamen, a facred Effufton, or a pouring out -, from the Verb Nafak^ 
fudit, effudit. 

They were not to drink it •, that might have been an occafionof 
Intemperance andDrunkennefs, there being daily and continual Drink- 
Offerings ; nay, there was no piece of legal Worlhip wherein they 
were commanded to drink Wine. But there is an exprefs Prohibition 
of any fuch Right ^ Levit. 10.8, 9. And the Lord /pake unto Aaron, 
faying, Do not drink Wine or firong Drink, thou nor thy Sons with thee, 
when you go into the Tabernacle of the Congregation, left yon die. Verf. 10. 
And that you may put Difference between holy and unholy, and between un- 
Qlcan and clean. 

4. The fpiritual Myftery of it. Doubtlefs it had much of fpiritual 
Myftery in it : The Pfalmift calls it, the Cup of Salvation, Pfal 1 id. 13. 
I will take the Cup of Salvation, and call upon the Name of the Lord, for 
what other Adminiftration under the Law that Expreflion could re- 
late unto, befides this, I know not : There being no other life of Cups 
of Wine amongft them in the Worlhip of God, but only in thefe 
Drink-OfFerings whereof we fpeak. 

Three Things I fhall briefly note. 

1. Wine in typical and allegorical Scriptures, doth fometimes flg- 
nify the Joy sand Confolations of the Holy Ghoft : F01; Wine rejoyces and 
cheers the Heart, Pfal. 104. 1 5. Wine that makethglad the Heart of Man. 
Therefore the Apoftle, Ephef. 5. 18. fofpeaks, Be not inebriated with 
Wine wherein is excefs, but be ye filled with the Spirit* The Apoftles 
Antithefis between Wine and the Spirit intimates this ; Cant. 1 . 2. Thy 
Love vs better than Wine. And Verf. 4. We will be glad and re Joyce in thee, 
we will • remember thy Love more than Wine. And Cant. 2. 5. Stay me 
with Flagons, comfort me with Apples, for I am fick of Love. Stay me 
with Flagons, that is, with Flagons of Wine. Metonymia fubjefli, con- 
tinent pro contento. As in the Supper the Cup is put for the Wine, 
This Cup is my Blood, that is, the Wine in the Cup : So here /lay 
me with Flagons, fhe prays for theSenfe of his Love. 

2. We find the Saints pouring out their Blood in the Caufe of 
Chrift, compared to a Drink- Offering, Phil. 2. 27. 2 Tim. 4. 6. And 
fo in an higher, in a much higher Senfe the Blood of Chrift is re- 
presented by Wine in the Sacrament of the Supper, as his Flefh by 
Bread : And fo the Meat and Wine in the Meat-Offering, may alfo 
reprefent his Flefh and Blood. 

3. It fhadowed forth the Lord's Acceptance of his People, Shall I 
leave my Wine wherewith I cheer both God and Man I Judg.9, 13. that 
is, which is pleating to God in Sacrifice. Hence when the Lord de- 

The Gofpel of the Meat-Offering. 223 

clares his Reje&ion and Dif acceptance of them ; Hof. 9. 4. he thu s 
exprelfeth in, they /hall not offer Wine-Offerings to the Lord, neither [hall 
they be pkafing unto him. 

6. The fixth and laft Enquiry that was propounded concerning the 
Me3t- Offering is, the Seajons and Occafions upon which it was to be offer- 
ed. There is the more caufe to fpeak to this, both becaufe the Scripture 
is Copious in it, and becaufe there hath been iomething of Contro- 
verfy, and fomething perhaps of Inadvertency and Miftake about it. 
You may note this in general : There be fome Offerings which were 
Meat- Offerings as to their Matter, which yet did not come under the 
Rule of the Meat-Offering, as it is here laid down in this fecond Chap- 
ter of Leviticus. There be three Inftances of this. 

t. The Wave-Sheafs Lev. 23. iq, 11. 

2. The two Wave-Loaves^ Lev. 23. 17. It is true, thefe agreed in 
the Matter with the Meat-Offering properly fo called ; for they were 
of- the Fruits of the Earth, that were to be eaten : But yet they did not 
come under the Rule of the Meat-Offering. For they were not J/bim, 
Offerings made by Fire, they were not to be burnt, nor were they 
moft Holy y to be eaten by the Priefts alone in the holy Place •, and 
they were to be made with Leaven, which is contrary to the ordina- 
ry Rule of Meat- Offerings. But they were Heave-Offerings, which 
were but fingly, and not doubly Holy. 

3. A third Inftance is the Jealoufy-Offcring, Numb. 5. which differs 
from the Meat-Offering, partly in the Matter. For the Jealoufy-Of- 
fering was not fine Flower 5 nor yet Flower of Wheat; but Qnemach 
Sheirim Meal of Barley; Some render it the Bran of Barley. Barley,, 
the courfeft fort of Bread-Corn, and Bran, the courfeft Part of that 
Grain : Not Wheat, but Barley ; not Flower, but Meal. And it had 
no Oyl nor Frankincenfe with it. 

It differed alfo and chiefly in the End and Vfe. The Meat-Offer- 
ing being for Expiation, as hath been formerly proved : But the Jea- 
loufy-Offering was for Exploration and Difcovery of Guilt or Innocence, 
It was for a Memorial, but not for a Memorial of Acceptation ; but 
to bring Sin to Remembrance, Numb. 5.15. 

For thefe Reafons, tho' there be fomething of general Agreement, 
being of the Fruits of the Earth, and fo may be called a Meat-Offer- 
ing in a general Senfe, and fo accordingly is called Mincha, Ver. 1 5. 
Yet you fee how much it differs from the Rule of the Meat-Offering, in 
this fecond of Leviticus ; therefore it was not properly a Meat-Offering. 

Queslr. But when then was the Meat-Offering offered? And what Offer- 
ings were thereunder the Law, that come more fuUy wider that Notion 2 


224 1%e Gofpelof the Meat-Offering. 

jinfw. They were of two Sorts, either Separate, or conjoined with 
other Offerings. 

i. Of feparate Meat-Offerings there are two fignal Inftances. 

i. The poor Mans Trefpafs-Offering, Levit. 5. 11, 12. infteadof the 
Trefpafs-Offering of Cattel, becaufe of his Poverty. 

2. The Shew- Bread, Levit. 24. 7, 9. Which feems to have been a 
Meat-Offering : For the Incenfe was burnt as a Memorial for the 
Bread, fay Some : Or, as Others -, an handful of the Flower whereof 
they were made, was burnt for the whole: And the reft was eaten. 
by the Priefts, after they had been prefented, and had flood for a 
Time before the Lord. So much as to Separate Meat-Offerings. 

2. As to Meat-Offerings conjoyned with other Offerings. The general 
Rule is this, That they were conjoyned with' Bnrnt-Offtrings of Cattel, 
and with Peace-offerings , whether offered as Vows, or as Free-will- 
Offerings, or at their folemn Feafts, and on fundry other incidental 
Occafions. But they were not conjoyned with Burnt-Offerings -of 
Fowls, nor with Sin, or Trefpafs-Offerings. This Rnle is both affirma- 
tive and negative ; it is grounded upon Numb* 15.4, 9.* 

Hence as there was a daily Burnt-Offering, fo there was a daily 
Meat-Offering, Nymb.^. \6. Numb. 28.4,5. And fometimes the Lord 
gave fignai Teftimoniesof his Acceptance of it, as 2 Kings 3. 9, 10,20. 
So at the Confecration of the Priefts and Levites, Levit, 8.26, 27. and 
Levit. 9.4. At the Confecration of the Levites, Numb. 8. 8. At the 
Expiration of the Nazarite's Vow, Numb. 6. 17. At the Dedication 
of the Tabernacle, there were twelve Meat-Offerings according to. 
the Number of the Tribes, Numb. 7. 13, 14. 

Alfo the Sheaf of Firft Fruits, tho' it felf was a Wave-Offering, 
yet there was a Meat-Offering annexed to it, Levit. 23. 18. So that 
generally where you have a Burnt- Offering, or a Peace-Offering un- 
der the Law, whether under the Notion of a Vow or a Free-will- 
Offering, or at their ftated Feafts, and in moft incidental Occafions, 
though I cannot fay in all, for it is not mentioned in the Purificati- 
on of Women after Child-bed, Levit 12.6. They had a Meat-Offer- 
ing by Divine Inftitution, annexed and conjoyned with it. 

The other part of the Rule is negative, and it is this : We do not 
find that Meat-Offerings were annexed unto the Burnt- Offerings of 
Fowls, or to Sin, or Trefpafs- Offerings, or to Firft-Fruits, or Tythes, 
or to the Pafchal-Lamb, tho' to the Feaft of the Paffover they were, 
Bent. 16. 1,2. And in the cleanfing of the Leper, the Meat-Offering 
feems to be annexed to the Sin-Offering, Levit. 14. 10. which is a 
peculiar Cafe. This Rule is dravyn from the Authority of the Scrip- 

The Gofpe! of the Peace-Offering. 225 

ture negatively, there being no fuch annexing of it unto thcfe in tha* 
Place, Numb.\$. where it is annexed unto Burnt-Offerings and PeacV 
Offerings : BJt where it was not commanded, where they were not 
directed to it in the Law, they might not do it. 

life. Seethe f nine ft of fa? it a al My fiery , and the Plenty of Gofpel Light 
and Teaching, that is in the Sacrifice of the Meat-Offer frg. To recapitu- 
late briefly fome Heads of Things, which have been more largely 
opened to you. It relates both to Chrift and Chrift tan^ and is full 
of Spiritual Myftcry as to both. 

1. As to Chrift: He is the true Meat- Offering, the Food of ow 
Souls : It was to confift of fine Flower, to denote his Clean nefs and 

The baking, frying, drying, beating of it : Points us to his Suffer- 
ings, and fo doth the burning of it upon the Altar. 

The pouring forth the Wine belonging to the Meat-Offering, plain- 
ly reprefents the pouring out his Blood. 

The Green Ears, reprefents Chrift as the Firft-Fruits, by whom all 
the reft is fan&ified. 

The Priefts eating it, tells us how Believers feed upon Chrift by Faith, 
as the Bread of Life. 

The Oyl, is the Spirit of Chrift. 

The Incenfe, his Prayers and Mediations, and the efficacy and ac- 
ceptance thereof with God for us. 

The Salt of the Covenant, is the (lability and everlafting faithful- 
nefsof God as our God, in a Covenant-Relation through Jefus Chrift. 
The Prohibition of Leaven and Honey, frees Chrift from all Cor- 
ruption of Life and Do&rine, and all fuch deceiving Comfort, which 
afterwards like Honey turns to Bitternefs. 

2 Apply it to Chrift Myftkal % to the Saints and Members of Chrift ; 
for it may be fo applied : The Gentiles under the Gofpel are prefen- 
ted as an acceptable Meat-Offering to the Lord, Jfa. 66. 20. Every 
Particular and Circumftance of it is full of Teaching. 

The fine Flower, teaches us to purge our felves from the Bran of 
our natural Corruption. 

We muft be anointed with the Unftion of the Spirit. 
The Incenfe, teaches us to be much in Prayer, and toexpeft Accep- 
tance with the Lord, thro' Chrift. 

The Salt, inftru&s us in the Safety of our Covenant-Eftate and In- 
tereft in God : And that our Speeches and whole Deportment, fhould 
be favory and feafoned with Salt, 

G g The 

226 The Gofpel of the ?eace-Offering. 

The forbidding of Leaven and Honey, calls upon us to purge out 
the Old Leaven of finful Corruption, and to take heed of the fweet- 
nefs and pleafures of Sin. 

1 befeech you Brethren, do not reft in the notional underftanding 
of thefe Truths, but reduce all to Pra&ics. If ye know thefe Things, 
happy are ye if ye do them, John 13. 17.. But tf ye know all JMy/leries, and 
have not Love, 1 Cor. 13. 1, 2. it profiteth nothing. 
' And to prefs you a little further ; you may obferve, that the Meat- 
offering under the Gofpel, is larger than it was under the Law, as you 
will find if you compare Ztymb. 28. with Ezek 46. For in Numb. 28. 5. 
the Meat-Offering is buff the tenth part of. an Ephah of Flower, and but 
the fourth part of an Hin of beaten Oyl. But in Ez,ek 4.5.14. it is augment- 
ed, the Meat-Offering to ajixth part of an Ephah, and the third part of 
an Hin of Oyl This fpeaks a greater degree of* F ruitfulnefs and more 
ample Obedience under the Gofpel, then was of Old under the Law. 
* That look as the Grace of God in Chrift abounds towards us under 
the Gofpel, fo ihould we abound in our Returns of thankful and fruit- 
ful Obedience, 1 Tim. 1. 14. j4nd the Grace of our Lord was exceeding a- 
bundant with Faith and Love, which is in Chrift Jefus. Can you not go a- 
long with the Apoftle in thofe Exprefiions ? Hath not God abounded 
towards you in Mercy and Free-Grace ? Have you not fometimes faid, 
never fuch a Pattern of Mercy, never the like Riches of Free-Grace, if 
the Lord pardoned fuch Sins, and heal fucb Baekftidings : Therefore be 
■you abundant in the Work of the Lord, 1 -Cor. 15. ult. 

If you know thefe Things, happy are you if you do them. 

T +_ , — , ^ ; ■ . ■ " ■ 


Gofpel of the PEACE-OFFERING. 



fuJj 26. Auguji Levit. Cap. 3. 

The Feace-Offmng. Shelamira. 

THe third fort of Sacrifices or Offerings under the Law, is the 
We had the Burnt-Offering in the firft Chapter, the Meat-Offering 
m the fecojad Chapter j and now follows the Peace-Offering here in the 


The Gofpel of the Peace-Offering. 227 

third.' Tola, Mincha, Sbelamim, We may open ic in tbj 
which I hope will be plain and edifying. 

1. The Name. 

2. The Ends, Occafions and SeafoiiS of it. 

3. The Matter of it. 

4. The facred Rights and Ceremonies, or ceremonious Actions a- 
bouc it. 

1. For the Name; it is Sbtlamim which we render the Peace- Offer- 
ing, and Zebach Sbeiamim the Sacrifice of the Peace-Offering 5 from 
Shalom, pax, fo called, becaufe it -was a Sacrifice of Peace- Offering a- 
mong all the Parties: God, and the Prkfls, and the People being all 
Partakers of it, as being all agreed, and therefore Sociable Partakers 
of the fame thing. The Word may be other w ife rendred ; but this 
Interpretation is molt generally received, and fuits well with the Na» 
ture of this Sacrifice of Peace-Offerings. 

2. The Ends, Occafions, and Seafons of the Peace-Offerings (for we 
may put all thefe together. ) Firft as to their Ends, they were of a 
mixt Nature, they were both Hilaftical, Eucharifiical and Euftical - 7 
both for Atonement, and for Thanh/giving, and for Prayer -, they were 
in general for Peace and Reconciliation with God. 

Some I know, have queftioned this, which I mult confefs I have of- 
ten wondred at, and they have thought it meerly expreffive of moral 
Duties, of Homage and Thankfulnefs to God, &c. But it was a Fire- 
Offering upon the Brazen Altar-, ail the reft of which, were for Re- 
conciliation and Atonement, and therefore why not this ? It is faid 
to be a favour of R*&, verf. 5. which fignifies God's Acceptation. 
The Actions about it, fpeak forth this End -, for it was (lain and burnt 
upon the Altar, the Blood poured forth and fprinkled upon the Al- 
tar round about, &c. All pointing to Jefus Chrift, who is indeed the 
true Peace-Offering, Epbef.i. 14. He is our Peace, and he hath made 
Peace by the Blood of his Crofs • Col. 2. 20. Yet this was but the gene- 
ral, and not the fpecial, nor the only End of them. 

There be Two particular Ends mentioned in Cap. 7. 

1. Peace enjoyed, to teftify their Thankfulnefs. 

2. Peace defired and fought after. Each of which had their different 
Rights, of which afterwards. 

1. One end was for Thank [giving, by way of Retribution for Mer- 
cies received, Levit.7. 11,12. of which Pfal. 107. 22. And let them 
facrifice the Sacrifices of Thank (giving, and declare his Works with rejoyc:??*, 
Heb. 1 3. 15. By him therefore let us offer the Sacrifice of Praife to Cod con- 
timaUy % acknowledging Chrift in all our Mercies. 

G g 2. 2. Ano. 

*:8 The Gofpel of the Peace-Offering. 

2. Another End of the Peace-Offerings, was for the Impetration or 
obtaining of Mercies wanted \ either in the way of a Vow, or a Free- 
will-Offering, Levit.7. \6 Judg.20.26. The Tribes in their Fall 

for obtaining Vi&ory againft the Benjamites, offered Peace- Offerings in 
the way of a Free-will-offering, Pfal. 56. 12 Thy Vows are upon me O 
God, I will render Praifes unto thee ? Or, I will pay Confeffions unto 
thee^ that is, he would in a way of Praife, offer the Peace- Offerings 
that he had vowed. So Jonah 2. 9. But I will facrifice unto thee with the 
voice of Thank fgiving, 1 will pay that 1 have vowed : Salvation is of the 
Lord^ Gen. 28. 20 21, 22. Jacob vowed to give to God, the Tenth of 
all that God fhould give him ; that is, as a Peace-Offering. 

The Difference between a row, and a Free-will-offering was only 
this. That in the Free-will-offering they did prefect the thing it felt 
unto the Lord •, but in a Vow they did firft promife it, being (it may 
be) not in a Capacity to perform it at that Time. As Jonah in the 
Whale's Belly : And then when the Deliverance was beftowed, and the 
Prayer heard and granted, they paid their Vows unto the Lord. 

Hence fome have thus referred and compared thefe three Sorts of 
Offerings hitherto defcribed, and directed in this Book. That as the 
Burnt-Offering, Cap. 1. principally figured out Reconciliation to God, 
by the Death of Jefus Chrift, and the Me at -Offering,. Cap. 2. bad a 
fpecial refpect to our Sanftification in him before God - 9 (o this Peace- 
offering, llgnifieth both Chrife's Oblation of himfelf, whereby he became 
our Peace and Salvation-, and like wife our Oblation of Praife, Thanks- 
giving and Prayer unto God, in the midft of our Troubles, Tferoptati- 
ons and fpiritual Coufli&s, which we fight by Faith in this World % 
So that in this Sacrifice, we come boldly to the Throne of Grace, that we 
may receive Mercy, and find Grace to help in Time of need, as Heb. 
4. 16. 

Therefore fome have noted, That this Sacrifice of Peace-Offering, 
was often added under th« Law to other forts of Sacrifices. Becaufe, 
befide the Expiation of Sin by the Blood of Chrift, there mult be an 
effectual application of the Atonement in a way of a&ual Corrimuni- 
on with God, in a way of Grace and Peace through Jefus Chrift. 
Chrift doth not only procure Peace for us, but Communicate and ap- 
ply it to us. Here was an aclual Participation, and an exercife of mu- 
tual Communion between God and the Prieft, and the Offerers feaftiDg 

Quefh What were the Times and Seafons when they offered and were 
to offer peace-offerings ? 


The Gofpel of the Teace-Gfferivg. ^29 

jfnfw. They were ei' her Occafional, or more flated. 

The Occafional Turns, were eitiver, 1. In Ih -misgiving', or.2. As 
Vows *, or 3. As F>ve wi!i offeri^s i which were formerly fpoken to. 

The move flatcd Times are fuch as thefe. 

T . Ac the Confccration of the Priefts. One of the Rams k called a Peac:- 
Offering, Exod.29. 28. And at the firft Confecration of J. 'iron ard , 
bis Fdtfiily, Lcvtt. 9. 4- A I fo a Bullock and a Ram for Peace-Offerings, 
to Sacrifice before the Lord. 

2. At the Expiration of a Nazxretical Vow, Numb. 6. 14. One;Lamb 
without Blemifhfor a Peace Offering. 

3. At the Dedication of the Tabernacle. Each of the twelve Princes of 
the twelve Tribes of ifrael, brought for a Sacrifice of Peace- Offerings, two 
Oxen, five Rams, five Hee-Coats of the firft Tear, Numb. 7. 17. 

So at the Dedication of the Temple by Solomon,. 1 Kings ; 8.62, 63, 
Solomon offered a Sacrifice of Peace- Offerings which be offered unto the 
Lcrd, two and twenty the uf. in d- Oxen, and- a hundred and twenty thonfand 

4. In the Feaft of Fir ft- Fruits. Two Lambs of the firft Tear for aSacri- 
fice of Peace-Offerings, Lev. 23. 19. 

As for the Offerings at the Purification of a Leper ; the two Birds , 
Levit. 14. It differs fo much from the ordinary Rule of the Peace- Of- 
ferings, fhat it cannot well be annumerated to them ; Butkw T asa< 
peculiar Sacrifice of Purification, of which we fhall fpeak .hereafter. 

So likewife the Paffover Lamb, Exod. 12. though Eucharjftical ; yet 
cannot well be reduced, to ^the, Peacft;Offerings, or to any of -thefe- 
ordinary Kinds: But was indeed a peculiar Sacrifice," hayiag,othex. 
Rights than- what belonged to the Peace- Offering. 

3. The Matter of the Peace -Offering : It was either of the Herfc or of 
the Flock -, either of the bigger, or of the leffor fort of Cattel ; either 
Lambs or Goats. 

There was no Peace- Offering of Fowls, as there was of Turtle Doves 
and young Pigeons in the Burnt-Offering. 

Thereafon whereof is thought to be, becaufe this was to be divi- 
ded among fo many -, to God, and the Prieft, and the Offerers : Bur 
in Birds, being fo fmall, this Divifion could not fo conveniently be- 

Moreover, it must be without Blemifh. And this was required before * 
in the Burnt-Offering, and indeed in ail their Sacrifices. 

And finally the Peace- Offering, it might be either Male or Female 7 
which was otherwife in the Law of the Burnt- Offering, that was to b« 
Males only, Ca{. 1.3. This Interpreters do apply Spiritually to the 


$%6 . The Go] r pel of the Peace-Offering. 

State of the Church in Chrift, in whom there is neither Male isoffe- 
male^Gal. 3. 28. He that accepteth a Female in his Sacrifice, doth not 
exclwdS Women from his Service : They are not excluded from his 
Love, and therefore fhould not count themfelves freed from his Law, 
It was a good fpeech of a Woman that was a Martyr, Jefus Chrift fuf- 
fered as much for the redeeming of our Souls, as he did fox Men : 
And therefore, why fhould not we have as much Courage as they to 
fuffer for him ? God is no Refpecler of Perfons, 

4. The Rights and Ceremonies of the Peace Offering, they were of two 

1. Common unto this, with other Offerings. 

2. Peculiar to the Peace- Offerings. 

As to the former fort, there be five facred Ceremonies required 
here,- which were mentioned before in the Burnt-Offering, Cap. 1. and 
accordingly were there explained. As, 

i. It muft be brought to the Door of the Tabernacle of the Con- 

2. The Owner muft lay his Hands upon it. 

3. It muft be killed. 

4. The Blood ffied and fprinkled upon the Altar round about. 

5. Burning it upon the Altar •, all which having been explained be- 
fore when we were upon the Burnt-Offering. We may now proceed to 
the fecond Tort, viz.. 

2. Such Rights as are here firft mentioned, as having fome peculiar re- 
fpecT: to the'Sacrffice of Peace-Offerings. Nowthefe may be reduced 
to'fbur Heads. 

1. The Divifion of it into three parts, namely between God and 
the Prieft and the People. 

2; The Limitation of Time, for eating the Priefts and People's Part, 
to wit, upon the fame Day, or the next. 

3. The Addition of Leaveh. 

4. The Prohibition of Fat and Blood. 

Thefe are the facred Rights-and Ceremonies that were peculiar to 
the Peace-Offerings •, the Reafonsand M y ft eries whereof require a lit* 
tie opening. 

1. The Divifion of it, into three Parts, between God, the Prieft, and 
the People. 

1. Some parts of it were to be burnt before the Lord upon the Altar, up- 
on the Burnt -Offering,' vix. all the Suet and the Fat of the Inwards, the 
two- Kidneys, the Cawl upon the Liver, or theMidrifFand all their Fat. 
This is repeated three times over, viz.. concerning the Peace-Offer* 
ings' of the Herd, verf. 3. 4. And again, concerning the Lamb, 


Ihe Gofpe! of the Pssce-Cfer'nig* 231 

Vtxf 9, 1Q. And again, laftly. concerning the Goat, W//14, 15. 
Only with chia difference, That in the Peace-OfKring of Lambs, there 
is addul cue whole Paimp • verf. 9. The fit thereof and the whole Rump, 
tt fbali he take off hard by the Back-bone. .Whereof fome Interpreters 
give this Accoun:, That this in fome kind of Sheep is very- -grear and 
fat, especially in thofe parts of the World. As Vl'aiy, .Hb.'S. c.ap^S. 
Therefore it is her- commanded to he burnt upon the Altar, wkh tire 
other Fat and Inwards: -.So Aynfvo, in Ice. 

Others give this Account of it, That there is not the meaneffc part 
of the Craatore, but God hath a Right unto it : And though it be a 
thing never fo contemptible in it felf, God can make it honourable and 
facred, by applying it to his Service. As the Rump here in the Sa- 
crifice of Peace- Offerings. And fo the Fore-skin in the Sacrament of 
Circumcifion, Gm. 17. 1 1. Thus our own Annotatorsjn Lev. 3. 9. 

Thefe parts of the Peace-Offering muft be offered : Tal ha yola in 
bolocaujlum, for a B urnt- Offering -, as fome' render it : that h, thefe 
pans were in Jlead of the whole, and had the life and Virtue of the 
whole Burnt-Offering. Here is p ars pro tot-o, a Synecdochical Offer- 
ing, aswelhall meet with many fach kind of Adminiftrations sieder 
the Law, wherein a part is equivalent and accepted as inflead' of 
the whole. 

Others interpret it thus, Tal hayola ; . .that is, upon the Burrat-OfFer- 
ing, *2t; -m \\o&vto^&t*, as being added to it. The Burnt-Offering was 
offered fir ft f before any other Oblation ^ and then tb'vs and other 
Offerings, fuperadded to it. And fo we may learn this out of it, Tkatrve 
are firfl to be reconciled unto God by the death of his Son, applied and fe- 
ceived of us by Faith, before any Oblation of ours can be acceptable to bim. 

This facrificed part of the Peace- Offering is called the Bread of the 

Altar, and the Bread of God, verf 11. Numb. 28. 2. My Offering 

and wy Bread for my Sacrifices made by Fire, (hatt ye obferve to vjfer -to 
me. They are called his Bread, becaufe the Fire of the Altar did con- 
fume and eat them up: And fo the Juftice of God devour and feeds 
upon the Sinner. 

The fiercenefs of the Wrath of God againft Sin and Sinners burning as 
Fire, and devouring Souls ; and the necejfity of fatis faction and atone- 
rnent by the Blood of Chrift, in order to our Peace with God^ .are 
the general Truths held forth and taught in all the Sacrifices, and fo 
in this of Peace- Offerings. 

2. God and the Altar being thus fed and fatisfied in the firft Placey 
the reft of the Peace-Offering was divided between the Prieft and the 
Owner that brought it, to be eaten by them. 

232 The Gofpel of the Peace-Offering. 

TbePrieft y s Part was the Bre aft, and the right Shoal der. This appears 
out of the 7th Chapter of this Book: The In aft was to be waved 
before the Lord for a Wave-Offering, verf. 30. 31. The Shoulder to 
be heaved or lifted up before him for an Heave-Offering, verf. 32. 33. 

We are here taught again, that Gofpel-Ttuth of the Maintenance of 
Mmifters. The Apoftle (pells out this Leflbn to us, 1 Cor. 9. 13, 14. 
Tbty that ferve at the Altar, muft live of the Altar. 

And that the Breaft, and the Shoulder were for them: Some have 
applied a little more particularly thus. That the Priefts Ihould be as 
Breafts and Shoulders •, that is, Counfellors and Supporters to the People, 
Preaching to the Ignorant with the Wifdom of a prudent Breaft, and 
bearing the Infirmities of the Weak, with the Strength of a patient 
Others thus, (1.) He was to have the Shoulder, becaufe of his 
bearing the People, and carrying them and their 
■Lee's Temple, p.246. Sacrifices before God. And (2 J the Breafl:, the 
Seat of the Heart ; to note his Companion, Ten- 
der nefs, and Bowels to them, bearing them always in his Prayers up- 
on his Heart before the Lord. Both which Accommodations are inge- 
nious and fpiritaal, and taken from the Nature of the Things. But the 
fafeft way, is to obferve what Hints the Scripture gives : Thofe Senfes 
are folid, and carry the belt Evidence of Light and Demonftration 
with them. 

3. The Owner or Offerer, with his Family, was to eat the reft of the Peace* 
Offering: that is, furii of his Family as were clean, verf. 19, 20, 21. 
Nay, the Vnclean might not fo much as touch it, verf 21. under pain 
of Extermination : If they did, it made the Flefh unclean. As to the 
Offerer, with his Family or Friends partaking of it ; here was an ex- 
ercife of Communion, as 1 Cor. 10. 21. They have Communion with Devils 
that eat of Idols Peafts : So this fignified their Communion with, and 
Incorporation into Chrift. Here was an holy Feaft, wherein they did 
rejoyce before the Lord; Deut. 12. 6,7. And thither ft: aU you bring 
your Burnt -Offerings, and jour Sacrifices^ and your Tythes, and Heave- 
Offerings of your Hand, and your Vows, and your Free- Will-Offerings, 
and the Fir filings of your Herd, and of your Flocks, and there yon fhall 
-cat before the Lord your God, and ye fhall rejoice in all tbaX yon put 
your Hand unto, and ye and your Hoafholds wherein the Lord thy God 
bath bleffed thee. 

We muft learn to enjoy all our Enjoyments in and for the Lord,, and 

to rejoyce in Communion with him, in fpiritaal Feafling at his Table. 

Eating the Peace-Offering, is 'feeding upon Chrift by Faith, and holy 

w.tejoycing in him. Chrift 

The Gofpel of the Peace-Offering. 233 

Chrift was not offered for the Priefts alone, or communicated co 
them alone, but for the People alfo. 

And that the Unclean are fo ftriftly excluded from either eating, or 
fo much as touching it. We fee how dangerous a thing it is, for 
unclean and unworthy Perfons to participate in tfte Feafcs of the 
Lord. Hypocrites, that partake of the Sacraments in their Unclean- 
nefs and receive unworthily, they eat and drink their onn Damnation, 
1 Cor. u. 27, 28, 29. The Fle(h of thefe Sacrifices being a Figure of 
the Flefh of Chrift, which is to be eaten of the Saints by Faith. This 
Law iignified, that Unbelievers, Hypocrites, and wicked ones that 
profefs the Gofpel, and partake of the Signs and Seals cf Grace un- 
worthily, do eat and drink Judgment to tberrfelves. Aynfw. b Lev. 7. 
22. As no Peace-Offering belongs to the Unclean ; fo there -is no Peace 
to the Wicked, faith my God. To the Wicked God faith, What bafl thou 
to do to take my Covenant into thy Month, feeing thou bateft to be reform- 
ed, Pfal. 50. 

And here comes in that Quare concerning the Peace- Offerings ; 
Whether they were of the Holv of holies, whether they had the double, 
or only thefingle Holinefs? 

They are not called molt Holy, as the other five forts are. The 
reafon whereof is, becaufe that fome part of them was eaten by the 
People ; but yet a part alfo was burnt upon the Altar, and another part 
eaten by the Priefts, and thefe parts were moft holy, though the whole 
was not. Therefore fome have called the Peace-OfTering, Sacrificmn 
varium, a divers Sacrifice, as being partly Holy, and partly molt 
Holy. And the other forts they call /implex ; by a Gmple Sacrifice, 
intending that which was all of it moft Holy : And the whole was to 
(hadow out the Sacrifice and Satisfaction of Jefus Chrift : So Mede. 
Difc. 49. 

2. The fecond Ceremony of the Peace-Offering, was the limitation 
of time for the eating of it. The parts belonging to the Prieft, and to 
the Offerer, muft be eaten by them the fame Day, or the next : but if any 
was left till the third Day,it muft be burnt with Fire, Lev.7. 1 5, 1 6,17,1 8. 

And here there is a diftin&ion in the Rule between the two forts or 
occafions of Peace- Offerings ; namely, That if it were for Tbankf- 
giving, it molt be eaten the fame Day that it vs offered : But if it were 
for a f^ow, or a voluntary Offering, it muft be eaten the fame Day, and 
on the Morrow. The former Rule is in verfe 1 5. The Rule for the lat- 
ter is in verfe \6. 

But how if they did not obferve this Rule ; fee the Penalty in verf. 
1 7, 1 8. To eat any of it upon the Third day, was very deteftable and 

H h abominable : 

134 Tbe Go/pel of the Veace-Qfienng. 

abominable : It is forbidden under the Penalty of otter Extermination. 
There might be fomething of a natural Reafon for this, becaufe the Flefh 
might putrify in that hot Climate, if kept longer. But fbrely this is 
not all that was intended, in fuch a fevere and vehement Prohibition. 
Therefore there be alfo two fpiritual Myfleries, that feem to be intended 
and aimed at by the Spirit of God in this Ceremony. 

i . To teach us, That we (hould male hafle and not delay Communion 
with God, in the exercife of Faith and thankful Obedience, s Do not delay 
and pat off the Work of Believing ; but receive Chrift, and communi- 
cate of him in this our Day. This Inftru&ion is clear and evident out 
of this Ceremony : For feeing Eating fignifies our feeding upon Chrift 
by Faith ; and to day and to morrow denotes a fhort time : Therefore 
this inftru&s us fpeedily to lay hold upon the Mercy of God in Chrift, 
and to feed upon this our Peace- Offering while it is called to day, ac- 
cording to that Pfal. 95. 7, 8— Heb. 3. 12, 13, 15. 

So for other Duties of Obedience, we fhould not delay the Exprefli- 
ocs of our Joy and Thankfulnefs to God -, Pfal. 1 19. 60. J made hafte 
and delayed not to keep thy Commandments. 

They had a like Rule touching the Paffovtr; Exod. 12. 10. Ye fhali 
let nothing of it remain until the Morning % and that which remaineth of it 
until the Morning, ye (hall burn with Fire. One fcope whereof was, to 
teach us to lay hold on prefent Opportunities. Do not protraQ: the 
time ; there is a day of Peace, after which, when once expired, it is 
too late : God will not accept thy Peace- Offerings then. 

2. It vs thought to have reJpecJ unto Chrifts RefurrecJion, which was 
upon the Third day : Therefore he faith, Luke 13. 32. Behold I caft 
out Devils, and I do Cures to Day and to Morrow, and the Third day 1 
(hall be perfe&ed. Then he ended his work and ftate of Humiliation 
for our Redemption, and had no more to do in a way of Sacrifice 
and Peace-OfFeringsforotir Sins. In which refpeft, the number Three 
wasa myftical number under tfoe Law, as the number Seven : The 
Scripture often fets a mark upon it. Ifaac was offered the Third day, 
.Gen. 22.4. Agaiaft the Third day they were to be ready to receive 
the Law upon Mount Sinai: Exod. 19.10,11. Sanclify the People to 
Day and to Morrow, and let them waflo their Clothes and be ready aga'wft 
the Third day -, for the Third day the Lord will come down in the fight of all 
the People upon Mount Sinai: So the Ark went before them Three days 
before it relied : Numb. 10. 33. And they departed from the Mount of 
the Lord Three days Journey, and the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord 
went before them in the Three days Journey, to fearch out a Refling-place 
for them : And after Three days to pafs over Jordan into Canaan, Jofh. 1 . 1 1 . 


The Gofpe! of the Peace-Offering. 335 

In the Tliird day the unclean Perfon was to purify himfelf; but if 
he purify not himfelf the Third day, then the Seventh day he (hall not 
be clean, Numb. 1 9. 1 2. 

In the Third day Hex.ekiah went up into., the Houfe of Lord, and re- 
covered from the Sentence ,of Death, 2 Kings : 2^.. <$.. Hqf. 6. 2. After- 
two days he will revive m, in the Third day he will raife us up, and we JJjaU 
live in his fight. With many other memorable things : All which in- 
timate fomething of myftery in the Third day. And the greate:! Dif- 
penfation that ever was upon that day y was the RefurreSion of Jefns 
Chrifc from the Dead, after he had lain part of Three days in the 
Grave. Then he was perfe&ed, and had. do more to do in way of 
Sacrifice and Satisfaction for our Sins \ as after the Turd day there was 
no more of the Peace- Offering remaining. 

3. A third Ceremony in the Peace- Offering was this, That they were 
to offer Leavened Bread with it. Cap. 7. verf, 13. 17 is I ths more rer 
markable -, for that in all their other Sacrifices, Lcaven^was ufually.vcry 
ftri&ly and feverely forbidden : But here it is require !. 

Here we may learn firft, That it is not the nature of the thing it feij\ 
hut meerly the Will of Cod, which makes a thing good or evil in his Wor- 
fhip. To put Leaven into any other Offering, it makes the Sacrifice 
odious unto God, and like a fmoak in his Noftrils all the day } but 
if it pieafe him to require it in the Peace- Offering, then it mull be 

So for Honey he forbids it in other Sacrifices, Lev. 2. 11. But in 
the Firft Fruics they were to offer Honey ^ 2 Chron. 31.5. 7k Chil- 
dren of Ifrael brought in abundance of the Firft Fruits of Corn, Wine, Oyl 7 
and Honey , and of all the Jncreafe of the Field. God herein raanifefting 
his Authority, and the fupremacy of his Will. 

If it had pleafed our Lord Jefus Chrift: to command us to fign Men 
in his Name, with the fign of the Crofs, it would have been a Duty, 
and a bleffed thing to do it : And if he had not commanded us to wafh 
Men with Water in his Name, it would have been a finful and an 
unlawful Adminiftration to Baptize. 

More particularly, Leaven is taken both in a good, and in a bad 
Senfe : And I find Interpreters do accommodate and apply it both 
ways, as to the Sacrifice of the Peace- Offerings. 

1. In the good Senfe : Thus our Saviour ufeth it in his Parable •, Mat.' 
13. 33. The Kingdom of Heaven vs like unto Leaven, which a Woman took 
and hid in tinee Meafwes of Meal, till the whole was leavened. And you 
have the fame Parable recorded again by Luke, Cap. 13.21. The Lord 
makes ufe of Lcayen here,to teach and hold forth unto us the inward and 

H h 2 fecret 

2%i The Gofpel of the Peace-Offering. 

fecret working of the Word and Spirit in the Heart, fan&ifying the 
Heart efFe&ually, but gradually, by imperceptible Degrees, as Leaven 
feafons the Lump. 

Thus the joining of Leaven with the Peace-Offering, may teach us, 
That we and our Services mull be feafoned with the new Leaven of 
Grace \ whereby the old Leaven of Corruption is changed and altered, 
and fo the whole Man made Savoury. Look as there is an old Leaven 
which mud be purged out -, for they that are in the old unfavoury 
Lump of the Flefh, cannot pleafe God : So there is a new Leaven 
wherewith every ones Heart and Life fliould be feafoned \ a new prin- 
ciple of Grace, a Spirit of Life from God, which in time works out 
the contrary old Principle of finful Corruption, as an Antidote that 
works out Poifon out of the Body. 

2. Take Leaven in the bad Senfe, and fo it fignifies finful Corrup- 
tion. In this Senfe the Scripture often fpeaks of it, as i Cor. >$. 
Hence we may learn, that as God accepteth the Peace- Offering, though 
offered with Leaven \ fo he accepteth the fincere endeavours and fer- 
vices of his People, though there be a mixture of finful Corruption in 

Or if we take Leaven as in that fenfe of Sorrow and Grief, as Pfa!, 
73. 21. Thus my Heart was leavened. Their having fome fower Lea- 
ven amongft their Feafts, may teach us, That in all our rejoycings in 
this World, there is a mixture of Sorrow ^ there is no Prosperity fo 
entire but hath fome Sorrow, fome Affliction with it : As there is no 
Day but hath fome Clouds. Rofes have Thorns, Honey hath a Sting, 
Crowns and Scepters have Cares and Troubles. And it is not only fo 
in natural Joy, but in thofe better Joys and Confolations of the Al- 
mighty. Spiritual Joy is, and ought to be accompanied with godly 
Sorrow, and is too oft accompanied with a mixture of carnal Sorrow, 
and unbelieving Doubts and Fears. There is fome of this Leaven 
with the Peace-Offerings of Praife and Thankfgiving to the Lord. 

4. The fourth Ceremony is this, That they muft not eat the Fat^ or 
Blood; but give them wholly to the Lord^ verf. 16, 17. I number this 
among the Ceremonies of the Peace-Offering, becaufe it is here firft 
mentioned ^ and here indeed was the firfl: occafion for it : For there 
being no part at all of the Burnt-OfFering to be eaten, there was no 
need there to forbid the eating of Fat or Blood \ but in the Peace- 
Offerings, they were to eat fome part : Therefore here comes in this 
Exception, refpecling the Peace-Offerings in the firft place, though ex- 
tended Hkewife to all the reft. 

The firft Prohibition is of Fat. 


Tbe Gofpil of tie Peace-Offering. 237 

And here firft for the literal fenfe of the Ceremony, before we come 
to the myftical Signification. There be two Cautions to prevent Mi- 
ftakes, that the legal Rigour may not feem greater than it was in- 

i. lib meant only of that Fat which wcus to be facrificed, as the Suet 
and Fat of the Kidneys, &c. For of the other Fat that is diffufed 
through the reft of the Flefh, throughout the whole Body of the Bead, 
there is no mention in this Reftri&ion in the Text ; and therefore be* 
ing not reftrained and prohibited, we may juftly prefume ic was allow- 
ed and permitted to them, they might lawfully eat of ic ; Neh. 8. ia. 
Eat tbe Fat, and drink the Street. 

2. // t5 meant only of the three hinds of Beafts, that were appointed to 
be u fed in Sacrifice : For they were permitted to eat the Fat of other 
clean Beafts : See Levit 7. 23, 25. where this Reftri&ion of Fat is 
clearly explained, and reftrained to the Fat of thofe three kind of 

Now as to the myftery and Jpiritual Unification of this Ceremony : 
That we may learn fome wholefome Inftru&ion out of it, the beft way 
will be this: Let us confider when the Scripture fpeaks of Fat in an 
allegorical or metaphorical Senfe, how is it meant? For a Similitude 
is typus arbitrarius, and a legal Ceremony is no more but typ us fixus or 
defiinatns, and differs from an Allegory or Metaphor or Similitude. 
only in the fixation or deftination of it by God, unto fuch an life and 
End in a ftaced way, 

Now you will find, that the Scripture fpeaks of Fat in fuch a Meta- 
phorical Senfe two ways, ( as was before noted concerning Leaven) 
both in a good, and in an evil Senfe, which wiU give this Type a 
double Afpeft, as that alfo had. 

Nor is there any real abfurdity or incongruity in the accomodate* 
of a Type, two or three feveral ways : For they are not fo many con- 
trary Seufes, but only fo many feveral Inftru&ions or fpiritual My- 
(teries to be learned out of one of God's teaching Signs : Such mani- 
fold Inftroftions being all included in the vaft Aim and comprehenfive 
Wifdom. of the Holy Ghoft, defigning and choofing out fuch Things 
for teaching Signs as may afford and yield plentiful lnftru&ion to his 

1 . The Scripture fpeaks of Fat in a good Senfe. My SohI fhaU be fa* 
tisfied as with Marrow and Fatnefs, Pfal. 63. 5. That is, to be filled 
with the beft Things. So Ifa. 25. 6. In this Mountain /ball tbe Lord of 
Hofti make unto all People a Feaft of fat Things, a Feajl of Wine on tbe Leet f 
of fat things full of Marrow, So Gen. 45, 18, Pharaoh faith to JoJepW* 


2 3*8 The Gofpel of the Veace-Offering. 

Brethren, Ye {hall eat the Fat of the Land :, that is, the belt of it. So 
all the Fat of the Oyl, and all the Fat of the Wine, and of the Wheat, 
Numb. 18. 12. for fo the Margin from the Hebrew reads ir, denotes 
the beft Oyl, the beft Wine, the befl Wheat, as the TranQation well 
explains it. Hence it is fa id of Abel by way of Commendation, Gen. 
4. 4. That he brought and offered unto the Lord of the Firftlings of 
his Flock, and of the Fat thereof. 

Thus the Lord's challenging the Fat of all the Sacrifices peculiarly 
to himfelf, may inftrudt, and teach us thus much : That we muft ferve 
Cod with the befl: we have, the beft of our time and ftrength, the vigour 
of our Spirits, the belt of our Endeavours mould be the Lords. "For 
Men to fpend their Youth in the fervice of their Lulls, and then at laft 
bring their decrepit old Age unto God •, this is to give the Fat of their 
Sacrifice to the Devil, and the Lean unto God. But with fuch Sacri- 
fices God will not be well-pleafed* 

And yet when we have brought the Fat, the befl: we have unto the 
Lord, it is accepted not for our own fakes, but through Chrift. As the 
Fat in the Peace- Offerings was burnt upon the Altar upon the Burnt- 
Offering, for a fweet favour unto the Lord. 

2. The Scripture fometimes fpeaks of Fat in deteriorem partem, in an 
evil fenfe : So it is faid of Wicked Men, Their Heart is as fat as 
Greafe t but J delight in thy Law, Pfal. 119.70. So Dent. 32. 15. But 
Jefurun waxed fat and kicked •, thou art waxen fat 3 thou art grown thick, 
thou art covered with fatnefs. I fa. 6. 10. Make the Heart of this People 
fat , left they under ft and with their Heart, and convert and be healed. So 
it denotes a fenfelefs hard Heart, the Fat in the Body having little 
fenfe. A Fat Heart in this fenfe, is oppofed to a fielhy Heart : So ic 
denotes hardnefs, infenfiblenefs, unbelief. 

Now then the Fat being burnt upon the Altar, teacheth us, That 
our Corruptions muft be burnt up by the Spirit of God, as a Spirit of Burn- 
ing* and of Judgment. 

And it is the Fat of the Inward Parts, and of the Kidneys, and Li- 
ver, which are the feat of Luff and Concupifcence. We may learn 
from hence, That even fecret Sins in the Inward Parts muft bedeftroy- 
ed and mortified. It is not enough to avoid open and outward Sins, 
bat inward Heart-Hypccrofy ; fecret Lulls muft be burnt befQre the 
Lord upon the Altar, deftroyed and mortified by the Spirit. God 
tries the Heart, fearcheth the Reins, fees into the Inward Parts. That 
fatnefs of the Heart muft be confumed, thofe Inward hillings unto Sin, 
deftroyed and mortified. 

<. The 

The Gcfpel of the Peace-Offering. 239 

5. The laft Ceremony was the forbidding of Bloody This Pro- 
hibition was more general than the former of Fat} for that was only 
fome kinds of Fat : Bat all manner of Blood is forbidden, without any 
reftraint or fpecifkation of this or that kind. The fir ft Prohibition 
of Blood that we read of in Scripture, was to Noah's Sons, Gen. 9. 4. 
But Flejh, with the Life thereof, which is the Blood thereof, ye /hall not eat. 
And now again by Mofes here, and afterwards in other places: -As 
Cap. 7. 26, 27* and Cap. 17. from verf 10. to the end \ very largely 
and vehemently under the foreft Pains and Penalties, even utter ex* 
termination, and cutting off by the immediate Hand of God. 

But that Prohibition in Noah's Time, feems to differ from this ' by 
Mofes •, in that it was living Blood which was there forbidden: But 
here it is all manner of Blood. As to the Myfteries and Reafons of 
it, there be two things expreffed in Lev. 17. its 

1. Becaufe the Blood is the Life of the Beaft, verf. 11. 14. that is, 
It is the Seat and Vehicle of the Spirits, which are the Soul and the 
Life of it, as Philofophers fay. Anima rationale e quit at in fenfitiva, 
ftnfitiva equitat in vegetative. The fenfitive Soul is the Chariot of the 
rational Soul, and the vegetative of the fenfitive: So Blood is the 
Chariot of the vegetative and vital Spirits. 

The fcope feems to be this, to forbid and prevent Cruelty : It argues 
too much greedinefs, and it tends to make the Spirits of Men falvage 
and barbarous, to drink living Blood, or to eat the Fleih, if it be noe 
fully killed and cleanfed of the Blood, 1 Sam. 14, 32, 33, 34. Some 
report, that it hath been a Cuftom ufed in fome barbarous Nations, 
amongft the Old Tartarians : They would with an Inftrument, open 
a Vein in the Beaft they rode upon, and fo quench their Thirft by 
drinking warm Blood out of the Veins of a living Creature. This 
is forbidden to Noah's Sons, Gen. 9. as a falvage cruel thing. 

Cruelty is abominable at all Times, but efpecially when you come 
with your Peace-Offerings before the Lord. It concerns you then efpe- 
cially, to take heed of Harftinefs towards your Brethren. How can 
Men expedt Peace from God, when ready to drink the Blood of their 
Brethren. A violent perfecuting Spirit, is as black a Mark as any I 
know. To ufe Violence to Men's Confciences, this is to Eat or 
Drink their Blood \ which God abhors. 

2. The fecond Reafon there afllgned is, Bccanfe I have given it to 
you upon the Altar, to make an Atonement for your Souls, Lev. 17. 11. 
that is, Typically, as reprefenting the Blood of Chrift. So that here 
is a myftical Intimation of Reverence to that precious Blood, to keep 
Men in a reverend Expe&ation of it : Therefore they muft abftain from 
Blood, as facred to the Lord, As 

240 The Gofpel of the Peace-Offering. 

As David refuted to drink of the Waters of the Well of Bethlehem, 
i Sam. 23. 1 7. becaufe it was per equivakntiam y the Blood of them that 
fetcht it with the peril of their Lives. So here, Blood was typically 
the Blood of Chrift, and therefore facred to the Lord, they muft 
not uie it to other common life. The Lord would hereby teach 
them a reverential Efteem and high Valuation, of the Blood of Jefus 

Some go a little further, and obferve this in it : That look as Eating 
and Drinking fignifies Communion: So i Cor. 10. 16. The Cup of 
hUffvng which we b\efs % vs it not the Communion of the Blood of Chrift t 
And forbidding to Eat, is a forbidding Communion. Atts 10. 13, 14. 
In Peter's Vilion, rife, kilt, and eat : It is meant of exerciling Commu- 
nion with the Gentiles ; and Peter's objecting, Not fo Lord, for J have 
never eaten any thing that is common or mclean : His meaning is, he 
refufeth Communion with them. So this Prohibition of eating Blood, 
which was given upon the Altar to make Atonement for Men*s Souls ; 
and of Fat, which was given upon the Altar to be confumed there 
with Fire, and fo was the Lords •, feemeth to forbid figuratively, all 
afcribing and afluming unto our felves the Work of Redemption, 
which is only by the Blood of Chrift } or the Work of our San&ifi- 
cation to our felves, which Chrift by his Spirit performeth in us. 
Aynfw. in Lev. 3. ult. To take this Work to our felves, is to eat the 
Blood as it were, which the Lord will not endure. 

There is a further Reafon given by fome, That the Lord did it to 
diftinguilh his People from the Heathen, who were wont to drink the 
Blood of their Sacrifices, Pfal.\6. 3. As indeed in all thefe ancient 
loftitutions, the Lord had a fpecial Eye unto that, to keep them off 
from the Heathenifh Cuftoms and Idolatries. 

Thus you fee the Reafons, why Blood was forbidden under the 
Law, the chief whereof is, the refpeft it had to the Blood of 
Chrift. From all which, you have a clear Refolution of that fern* 
pie of Confcience that hath troubled fome, concerning that Pro- 
hibition of Blood under the New-Ted ament by the Synod, in Acls 
15. 20, 29. 

Bnt the Anfwer is, That the main Reafon why Blood was for- 
bidden of old, being becaufe the Lord had given Blood to them for 
Atonement^ and this Ufe being figurative, which had Irs End and Ac- 
complilhment in Chrift, who by his Death and Blood-'fncdding, hath 
caufed the Sacrifices and Oblations to ceafe, Dan. 9. Therefore now 
this Law muft needs be expired, and not (till in force upon the Con- 
fciences of Believers. 


The Go/pel of the Peace-Offering. 241 

And as for that Decree of the Council, M. 15. It is forbidden by 
them meerly upon the Account of Love, which is tender and loth to 
give Offence. The Sins there forbidden, may be referred to three 
Heads or Gaffes. 

1. Sins againft the firft Table, eating Things offered to Idols. 

2. Sins againft the fecond Table, againft the feventh Command- 
ment, Fornication ', Becaufe it was a common Sin, and wherein the 
Heathen were very blind, fome of them accounting it but an indiffe- 
rent Thing. 

3. Sins againft the general Rule of Love to our Brethren. Of this 
fort is the eating of things flrangled, and Blood, which had formerly been 
a Sin againft the Second Commandment : Being forbidden of Old in 
the way of a perpetual Statute, during the whole legal Oeonomy, Lev. 
17. 15. That which dies of it felf, includes ftrangled : For there is 
no other Place in the Law that forbids the eating of Things ftrangled, 
but only this, and Dent. 14. 2 t. where there is the fame Expreffion. 
But now the fame Thing is forbidden in a more occafional and tem- 
porary Way, upon the Account of Scandal to fincere but weak Be- 
lievers, 1 Cor. 8. 13. 

And there was a further Benefit of this Obfervation, in that jun- 
cture of Time; for it did prevent and cut off all Appearance and Oc- 
cafion, for that Calumny and falfe Afperfion caft forth by the Pagans, 
in thofe firft Times of Chriftianity •, That the Chriftians were wont to 
feed upon Man's Flefh, and to drink Blood in their Affemblies, £«- 
fib. Ecclef. Hift. lib. 5. cap. 1. Tertull. Jpolog. cap. 9. 

And though they are called neceffary Things } yet there be divers 
Sorts and Ways of Neceffity. As fome Things are neceffary in their 
own Nature, upon a moral and perpetual Account, as to avoid Idola- 
try and Fornication •, fo other Things are neceffary only pro hie & 
mtnc^ in regard of prefent Circumftances ; as to abftain from Blood, 
or from eating Flefh, as 1 Cor. 8. 13. 

And though they are joined with groffer Sins ; yet the fame Penal- 
ty and much more the fame Prohibition, may be fet upon things of 
a very different Nature. As Death is the Penalty of Murder, Gen, 
9.0V And of having Leavened Bread, Exod. 12. 15, 19. 

It cannot poffibly be the Senfe of the Council, to forbid that kind 
of Meat, as in it felf, and morally and perpetually unlawful ; becaufe 
all difference of Meats, is moft exprefly and clearly taken away under 
the New Teftament. As Mark 7. 14, to 20. Attt 10. ro. 1 Cor. 8. 8, 
But Meat commendeth us not to Cod, for neither if we eat y are we the ketter, 
neither if we eat not, are we the worfi. And 1 Cor. 10. 25. IVlMtfoevcrh 

I i fold 

342 The Gofpeloftbe Sin-Offering, 

fold in the Shambles, that eat, asking no Queflion for Con faience fake, Tit. 
i; 1 5. To the pure, all things are pure. But in 1 Tim. 4. 3, 4, 5. the A* 
poftle thunders againft this Error, of making difference of Meats un- 
der the Gofpel. 

Thus you fee the Nature of the Sacrifice of Peace-Offerings. Some- 
thing will be expefted,as to the pra&ical Improvement of thefe Truthsa 
Let me therefore only repeat and reinculcate fome few of the general 
Heads of Things, which have been do&rinaily cleared and made out, 
1 (hall but touch them now in a more applicatory Way. 

1. Be per [waded and encouraged, to feed and feaft upon Chrift our Peace- 
Offering. Do not fay, fuch and fuch may, if 1 had fuch Parts and fuch 
Abilities, and fo Eminent as fuch and fuch, I durft believe. This 
bleffed Peace- Offering is not for the Priefls only, for Saints of the 
higheft Rank, and greateft Eminency •, but for the common People 
alio. Do but draw near with a pure Heart, and then come and wel- 
come : Take your Share, and eat it with a glad Heart, God hath gi- 
ven it you. 

2. Bo not defer the eating of your Peace-Offerings : Take heed of a 
procraftinating Spirit. As many who think to repent and return to 
God when they are dying, and dropping into Hell, whereas they fhould 
sat the Peace- Offering, and eat it now. Do it to Day before tomor- 
row, or at lqaft before the third Day ; for then the Peace- Offering will 
not be accepted. Come in to God the third Hour of the Day, or if 
thou haft loft that Seafon, yet come in at the fixth, the ninth, at 
leaft at the eleventh hour of the Day. If you ftay till the San be fet, 
and the Day of the Lord's Patience run out, then your Peace-Offerings 
iiall not be accepted, then thy Repentance will not fayethee. 

Oh ! But I wiU cry God mercy, and truft to Chrift then. 
Ay but thy Gonfcience then wiH fay, you ihould have eaten the 
IPeace- Offering fooner; eating it the third Day fhall not be accepted - 7 
nor will catching at Chrift when thou art gone to Hell. ' Oh then that 
thou hadfi known in this thy Day, the Thiugs belonging to thy Peace, Luke 

3. Let- all your Peace-Offerings be feafoncd with the new Leaven of 
Grace and Holinefs % get this bLeflid Leaven of the Kingdom of God 
into your Hearts. 

4. Give God the Fat, the Strength, the Vigor ofymr Spirits, the befl of 
you Endeavours ■• do not leave the worft you have to him, the very 
Dregs of Time at Night, when you are all drowly and fleepy, for 
Prayer and Family-Duties,, when you have fpent the ftrength of your 
Time, ie your Callings. Referve, fome of your good Hours for God, 


The Gofpel of the Sin-Offering. 245 

and Duties of Communion with him. With fiich drowfy Sacrifices 
God will not be well-pleafed. 

5. Take heed of accounting the Blood of the Peace-Offering a common 
Thing. But as the typical Blood might not be eaten, but was facred 
to the Lord : Let the Blood of Chrift be facred and precious to you. 
It is a dreadful Sin to count the Blood wherewith yon are fanftified a com- 
mon Thing, Heb. 10. Oh this contempt of Chrift, contempt of the 
Gofpel, of thofe glad Tidings, and of that Soul-redeeming Blood ! 
That Soul /hall be cut off from his People. 

6. Toy oh that hdieve, let Chrift be precious • There is a reverential 
Efteemofhim, in the Hearts of all that are his : They dare not ar- 
rogate nor meddle with that which is his peculiar Glory, and afliime 
their Salvation to themfelves. The Papifts will fay they are ftved by 
Chrift; but how? Why, through the Blood of Chrift, but how come 
they to be made Partakers of him ? Why God forefees that they will 
Repent and Believe, and fo ordains them to Life upon the fore-fight 
of what they will do. And thus they do as it were, devour the Blood 
of the Peace-Offering, and deftroy the Glory they prefent and feem 
to give to him. 


Gofpel of the SIN-OFFERING 

Levit. Cap. 4. A*gufl ii,itt$ 

1 668* 

The Sin-Offering. Chattaah. 

THis is the fourth of thofe fix Kinds of legal Sacrifices, which arc 
handled and directed in the feven firft Chapters of this Book. 
The firft is Tola the Burnt-Offering, Cap.i. 
The fecond is Mincha the Meat-Offering, Cap. 2. 
The third is Shelamim the Peace-Offering, Cap. 3. 
The fourth is Chattaah the Sin-Offering, in this $tb. Chapter, 

I i 2 The 

244 The Gofpel of the Sin-Offering. 

The fifth is A/ham the Trefpafs-Offering, Cap 5. 

The fixth is Mittuim, the Offering of Consecrations. 

As to this fourth, namely the Sin-Offering ^ many of the Laws and 
Rites thereof are the fame with other Sacrifices, and in particular 
with the Burnt- Offering, which is the firft, and where the common 
Rites are firft mentioned, and accordingly were there explained. 

As for Inftance, the Matter of this, is the fame with the former 
Sacrifices before-explained. 

The general End and Vfe, is the fame, viz.. for Atonement and Ex- 
piation of Sin, which is mentioned and repeated four times over in 
this Chapter, Verf. 20. 26, 31, 35. And the Priefi (hall make an Atone- 
ment for him, for the Sin that he bath committed, and it /hall be forgiven 

Moreover as to the [acred Rites and Ceremonies , there be many of 
them which are the fame in the Sin-Offering, with what was before- 
ordained in the Burnt-Offering, and in the Peace- Offering ; as that it 
muft be brought to the Door of the Tabernacle of the Congregation, 
ihe Offerer muft lay his Hand upon it ; it muft be killed and burnt, at 
leaft in part, upon the Altar, viz.. thofe Parts of it which were to 
be fo dealt with in the Peace-Offering. The Myfleries of all which 
have been formerly explained. Therefore all that remains is, that we 
fpeak a Word to thofe Things which are more facial and peculiar to 
the Sin-Offerings and they are thefe. 

1 . The fpecial End of it, viz.. for Sins of Infirmity. 

2. The various and four-fold Appointment of the Matter of it, for 
four forts of Sinners, to wit, the Priefi, the Body of the People, fcfie 
civil Ruler, and any private Perfon. 

3. The Three-fold Difpofal of the Blood of it ; part to be fprinkled in 
or towards the Holy of "Holies, part to be pur opori the Horns of the 
Altar of Incenfe, and part to be poured forth at the bottom of the 
Brazen Altar of Burnt-Offerings. 

4. Tht burning it without the Camp, with the Rites and Ceremonies 
thereto belonging. 

5. The eating another Part in fome Cafes, with the facred Rites 

1. The fpecial End of it. And fo the Difference between this and other 
Sacrifices •, efpecially the Trefpafs- Offering which comes neareft to it, 
and hath moft Affinity with it, verf.i. The general End, is Atone- 
ment or Expiation of Sin. But the Queftion is, for what kind of Sin ? 

I confefs there k much Difficulty as to this. I have made fbme 
Search- into divers Authors, and. Writers about it, and have not met 


The Gofpcl of the Sin-Offering-. 245 

with that clearful and full Satisfaction that were to be defired, and 
which is to be found in other Things. Therefore I (hall but tell you 
my own Judgment of it in a few Words. 

The Sin-Offering may be taken either in a larger Senfe, as including 
the Trefpafs-Offering ^ or in a ftraiter Senfe, as contradiftinguifhed 
to it. 

Take- it in the largeft Senfe; and fo it extends to any Sin whatfoever 
that is pardonable; and thus the Sin-Offering is zgenus including two 
fpcmi namely, the Sin-Offering ftri&ly taken, and the Trefpafs-Of- 
fering. Thus ic is oppofed only to prefumptuons (innings which had na 
Sacrifice provided for it in the Law: For fuch Perfons were to be cue 
off And of this Senfe, and this Oppofition, Numb. if. fpeaketh clear- 
ly, fee Verf 27. 28, 29 compare this with Verf^o. There is a way 
oi (inning for which there is no Forgivenefs. Thus **ov<no< & Uovriw 
are oppofed. Of the latter the Apoftle faith, Heb. 10.26. There re- 
mainetb no more Sacrifice for Sin. 

But there be other Sins which though againft Knowledge, yet are 
not prefumptuous to fuch an height ^ but the Soul is carried afide out 
of Ignorance and Surprize, and by the Violence of Temptation and 
of finful Paflions and Lulls, through Inadvertency, Careleflhets, Ua- 
advifednefs, &c. For thefe there is a Sin-Offering. In this Senfe, even 
the Trefpafs-Offering is and may be called a Sin- Offering, Cap. 7. Verf. 
7. See Cap. 5. Verf. 6. n, io» 

But take the Sin-offering in a. more narrow Senfe as contradiftinguifh^ 
ed unto the Trefpafs-Offeriog, and here lies the Difficulty, wherein, 
the Sin-Offering ( whofe Rites are here fet down in this fourth Chap- 
ter) doth differ from the Trefpafs-Offering in the fifth Chapter, as to 
the fpecial End and life of it ? 

Some have thought the Sin-Offering refers to Sins cf Omijfion, the 
Trefpafs-Offering to Sins of Commiffion. But this Rule will not hold^ 
for the Trefpafs-Offering concerning Sins ofOmiffion, as well as the 
other, Cap. 5* 1. If he do nor utter it, when he ongbt to do it. Here is 
an Omiffion, for which a Trefpafs- Offering is there appointed. 

Some have thoughtthat the Sin-Offering was for Sins againft the- 
fecond Table, and the Trefpafs-Offering for Sins againft: tbefirsh But 
the Text is clear, That the Trefpafs-Offering relates both to fir ft and; 
fecond Table Sins, fuch as Deceit and Violence to one's Neighbour, 
as well as Perjury a&aioft God, Cap. 6. 2, IfaSonl fin and commit a 
Trefpafs againft the Lord, and lie unto his Neighbour, &c 

Others hath dated it thus, That there is ignorantia facJi, Ignorance 
of the.Faft ia the one • and, ignorantia j^rii, ignorance of the Rule in 


246 The GofpeCof the Sin-Offering. 

the other. But this is a Notion that hath no footing in the Text. 

The true Difference between them confifts, as I conceive, in this, 
That the Sin-Offering was for Sins of Ignorance and Infirmity \ but the 
Trefpafs -Offering did extend even to Sins again]} Knowledge. 

The Reafons for this, are partly from the Propriety of the Hebrew 
Words, and partly from fome Expreffons in the Text. 

The Hebrew Word for the Sin-Offering is Chattaah, from cbata, 
peccare, which properly fignifies to mifs the Mark a Man moots at. 
Proprie eft err are, vel aberrare a Scopo. Buxtorf. Sojudg. 20. \6. the 
feven hundred chofen Men of Benjamin it is faid, they could fling Stones 
at an Hairs-breadth and not mifs. felo jalle nee aberrabat, and not 
Sin, that is, mifs of the Scope and Mark they intended and propofed 
to themfelves. Hence God is faid to reduce Sinners, that is, fuchas 
go affray and mifs their Way, into the way again, Pfal. 25. 8. Good 
and upright is the Lord, therefore will he teach Sinners in the way. In the 
Conjugation Pibel, it fignifies to purge and cleanfe from Sin, by ma- 
king Satisfaction and undergoing the Penalty due to it. As Exod. 29. 

37. and thou (halt cleanfe the Altar, ve chittetha yal hamisbeach 

Lev: 14. 52. he fhall cleanfe the Houfe, vechitte eth habajith, Gen. 31. 
39. Jacob faith to Laban, that which is torn of Beafls I brought not unto 
thee, I bare the Lofs of it. Anoki achattinah, ego expiabam illud, 
Arias Montanus, I expiated it. Tanas luebam pro eo, fo Pagn'm. Bux- 
torf 1 fuffered for it. Thus you fee the proper importance of the 
Word here ufed and tranflated, the Sin- Offering, Cbattaab. 

Moreover the Text faith upon the Sin-Offering, That if a Soul err 
and mifs it thus, Bifhgagab, through Error or Ignorance, which fur- 
ther clears up the true Senfe. Pfal. 119. 67. Before I was ajflifted I 
went aftray , it is the fame Word ani fhogeg, ego err am. 

But the Word which is ufed for the Trefpafs- Offering, Afham, tho* 
it is ufed for Sin in general, yet it feems to imply in a more fpeci- 
al Senfe, Sins of an higher Nature, fuch as are committed with more 
Deliberation, or with more content of Will, or againft more Light, 
or with lefs of Temptation, or more of Injury unto others, Sins of 
a more grievous and heinous Nature -, For the fame Word fignifies 
alfo Defolation and laying Wade, Ifa.i^.6. therefore hath the Curfe 
devoured the Earth, and they that dwell therein aye defolate, vajefhmu. 
And in the fame Senfe is this Word ufed elfewhere, e.g. Pfal. 5. 10. 
deflroy them God, defolato cos tanquam reos, Buxtorf. Moreover there 
be Inftances given in the Trefpafs-Offering, of grofsSins againft Light 
and Knowledge, Confcience-wafting, Soul-defolating Sins, as lying, 
cheating, perjury, Cap. 6. 2,3. And we may therefore render Afham, 
piaculum. The 

The Gofpel of the Sin-Offering. 247 

The I flue then is this, That the Sin-Offering relates to tbofe involun- 
tary Infirmities which are unavoidable, while there is a Body of Sin and 
Death, dwelling in us, and which are confiftent. with Affurance and 

But the Tr e fp a fs- Offering, to tbofe greater Confcience-wafting and Soul- 
defolating Sins, which are inconfiftent with Affurance and true Com- 
munion with God ; tho' it includes fome letter Sins, yet it extends to 
thefe alfo. 

2. The fecond Law of the Sin-OfFering rs this, That there is a 
various Matter of this Offering, for four forts of Perfons that Sin and 
mifs the way, which indeed are the Analyfts of this fourth Chapter of 

1. For the anointed Prieft, a young Bullock, Verf. 3. 

2. For the whole Congregation, a young Bulloch, Verfe. 13. 

3. For the Ruler a Kid of the Goats, a Male without Blemifh, Verf 22. 

4. For any particular Perfon a. Kid, or elfe a Lamb, a Female with- 
out Blemifo, Verf. 27. And fo the Chapter divides ic felf into thefe 
four Parts. 

1. The Sin-Offering for the anointed Prieft, vs a young Bullock, &c. 
Verf. 3, to 13. There is fome Difficulty upon this ♦, Who is meant 
by the anointing Trie ft ? 

Some reftrain it to the //gib Prieft only, becaufe none but he was 
anointed with material Oyl. The word in the Text is Hachoben ham- 
mafhiach, the Prieft that is anointed, Verf 3. But it this be reftrained 
to the High Prieft only, the Qiieftion will be, what fhall become of 
the other inferior Priefts? Is there no Sin-OfFering ? Is there no Ex- 
piation for their Sins and Failings ? Doubtlefs there is. But we can- 
not weD refer them amongfi: the Common People of the Land, the 
Priefts and People being fo continually diitinguifhed every whejre 
throughout the Scripture. 

Therefore it feems more congruous to conceive ( as fome do ) thafc 
all the Priefts are here included; and that the Word anointed intends no 
more but dedicated, confecrated, fet apart unto that Work and Of- 
fice : Cr that it may refer to that fir ft Confecration of them in Aaron 
their Fore-father, Exod. 29. 7. And tho* (halt take the anointing Oyl, and 
pour it upon hvs Head and anoint him. The Law is, if he fhall Sin k 
afhamath hyam according to the Sin of the People, as our Tranflati- 
on renders it, that is, like one of the Common People. For the Prieft: 
were not made infallible, or impeccable by their Office ; and there- 
fore had need to offer for their own Sins, as well as for ths Peoples, Heb 

* a, & 


248 The Gofpel of the Sin-Offer mg. 

■ It is not to be retrained only to fuch Sins of his, as wherein he fe- 
ducethand draws the People afide to Sin with him, or whereby he 
brings publick Judgments upon them, as fome have rendred it, ft de~ 
linquere fecerit populum ; and others, ft dcliquerit in populi noxam. For 
then here were no Relief for him, as to all his other failings in the 
Discharge and Execution of his Truft and Office in the Houfe of God, 
and in his own private and perfonal Walkings. 

Therefore it mull: be underftood in thelargeft and mod comprehen- 
five Senfe, for any Sin or Failing oflVeaikncfs in any of the Priefts. Let 
kirn bring a young Bulloch for his Sin-Offering. 

2. For the whole Congregation a Bullock, Verf. 13. the whole Body of 
the People collectively taken: The fame that was appointed for the 
Prieft, though with fome Difference in the Rites. There the Prieft, 
but here the Elders, as in the Name of the People, being to lay their 
Hands upon the Head of the Sacrifice. 

3. For the Ruler a Kid, a Male, Verf. 22. Nafi, Principes, quafi ela- 
tusfuper alios; from Na fa, exalt avit,tulit, that is, any Civil Ruler that 
is raifed or lifted up above others. The Word is ufed, not only con- 
cerning Kings and chief Magiftrates, as Ez.ek. 34. 24. but concerning 
inferior Rulers alfo«, Exod. 16.22. And all the Rulers of the Congrega- 
tion came and told Mofes, &c. Numb. 16.2. 

4. For any of the Common People, their Sin-OfTering is a Kid, a Female, 
Verf. 27. or elfe a Lamb, a Female, Verf. 32. to the End of the 

Now from thisfecond Law of the Sin-OfFering, namely, this various 
Matter of it for fo many forts of Perfons that Sin : We may learn thefe 
Inftru&ions before we proceed to the third Law. 

1. That the anointed Priest may err. Therefore the Bifhop of Rome 
if he were an Officer of Chrift, he might err and mifs his Mark; tho' 
being Jntichrift, it may be granted to him that he feldom errs from 
his Scope, it being to promote the Devil's Kingdom, and to ob- 
ftruft the Kingdom, and opprefs the Church of Chrift. 

I mull confefs I have wondred at this Error of Popery , that 
the Pope cannot err : I wonder, why he may not err in Do&rine, 
as well as in Life ? Why may he not deny God in Words, as 
well as in his Works ? That he may and doth err in his Life, and 
that his Works are Evil, themfelves have not the Impudence to cteny : 
Therefore he may err in his Faith, as well as in his Life ; in his Words, 
as well as in his Works. And if you do but look into a weekly News-book, 
you will ever and anon find mention of the Pope's Nephews,what they do, 
and what Preferments he provides for them. But who are thefe? It is 


The Gofpel of the Sin-Offering. *49 

iu you fhowld know the meaning of it. The word Nephew, it is an 
Italian Pbrafe of Speech for a Baflard : indeed the Popes Ne- 
phews is nothing elfe but the Popes. Bafiards : This is he that cannot 
err. Among the Papifts, Priefts you know muft not marry : And 
the Pope is not fo humble as to own others of his poor Kindred. 

But yet we muft believe in this unclean'Seaft, and we muft call him 
his Holinefs forfooth, whofe Leprofy is written in his Forehead, and 
who declares his Sin as Sodont, and hides it not as Gomorrah. For 
they are not afhamed of all their UndeannefTes and Abominations, 
having their Confciences feared with an hot Iron -, and yet this fmful 
doleful Creature cannot err, when his Bones are full of the Sins of 
his Youth, which fhall lie down with him in the Duft. 

2. The fecond Inftru&ion is this, That there are degrees of Sin ; ani 
that the Sins and Errors of an anointed Priefl, are of the worft and greatefi 
Guilt. This is here Taught and Held forth both by the Matter of 
the Sin-Offering, and by the Rites belonging to it. As to the Mat* 
ter, the Prieft muft have as great a Sacrifice for a Sin-Offering, as the 
whole Body of the People collectively confidered. A young Bullock 
is the Sin-Offering for the Prieft, and it is no more but a young Bul- 
lock for the whole Congregation. 

And there is a difference as to the Rites for the feveral forts of Sin- 
ners ; for the Sin-Offering for the Prieft, and for the Body of the 
People, was to be fprinkled before the VaiJ, and upon the Altar of 
Incenfe. But that for the Ruler, and for Private Perfons, were not 
fprinkled before the Vail, nor upon the Incenfe Altar, but only upon 
the Altar of Burnt-Offering, verf. 25, 30, 34. For the Sins of the 
Prieft and of the whole Congregation, as being more hainous, re- 
quired a more folemn manner of Atonement. So our Annotators 
on Lev. 4. 25. 

It was an Error of the Strict Philofophers of old, that peccata funt 
aqualia^ all Sins are equal. It is true, Sin is a privation, but there 
are degrees in Privations ^ there be total and partial Privations ^ as 
ia the Twilight and Dim-fightednefs. Every Sin deviates and fwerves 
from the Rule of Righteoufnefs : But there are degrees of Re&itude 
and Curvity *, fome crooked Lines depart further off from the ftrait 
Line, and fome come nearer to it : So it is in Sins. 

The Sins of a Minifter do receive peculiar Aggravations, and are 
greater in many refpedte than the Sins of other Men. For them to 
be covetous and greedy after the World, for them to be of an unbro- 
Iherly impofing Spirit \ that is, Ambitious and Contentious, it is 

K k worfe 

2 $o The Goffef of the Sin-Offering. 

worfe than in other Men; and that efpecially in two Refpe&s, which 
are both hinted in the Text. 

i. Becaufe of their anointing or reparation unto Office, whereby 
they ftand nearer to God than others do, being to Minifter to him in 
his Holy things. 

2. Becaufe their Sins and Errors have ufually a very pernicious Influ- 
ence upon the People, either to feduce or fcandalize them. Many will 
be^eacty to follow their pernicious ways. Hence fome read and un- 
derftand the words, verf. 3. If be Shi, to caufethe People to err, or to 
bring publick Judgments upon them. Hence many are fo apt to plead •, Such 
a Minifter thinks it lawful, and fuch a one does it, and why may not I ? 
See 1 Sam. 2. 17, 24. how the Sins of Minifters do fcandalize the Peo- 
ple, caufing them to tranfgrefs fome of them in like manner, and o- 
thers to abhor and defpife the Ordinances of the Lord : And this makes 
Minifters Sins great before the Lord. But People (hould confider, that 
an anointed Prieft may Sin and Err, and their Errors oftentimes do 
much hurt. This is a fecond Inftruclion. 

3. The whole Church may err, verf. 13. 

This is another Affertion of the Papifts, That their Church cannot 
err : A ftrange and wonderful Affertion. Did not the whole Church 
err, when they crucified Chrift ? And they did err Fundamentally 5 
yet the J eves were then the only true Church and People of God in 
the World. Therefore it is very unfafe to pin your Faith upon the 
Churches Sleeve, or upon the Minifters Sleeve either : For both 
Church and Minifter may err. It is not fafe to be led- meerly by 
Multitude or by Example ^ Exod 23. 2. Thou fh alt not follow a multi- 
tude to do Evil, neither (halt thou fpeak in a Caufe to decline after many to 
weft Judgment. 

Yea, a true Church may in Time err fo far, and degenerate fo deep- 
ly, as that they may ceafe to be a Church. As the Church of the 
Jews for Inftance. The Lord hath faid unto the Houfe of Ifrael, # as 
he threatned by the Prophet Hofea, Lo-ruhamah and Lo-ammi. J wilt 
not have Mercy on yon ; and you are not my People, Hof. 1.6, 9. and 
Cap. 2. 2. Plead with your Mother, plead : for fhe vs not my Wife, neither 
am I her Husband. The Church of the two Tribes alfo, are now in 
the fame Condition with the other Ten. Zech. 11. 10. Jnd 1 took 
my Staff, even Beauty, and cut it afunder^ that I might break my Cove- 
nant which I had made nith all the People. The meaning is, that he 
would difcovenant and unchurch them^ but yet he will at laft re/lore 

Bat would you feeanlnftancV of a Church which God hath rejected 


The Go/pel of the Sin-Offering. a S * 

and unchurched, and which (hall never be reftored any more. Be- 
hold the Church of Rome. It was once a true Church, and the Pallor 
thereof a true Minifter, when Paul wrote his Epiftle to the Romans 
fixteen hundred Years ago : But now, fo far declined from their firft 
Eftate, and from the Primitive and Scripture Pattern, That the Church 
of Rome vs become the Whore of Babylon, and the Bifhep of Rome the 
Head of that Church, is Antichrift. See Rev. 1 3. They are fet forth un- 
der the Notion of two wild and venomous Beads ; the firft Beaft ia 
that Chapter, which hath ten Horns, &c. is the Church of Rome ; the 
fecond Bead with two Horns, is the Pope of Rome : The firft is Baby* 
Ion, and the fecond Antichrift. The truth is, they have erred fo far, 
that (except the Church of the Jews, when they crucified Jefus Chrift) 
I think there was never any Church that erred fo much, as this Church 
that pretends they cannot err. 

4. Inftru&ion. That the Elders and Publick Perfons ail, and are to 
' ad for the People. For the Elders are to lay their Hands upon the Peoples 
Offering, Verf 15. That is, as their Agents and Reprefentatives. The 
People are not to think themfelves meerly Paflive, in what their Elders 
and Rulers do : no, believe it, you are more concerned than fo c 
Their ad involves the People, which gives a juft Account of God's 
fending Publick Calamities upon the People, for the Sins of their 
Rulers : For what the Parliament do, the People do. 

The Method of Providence is often thus. Firft the People Sin, and 
provoke God to Anger, then he leaves their Rulers to Sin for their 
fakes, and then comes Wrath. For while there is a Phwebas, a Jofiab, 
they ftand in the Gap, and ftave off Publick Judgments it may be all 
their Days : But when they are gone, or if they Sin too, this opens a 
Gap for Publick Judgments to break in upon the People. See 2 Sam. 
24. 1. And again the Anger of the Lord was kindled againft Ifrael, and 
he moved David againft them, to fay, go number Ifrael and Judah. Ob- 
ferve the Method ; firft God is angry with Ifrael for their Sins, then 
he moved David their King to Sin, and then comes the Plague. 

When things go amlfs, and the Publick Affairs do not profper, People 
are very apt to be difcontented with their Rulers and Magiftrates, and 
to fay, that it is their Fault. But if they do amifs, you fhould confider 
why God leaves them to it: It is often for the Sins of the People. 
It would better become Private Perfons to refleft upon themfelves, and 
upon their own Sins, and their own Unworthinefs, than to Work out 
in Difcontent againft thofe that God hath fet over them. 

3. The third Law of the Sin-Offering is, Concerning the Blood there- 
of -, There vs a threefold difpofal of it appointed by the Rule in this Chapter, 
v er - 5? ^,7* K k 2 1^ The 

ifi The Gofpel of the Sin-Offering. 

i. The Prieft is to dip his Finger in the Blood, and to Sprinkle k 
feven times before the Lord. 

2. He is to put part of it upon the four Horns of the golden Altar 
of Incenfe. 

3. He is to pour out the reft of it at the bottom of the Brazen Altar 
of Burnt-Offering. Of thefe three Ceremonies, a few words. 

1 . The Prieft vs to dip his Finger in the Bloody and to fprinkle it [even 
times before the Lord, that is, before the Vail of the Sanctuary, towards 
the Holy of Holies. Upon the great Day of Expiation, he was to 
Sprinkle it within the Vail ; but becaufe he was not to enter into that 
Holy Place every Day, but only once a Year : Therefore at other Times 
he did but fprinkle it towards- the Holy Place, upon, or towards the Vail : 
See Lev. 16. 14-. But the fignifkation was the. fame in botho. It 
teacheth us three things. 

1. That there vs no entrance into Heaven, but by* the Blood of Chrift jhed 
and poured forth, and fprinkled and applied effectually. For the place 
within the Vail, the Holy of Holies was a Type of Heaven, and the 
Prieft entred there not without Blood, Heb. 9. n, 12, 24, 25, 25. 
Heaven is a Pojfejfion purchafed by the Blood of Chrift, Eph. I. 14. 
Heb. 10. 1 9, 20. We enter into the Holieft by the Blood of Jefus. We had 
never come there^ had not the Blood of the Sin-Offering beenfprinkled 
there for us. 

2. There is a full and perfecl cleanfing in the Blood of Chrift ; for 
he is to fprinkle it feven times. Se wen is a number of Perfection • be., 
caufe in feven Days the Creation of the World was finifhed, and God 
refted from his Works. Hence feven is a myftical number, often ufed 
in Myfteries throughout the Scripture, both in Typical, and in Prophe- 
tical places. Vid.- Aynfw. in loc. 

As feven times fpr inkling the Leper , and feven Days for his chaffing., 
Lev. 14. 7, 9. 

Seven Lays for con fe crating the Vriefts, Lev. 8. 35, For pmifytng the 
'Unclean^ Lev. 12. a. Numb. 19, 19. 

Seven Prieft s with feven Trumpets, blew [even Days te the overthrowing 
if the Walls of Jericho, Jofh. 6. 

Every ftventh Day, was a Sabbath, Exod* 20. io» 

Every feventh Tear, a Year of Reft, Lev. 25. 34; 

And feven Times feven Tears brought the Jubilee, Lev. 25. 8. 

In the- Book of the Revelation, the Lamb that wasflain, which is Je~ 
fus Chrift, is reprefented with feven Horns, to fignify the perfection 
of l:is?<wr •, and with feven Eyes, to {hew the Perfection of his Wif- 
dom ; and the feven Spirits of God, the Holy Ghoft in the perfe&ica 
afcall Gifts and Graces, Rev. 5. 6. These 

The Gofpel of the Sin-Offering; 2 53 

. There be alfo feven Candlefticks, /even Churches. And indeed the 
whole Book doth analyfe and divide it felf into three [evens : Seven Seals,, 
[even Trumpets, and feven Vials. 

The /ezwSeals, holding forth the Hate of the Church under hea- 
thenifh Perfecution, with the iffue thereof in the three fir ft Centuries. 
The feven Trumpets under Antichrift, and other intefline Troubles. 
And then finally, feven Vials of Wrath for the ruine of Antichrift, 
• and other Enemies, for the Churches Profperity. 

From all which you fee, that there is fomething of myflery in the 
number of feven* 

And in this Ceremony, it teacheth us the fall and per fell cleaning 
and atonement we have in the Blood of Chrift •, and that our Sins need 
much cleanfing i much purgation, Heb. 9- i3> M« Heb. 10. 14. For by one 
Offerings be bath perfected for ever themthat are fanclified. 

3. We may learn further, That Sprinkling vs- figmficative enough of tbe 
fpiritual chanfing, and per fed virtue that is in the Blood of Jefus Chrift. 
For the Prieft was not to pour out the Blood upon the Vail, nor to 
walh the Vail in the Blood, but only to dip bis Finger , and fo to fprinkle 
the f^ail witbit-, Ifa. 52. 15. 1 Pet. 1. 2, Heb. 12. 24. 

2. Another part of the Blood was to be put upon the Horns of the Golden* 
Altar of Incenfe^zr.j. And again, ver.. 18. So in the Sin- Offering upon 
the great Day ot Expiation, Lev. 17. 18, 19. This was ufed only in the 
Sin-Offer ing of Bullocks : but in the Sin-Offering of Kids or Lambs, k 
was only poured and fprinkled upon the Brazen- Altar, ver. 25. 30,34. 
The My fiery of this Ceremony was this, That Chrifl y s Interccjfion is 
founded in his own- Blood and SatisfatJion. For the Incenfe- Altar was a 
Type of Prayer: he prays in the virtue of his own Blood and Suffer- 
ings, and by the Merit thereof, he prevails with God for us. 

And it is upon the fame Account,that our Prayers alfo do prevail and 
find acceptance with the Lord •, it is becaufe the Incenfe- Altar is fprink- 
led with Blood. We pray in his Name, and we defire nothing in 
our Prayers, but what he hath deferved and procured by his Merits : . 
See Rev. 8. 3. There was given him much Incenfe , that he foould offer it 
rvitb the Prayers of aU Saints upon the Golden- Altar. And 9. 13, 14, c\c. 
J heard a Voice from the four Horns of the Golden- Altar. The Golden* 
Altar is the Altar of Incenfe : A Voice is heard from thence, as in 
anfwer to Prayer, commanding to loofe the- four Angels : By which 
Interpreters understand the Turks. 

But did ever any Chriftian pray for the coming in of the Turks 
upon the Chriftian World? No, but God anfwers the Prayers of his 
P.eople oftentimes by wonderful and terrible things in Righteoufmfs, as 

254 The Gofpel of the Sin-Offering. 

Pfal,4$. 5. The moft dreadful Revolutions of Providence, are in 

anfwer to Prayer: And that which makes Prayer fo powerful, is 

becaufe the Altar of Incenfe is fprinkled with the Blood of the Sin- 


3. The reft of the Bloody was to be poured forth at the bottom of the 
Altar of Burnt-Offering, Verf 7, 18, 25, 30, 34. This inftrufts us, 
that Chrift was confecrated and dedicated unto God in his own Blood 
The effufion of the Blood of Chrift, as a Sin-Offering to the Juftice of. 
God for us, for our Salvation, for the Purchafe of the Pardon of our 
Sins , and the relation of that Blood to the Altar of his Deity, are 
here taught. But this was opened before when we were upon the 
Burnt- Offerings, Cap. 1. 5. 

But confider this, as in. conjun&ion with the former ; the Blood 
was fprinkled both upon the Holieft of all, and upon the Altar of 
Incenfe, and now the reft poured forth by the Altar of Burnt-Offering. 

It teacheth us, That the Blood of Chrift hath an influence into all the 
concernments of our Salvation, from firft to laft. 

Exertife Faith in that Blood upon all occafions, and for all the con- 
cernments of your Souls. Would you fee your Sins forgiven, and 
Atonement made? See and take notice of that Blood in the effufion 
of it, as poured forth at the bottom of the Altar. Would you fee 
your Prayers accepted and anfwered t See the Blood upon the Horns of the 
Incenfe«Altar. Would you fee Heaven Gates opened, and way made 
for you into the Holy of Holies, an abundant entrance opened for you 
into Heaven ? See the Blood fprinkled before the Vail. See the Blood 
of Jefus Chrift influencing all the Concernments of your Souls. 

4. The fourth Law of the Sin-OfFering, is concerning the burning of 
it, verf. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. And again verf. 19,20,21. The inward 
Parts of it were to be burnt upon the Altar, as in the Ordinance of 
the Peaee-Offering. All the reft ; the whole Builock was to be burnt 
in a clean place without the Camp. 

This Law is peculiar to the Sin-Offering of a Bullock, whether for 
the Prieft, or for the whole Church. But in the Sin-Offering of 
Goats or Sheep for the Ruler, and for any individual of the common 
People, this Ceremony of burning without the Camp was not re- 

There is this Reafon given for burning the whole Sin-OfFering if it 
were a Bullock, and not allowing any of it to be eaten ; namely, be- 
caufe, the Blood of it was brought into the Tabernacle of the Congre- 
gation, 'to reconcile withal in the Holy Place, Lev. <5. 30. 


The Gofpel cf the Sin-Ofering. 1 5 5 

You may fee the Practice of this Ceremony in the Sin- Offering, at 
the Confecration of the Priefts, Exod. 29. 14. 

And as in was burnt without the Camp in their prefent unfixed Po- 
fture: So when the Temple was fixed at Jernfalem, it was burnt with- 
out the Gates of the City. The Apoftle explains it at large, Heb. 13. 
10,11,12, 13,14. andeduceth three great Gofpel-Truths and Myfte- 
ries out of it. 

1. That they who ferve the Tabernacle, have no right to eat of our 
Altar under the Gofpel, verf. 10. Our New Teftament Altar is Chrift. 
To eat of the Altar, is to partake of the Offerings offered upon it. 
They that ferve the Tabernacle, that is, ihe old worldly Tabernacle, 
fuch as ferve that, that is, fuch as adhere frill to legal Ways and Ob- 
servations, have no right to Chrift the Altar, and to the Sacrifice he 
hath offered, and to Salvation by him. Such as cleave to their own. 
Righteoufnefs, and to their own Wifdom in the Things of God, they 
deprive tbemfelves of Communion with Chrift. 

2. As the Sin-Offering was burnt without the Camp where they did 
caft forth the Afhes •, fo Chrift fuffered without the Gates of the City. 
Tbty carried him out of Jerufalem to Golgotha, to the Place of dead Mem 
SchIIs, Matth. 27. 33. And when they were come unto a Place caUed Gol- 
gotha, that is to fay, a Place of aSlnll^ which is called, Luke 23.33. Ca/- 
vary. That as it is fa id of the Sin Offering in the Place where they 
pour out the Afhes, there fhall it be burnt, Lev. 4. 12. So Chrift fuf- 
fered without the Gate, Heb. 13. 12. 

3. This Ceremony teachetb alfo the Myftery of our Communion 
with Chrift, in bearing his Reproach, Heb. 13. 13. For it was becaufe 
Sin was upon the Offering, which carries Shame along with it, that it 
was carried forth. Malefactors were to be put to Death without the 
Camp, fo the Blafphemer, Lev. 24. 14. fo the prefumptuous Profaner 
of the Sabbath, Nnmb. 15. 35. 

If you cannot be content to bear the Difgraces and Reproaches of 
the World, to be accounted a fimple Heretick, a Fanatick, no true 
Sou of the Church *, but a Schifmatick againft the Church, and a Re- 
bel againft the King, an Enemy to Cafar, for fo they faid of Chrift ^ 
you refufe to go forth with him out of the Camp, bearing his Re- 
proach. The Apoftles were accounted the very Filth of the World, 

\li}v/.a$&W*\& T» xhcfC'. 1 Cor. 4. 9. tO 13. Fdvlvv vtpl^yuaL \a< A?7t fuch 

as by fweeping is gathered together , faith the marginal Note,. 
n*t% t3 rrsf/av auod deterge* e fignifc at. Beza. Wo unto yon when all Men 
[hall li*ak well of yon -, for fo did their Fathers to the falfe Projjhets^ Luke 
6. 16. To thefe add, 

4. Whereas, 

256 The Go/pel of the Sin-Offering. 

.4. Whereas he that did perform this Mi nift ration about the Sin- 
Offering, was to be unclean until the Even : So in the Sin-Offering of 
the yearly Feaft of Expiation, Lev. 16.27, 28. And the fame Law 
we find concerning the red Heifer, whereof they made the Water of 
Separation, Numb. 19.8. And he that burneth ker, /hall wa/h his Clothes 
in Water , and bath h'vs Flefh in Water , and (hall be unclean until the Even. 

Hereby was fhadowed forth, not only the imperfedion of the Legal 
Priefihood and Miniftrations, in that the Priefts themfelves, which pre- 
pared the Means of SancYification for the Church, were themfelves pol- 
luted in the preparing and doing of them : So Aynfw.m Numb. 19. 
S, 9. But it may inftruft us alfo in a more general Truth, concerning 
the Iniquity of our holy Offerings, our belt Duties and Services. There is 
fomething of fecret fpiritual Defilement cleaving to them, even when 
we are making our Peace with God} when we are atoneing, or re- 
ceiving the Atonement, and a&ing about it. Lava lachrymal meat Do- 
mne; Lord, warn even my Tears. 

5. The laft Law of the Sin-Offering, vs concerning the Eating of it: 
Of this fee Cap. 6. rerf.24.. to the End. This did not concern thofe 
Sin-Offerings, whofe Blood was brought into the Holy Place, and 
whofe Flefli was burnt without the Camp, but only the Sin -Offerings 
of the Ruler and private Perfons : As Lev. 6. 30. There be three Ce- 
remonial Laws and Ordinances about this. 1. The Priefts are to eat 
it in the Holy Place, Verf. 26. Mofes expoftulates with Aaron for the 
Negled of this, Lev. 10. 19,20. And be there hinteth at fome part 
of the Myftery of it, Verf. 17. The Pried: by eating the Sinners Offer- 
ing, did typically bear the Iniquity of the Sinner, and fo abolifh it as in 
a Figure. It holds forth our Communion with Chrift our Sin Offer- 
ing, as the Food of our Souls, whom by Faith we eat and feed- 
upon. John 6. 56. 

2. Whatfoever fhall touch the Flefh thereof fh all be holy, Verf 27. This 
Kite was peculiar to the Sin-Offering : And feeing the Sin- Offering 
was a Type of Chrifl; who was made Sin for us : This teacheth us the 
Holinefs that fhould be in them, who have any thing to do with Chrifl. God 
reproves the Priefts, Hof.4. 8. they eat up the Sin, or the Sin- Offering, 
Chattaah, of my People. The old Note is this, the Priefts feek to eat the 
People's Offerings, and flatter them in their Sins. Every one of us 
Ihould know how to poffefs our Veffels in Holinefs and Honour, 1 Theff 4.4. 

3. Tk Veffel wherein it is boyled, mujl be clean fed by rinfing with Water, 
or by breaking it in Pieces, Verf.27. 28. The like Lev. n.32, 33. and 
1%. 12. The Earthen Veffels were to be broken, in regard of the 
sheapaefs of them, the Lofs would not be great: The more softly to 


The Gofpel of the Sin-Offering. 257 

feo fcoured and rinfed. The Apoftle fpeaksof thefe (Heb. 9. 10.) di- 
vers Wajhings and carnal Ordinances, impofedon them till the time of Refor- 

The Pharifees in fuch Obfervations as thefe, went beyond the Rule, 
(as Superftition is apt to do) but Chrift feverely Rebukes them for 
their high Strains of fuperftitious Devotion, Mark. 7.4,8. 

But out of God's Inftitution here, we may fpell this Leflon of fpiri- 
tuai Inftru&ion y Namely, the jlrange Defilement , and deep Contagion and 
Pollution which is in Sin, that there is fo much ado for the cleanling of it ; 
and what Care there fhould be to Purge and cleanfe our felves from it, 
Heb. 10. 19, 22 2 Cor. 7. 1. 

And to make it out a little more particularly • if you would find out 
the meaning of a Type, it is a good Rule to obferve the Scripture ufe of 
the fame Word, in the way of a Mttapbor and Allufion. 

Now we find both wicked Men and good Men compared to Earthen 
Veffels. It is a Metaphor concerning wicked Men, and the breaking is 
the deftroying them, Jer. 19. 11. Pfal. 2. 9. Jer. 48. 38. Gocjr will 
break wicked Men and unclean Perfons with utter Deftru&ion, asVef- 
fels wherein is no Pleafure. 

Bntgood /Wo? aifo ^recalled Earthen VefTels, and fo the Type muft be 
accommodated a littleptherwife, 2 Cor. 4. 7. We have this Treafure in 
Earthen Veffds. And fo the Clcanfmg thefe Velfels by wafhing with 
Water, points to the Spiritual Cleanling, by the Spirit of Chrift, Ezek. 
36. 25. and by his Blood, Heb. 9. 13,14. And Breaking, fignifies the 
utter Abolifhing of all Sin and Uncleannefs by Death. We are not 
fully cleanfed till the VeiRl be broken •, but then there is no more 
Defilement in the Vtffel. And God will 'make it up again in the 
Refurre&ion, as pure and holy as if it had never been defiled with 
Sin at all. 

Thus we have gone through thefpecial Laws of the Sin-Offering, 
in thefe Five Heads : For they do cither concern the End, or the 
Matter, or the Blood of it, or the Burning, or laftly the Eating of it. 
I (hall conclude all that hath been faid upon the Sin-Offering, with 
fome general Jnftruclions from the whole. 

1. We may here learn and be inftru&ed, that even Sins of Infirmi- 
ty do contrail a Guilt upon the Soul -, yea, fuch a Guilt as needs Atone- 
ment and Expiation in the Blood of Jefus Chrift. There are no Ve- 
nial Sws, the lead Sin is Death. You muft bring your Sin-Offering t 
if you expeft to be forgiven. Do not flight Sins of Infirmity, for 
then they bec^rne more than meer Infirmities. 

LI 2. Here 

258 The Gofpel of the Sin-Offering. 

2. Here is Relief nnto Faith againft thofe ufual Complaints of daily In* 
flrmities, which many gracious Souls do fo much complain of, and 
mourn under. Alas ! 1 can do nothing well ; if 1 pray, my Thoughts 
wander u when I hear the Word, I underftand little, and remember 
lefs -, I am eafily overtaken and carried afide daily, I Sin in all I do. 
But you fee here is a Sin- Offering provided. There vs not a juft Man 
upon Earth that doth Good, andfinnetb not, Ecclef. 7. 20. In many things 
we offend aU^ Jam. 3.2. Therefore the Lord ordained this Sin-Offer- 
ing, which as it ferved for a legal Expiation and purging of their 
Sin? under that Difpenfation : So it did prefigure to them the Blood 
of Jefus Chrift, which cleanfeth us from all our Sins. 

3. Here is great Encouragement to engage in the Service and Work of 
Cod, notwithftanding our own Infirmities and Difabilities : Do not with- 
draw when called, tho' confeious to they felf of much Uaworthinefs 
and Unfitnefs : For the Lord hath provided a Sin-OfFering for us \ 
he will accept our Sincere, though weak Endeavours, and pardon our 

4. See and take Notice what continual Obligations of Love, are upon us 
to Jefiis Chrift, we have fuch continual need of him. Behold and wonder 
at his Love, in that he was content to be made a Sin-OfFering for us, 
and fo procures our Pardon for fuch continual Sins and Failings. He 
that knew no Sin, wot made Sin for tts t that is, he was made a Sift-Of- 
fering for us, 2 Cor. 5. 21. Hence we have Pardon ; and not only 
Pardon, but Power alfo againft Sin, Rom. 8. 3. and for Sin condemned 
Sin in the Fle(h. £ And for Sin] that is, God fent Chrift for a Sin- 
Offering; as you have the fame Word fo rendred, Hcbr. 10.5. 
km *m */utfp1/flf? in Sacrifices for S/», thou hadfl no Pleafnre. 

Objecl. Bat my Sins are worfethan meer Infirmities of Saints, they 
are Sins of a gt offer Nature. 

Anfw. There is Relief for fuch in the Trefpafs- Offering, if they 
do not Sin prefunriptuoufly and obftinately : For Cod will wound the 
hairy Sca r p of him that goetb on in his Trefpajfes , Pfal. 68. 21. But if 
you repent of it, and bring your Trefpafs- Offering to the Lord, 
there is Hope in Ifratl even concerning fnch kinds of Sin alfo } of 
which, the Lord affifting, we Ihall fpeak the next time. 




Gofpel of the Trespass-Offering- 

Levit. Cap. 5. and Cap. 6. to Ver. 7. ^-V' & *<*> 

6. 1608. 

The Trefpafs-Offering. Alham. 

THis is the fifth fort of legal Sacrifices. 
The Difference between this and the Sin-Offering, as to the fpe« 
ciai End of them beLg in this, That the Sin-Offering feems to carry 
fome Limitation to Sins of Weaknefs and Ignorance •, but this ex- 
tends further, even to Sins againft Knowledge. This points at Chrift t 
as the Sin-Offering, and all the reft did ^ therefore Chrift is called 
Afham, Ifa, 53- 

The Method which the Ho!y Ghoft is pleafed to ufe upon the 
Trefpafs-Offtriftgi is this. Hr propofeth, 1. The Cafe % and 2. The 
Remedy : And in this Method he goes over a Fourfold Cafe, and 
a Cure and Remedy for them. 

The facred Rites and Ceremonies here required, differ little from 
other Offerings before handled, and therefore we may be the briefer. 

The firfi Cafe is Three-fold, I mean there be three Cafes put to- 

1. Concealment of a Mans Knowledge^ when called to teftify upon 
Oath. Vtrfe 1. Jf a Soul fin y and bear the Voice of Swearing, and is » 
Witnefs, whether he bath feen or known of it % if be do not titter it, tben % 
&c. C A Soul ] that is, a Terfon, the Soul the more noble Part, be- 
ing Synecdochically put for the whole Man. The Temptation feems to 
lie here \ if the Perfous for Rank and Quality in the World be 
great, fo that a Witnefs is afraid to fpeak and utter his Know- 

LI z CHfar 

a6o TbeGofpeloftbeTrefpafs-Otfenng, 

[ Hear a Voice of Swearing ] that is, either of the Judge adjuring, 
or calling him forth to fpeak upon Oath. Or, of Sinners Swearing, 
Curling, Blafpheming. 

You have an Inftance of the former in the High Pried, Mat. 26. 6$. 
J adjure thee by the Living God, that thou tell us whether thou be Chrifi the 
Son of the Living God. Unto which Adjuration or Voice of Swearing, 
our Lord Jefus Chrift made Anfwer, and did declare the Truth, tho' 
before he held his Peace. For it vrasCafus Confejfwnvs, a Cafe where- 
in Confeifion of the Truth was called for. 

Of the latter we fcave an Inftance in Levit. 24. 10, n. They that- 
heard the Man Blafpheme, made Complaint to Authority. A Man may 
contrafr upon himfelf the Guilt of other Mens Sins, by concealing 
them, if he be eaUed to reveal them. This prefuppofeth a Magiftrate 
that is not given to Swearing, and Curfing and Damning himfelf ; for 
if God give up his People unto the Hands of fuch Magiftrates, in 
fuch a Cafe they have none to complain to. 

a. The fecond Inftance, is Ceremonial Vncleannefs, Verf. 2. and 3. 
whereof you read in the nth Chapter of this Book, and fo forward 
to the 1 6th. wherein the feveral forts of legal or ceremonial Unclean- 
nefs are treated of at large. 

But do thefe Things defile the. Confcience, and contract a Guilt up- 
on the Soul ? 

They do not under the Gofpel ^ but yet they did under the Law, 
becaufe then God had forbidden it. 

But fuppofe it were unknown and involuntary ^ is the Confcience 
defiled by Cafualties ? 

No, but yet they muft feek Atonement, and bring their Trefpafs- 
Offering. Doubtlefs this was to teach them and us to feek Pardon for 
unknown a#d fecret Sins ^ I mean unknown to our felves, as well ' as to 
others, Tfd.19. I2 « Who can underhand his Errors ? Clean ft thou me 
from fecret Faults. 

C When heknoweth] As foon as God convinceth the Confcience 
of any Sin, any Defilement that we have contracted, there is no de- 
laying, but we muft make hafte to make our Peace with him : But as 
foon as the Sin is known, by the Knowledge of the Rule which en- 
joy ns Duty and forbids Difobedience, Men muft look out for Pardon. 

3. The third Thing in this fir ft Cafe i#, Swearing to do an unlawfnl thing, 
as David did, 1 Sam. 25.22. Htrod\ Oath, Mark 6. 23. was fuch an 
one-, and fo was theirs that fware to kill Paul, A&s 23. 21. Of this 
fort was yeptbatis Vow, Judg. 11.30, 31. it was a rafhVow. What 
if a Dog or a Swine had mcthxnj firft ? Or fome other Beaft that was 
unclean for Sacrifice? Here 

The Gofpel of the Trefpafs-Otfering* 261 

Here was Ground for a Trefpafs- Offering. 

Now the Remedy provided vs in general,conkSing his Sin with a Tref- 
pafs- Offering, Vtrf. 5. 6. 

It is in particular Three-fold. 

1. A Lamb or a Kid, a Female, Verf. 6. 

2. If he be not able to compafs this, Two Turtle Doves, or Two young 
Pigeons, the one for a Sin-Offerin?, the other for a Burnt -Offer ing -, whofe 
Rites and Ordinances are fet down, forf.*!. 8,9, 10. The Lord graci- 
oufty condefcends and provides for the Poverty and Neceffities of his 

[ Verf. 10. According to the manner 3 According to the Inftitution, 
Cap. 1. The Sin-Offering was for that peculiar Sin that burdened bis 
Confcience. The Barn t- Offering, for all his Sins in general, 

The particular Sin was to be firft expiated, as that the Guilt where- 
of was moft prefling upon the Confcience, and which provoked God 

3. In cafe he be not able to compafs this. Then the tenth part of an 
Epbab of fine Flower, Verf. 1 1 . 1 2, 1 3. 

The fccond Cafe is, Trefpajfmg ignorantly again ft the holy Things of 
the Lord, Verf. 15. compare it with Cap; 22. 14, 15, 16. The holy 
Things of the Lord are Things dedicated to him, whereof there were 
many, and of many forts under the Law. As for Inftance, They were 
not to eat within their private Gates the Tythe of their Corn, Wine, Oyl, &c, 
JDeut. 12. 17, 18. They were to fanclify all the Fir filing-Males , Deut. 
1 5^ ip. To this fort may be referred the Sin of Ananias and Sap- 
fhira, they did rob God of his Holy Things, Ails 5. 1, 2. though they 
did it knowingly, and fo it was worfe than this Cafe, which fuppofeth 

The Remedy provided and appointed in this Cafe is, 

1. A Ram for a Trefpafs- Offering. 

2. Rtfiitution with the Addition of a fifth Part, Verf 15.16.' The 
fame Proportion was added in the C3fe of Things redeemed by the 
Owner, Lev. 17. 13, 15, 16. 

[With thy Eftimation'} the Speech is directed to Mofes, and fo in 
him to the Priefts that were to fucceed -, fee Cap. 27. 1 2. And the Prieft 
[hall value it whether it be Good or Evil. According to thy Eftimation 
Prieft, fo (haU it be. 

{^The Prieft (haU make Atonement'] For though the TrefpafTer do re- 
ftore •, yet Atonement could not be made, but by the Prieft and the 
Sacrifice appointed, which leads us to Chrift and to his Death, to feek 


262 The Gofpel of the Trefpafs-Ofering. 

Atonement with God there. There is no Expiation of Sin in our Amend* 
tnent or Reformation, but in the Blood of Chrift. 

3. The third Cafe is General, concerning Sins unknown, and Sins of 
Weaknefs, Verf\~ { . 18, 19. - 

And the Remedy provided is a Ram. Though he wift it not, yet be i$ 
guilty and (hall bring, a Ram. That is, when it comes to his Know- 

The former Cafes, Verf 4. and 1 5. fpeak alfo of Ignorance. 

But feme Hate the Difference thus, That this is for Sins never known 
certainly, but in a doubt and fufpenfe. There is to be a doubtful 
Trefpafs-Offering, vid. Ainfw. in loc. 

4. The fourth Cafe is in Cap. 6. to Vcrf.%. wherein there is a bundle 
of grievous Sins put together, all againlt Light and Knowledge. 

1 . In juftice and Theft. 

2. Force and Violence. 

3. Lying, Fraud and Deceit. 

4. Perjury, or Swearing falfly about it. 

[ If a Soul Sin and commit a Trefpafs againjl the Lord, and lie againfi 
his Neighbour 3 For Sins againlt our Neighbour, are alfo Sins againft 
God. Pfal. 51 • 4. Againjl thee only, that is, thee chiefly. For he had 
finned againlt Vriah and againlt Bathjhebah, and had done them both 
irreparable wrong. But that which lay heavieft upon him, was the 
Injury done to God, J have finned, Luke 15.18. againjl Heaven, that 
is, againlt the God of Heaven. 

The Remedy appointed is Three-fold-, the two former are not for 
Satisfaction to God, but to the Party injured, without which there 
can be no effectual Application of the Atonement to thy Confcience. 

1. Rejlitution, Verf.4. This is the ground of that faying, no* remit' 
tit ur fur turn, nifirejlttuatur ablatum : The Theft is not forgiven, with- 
out Reftitution. 

2. Addition of a fifth Part, Verf. 5. This is when the Sinner out of 
the Convi&ion of his own Confcience, doth it of his own Accord. 
For if he were Convicted by the Magiftracy and Publick Juftice of the 
Land, he mult reftore Four-fold in fome Cafes, and double in other 
Cafes : See Exod. 22 1, to 4. 

3. A Ram for a Trefpafs-Ojfcring, Verf. 6. 
Some general lnltru&ions from the whole. 

1. We may here learn and fee in the Trefpafs-OSering, and the 
Laws and Ordinances thereof, how much there is of the Will of God tn the 
Matters of his Worjhip ; for there are divers Things in this, as well as 
in the other Offerings and Sacrifices, whereof there can no Account 


The Go/pel of the Trefpafs-Offering. 26^ 

be given, but the Divine Will and Good Pleafare of the Almighty. 
As that the Trefpafs-Offering, which concerns greater Sins, fuch as 
Stealing, Lying, Perjury, fhould be a leffer Sacrifice, to expiate greater 
Guilt than was appointed in the Sin-Offering : For a Ram is the high- 
eft Sacrifice here required ^ But the Sin-Offering, which is for Igno- 
rances and Infirmities, requires no lefs than a young Bullock for fome 
kind of Perfons. And why a young Bullock for the Prieft, and no 
more but a Goat, a Male for the Civil Ruler ? Reafon would fay, this 
fhould be as great, if not greater then the Prieft •, Magiftracy being 
as great, and as high a Power as Miniftry. 

Who is able to give any neceflary Reafon for thefe Things ? One 
Reafon indeed might be to lead them from the Shadow to the Sub- 
ftance, that they might not dwell and reft in the outward Type and 
Ceremony, but look further to what was figured by them. . For if the 
Atonement had lain in the Typ e, there muft have been other Propor- 
tions fet down between Sin and Sin •, but the will of the Law-giver is 
enough, and this we muft acquiefce in, where no other reafon doth 

You have formerly heard, how the Lord faith upon the Meat-Of- 
fering, / will have no Leaven nor Honey ^ but in the Peace-OfFering he 
faith, I will have Leaven. In all the Fire-OfFerings he faith, Imll not 
have Honey, but in the Firft Fruits he will have Honey, His Will is 
our Rule, his Will as revealed in his Word. 

Vfe 2. See the Sovereign Virtue of the Blood of Chrift : For he is our 
Trefpafs- Offering, as well as our Sin-Offering. Therefore J fa. 53.10, 
its fa id, When thou (halt make his Sod an Offering for Sin. The Word 
is the fame with this, Afham naphfho his Soul a Trefpafs-OfFering. Here 
are Sins againft Knowledge mentioned: Thieving, Lying, Perjury ^ 
Sins which do amount to a veryltupendious Guilt. 

Vfe 3. Hence there is Encouragement to the greatefl Sinners, to have 
Recourfe to him and to his Blood, and to make ufe of him for Atone- 
ment. There is Atonement in the Blood of Chrift our Trefpafs-Of- 
fering, even for Thieves, Oppreflbrs, Lyars, and Perjured Perfons. 

Let me fpeak particularly to thefe Sins mentioned in the Text, and 
that in this Method. 

1. To fhew the Greatnefs of thefe Sins. 

2. That yet there is Atonement for them in the Blood of jefus 

1. Theft and Vnjuft Dealing, Trnr this is a very grievous Sin ap- 
pears by this, becajjjje it is lb ">ntu y (ft the very Light of Nature, . 
and to thatGoidea Rule of Equity, t& do at yonv^H\d be done to, and 


a 64 The Gofpel of the Trefpafs- Offering. 

is deftru&ive to Humane Society. That it is agai nil Light appear^ 
becaufethey labour to hide it, and are afhamed of it, if it come to be 
known, Jer. 2. 26. As a Thief is afhamed whin he vs found. 

And this further fhews the Greatnefs of it, That God infills upon 
Reftitution and Satisfaction to the Party injured. Confider this, all you 
that are Tradefmen, and have much Dealing in the World, and yoa 
that are Apprentices and Servants. If you Steal and Pilfer from yoiK 
Matters, tho' it be but a Groat or Sixpence, if you do not reftore ic, 
how can you exped God will ever pardon you. 

But what if a Man be not able., and have not wherewith to reftore ? 
That is a fad Cafe \ but in fuch a Cafe God may accept the Will for 
the Deed. 

But fuppofe the Perfons may be dead a>>d gone f 

The Anfwer that Cafuifts give in fuch a Cafe is, that then you muft 
reftore it to God, by giving it to the Poor, or to fomegood life ; re- 
ftore yon muft, one way orother. For without Reftitution there is no 
Remiffion. And the Reafon is clear : Becaufe the detaining of unjuft 
gotten Goods, is a Continuation of the Sin : The taking Pofleffion of 
them was Theft, the keeping that unjuft PofTeffion, is a Continuation 
of that Theft, Zach. 5.4. The Cnrfe of God {hall enter into the Houfe of 
the Thief and remain in it, and confume it, with the Timber and Stones of 
it. The Curfe of God will be upon thee in all thy Comforts, in all 
thy Concernments. 

But yet there is Atonement. We have two Inftances in the Scrip- 
ture, of Thieves that were converted and faved. Zacheus, Luke 19.8,9, 
10. but he made Reftitution, Verf. 8. And the Thief en the Crofs. 

2. Violence. Here is a Sin againft the fixth Commandment added 
to a Sin- againft the eighth •, for Violence belongs to the fixth Com- 
mandment. Thou (halt net mnrther • They are beginnings of Blood, 
they have a Tendency to it, and Blood is a Sin that cries. There are 
many Threatnings againft this Sin, Pfal. 104. 1 1. Evil (hall hmt the 
violent Man to overvhrow him. 

This is againft Light, for no Man would be fo ufed himfelf. 

Yet there is Atonement for this. You have Inftance in Violence of 
the worft Sort, proceeding even unto Blood, and that in a way of Per- 
fecution for Righteoufnefs fake, in Manaffeh and Panl^ who had been 
Men of much Violence, and yet were converted and faved, Mavaffeh 
2. Kings 21. with 2 Chron. 33. 12, 13 And Paul 1 Tim. 1. 13, 14, It 
is like the Thief on the Crofs was fuch a one; an High- way-man, a 
violent Thief, or elfe by their Law they could not have put him to 
Death ^ but yet the Lord (hewed Mercy to his Soul. 

3. Lying : 

The Gofpel of the Trefpafs-Oferirg* 26$ 

3» tyty * A grievous Sin, and againft a double Light and Know- 
ledge; both knowledge of the Rule, and of the Fatt, which rifeth up 
in Mind againft a Lyar when he fpeaks a Lye. It is ufually one of 
the firft a&ual Sins that breaks forth in Children, Pfal. 58. 3. The 
Wicked are eftranged from the Womb y they go ajlray as foon as they 
be bom^ freaking Lies, And there be dreadful Threatnings againft it, 
fee Rev, 21.8. you that are Parents may do well to teach your Chil- 
dren that Scripture. 

Yet there is Atonement for this Sin alfo. David fometimes told Lie$ 
to lave his Life •, but yet he was deeply humbled for it, hi* Soul clea- 
ved to the Dufl about ft, and melted for beavinefs^ Pfal. 119.25,28, 29. 

4. Perjury and falfe Swearing .• A moft horrible Sin, for a Man to 
invoke the God of Truth to joyn with him in a Lie, and to co-attefc 
and bear Witnefs with him to a Lie: And this Sin feldom efcapes4in- 
punifhed, even in this Life. God ufually fets fome vifible Mark and 
Token of his Vengeance and Wrath upon them, even in this Life, 
Jer. 34. 15 18. £***. 17. 15 18,19. 

Yet we have an Inftance, and but one that I remember in all the 
Bible, of a Man that found Mercy for this Sin, and that is Peter, who 
denied Chrift with Swearing and Curfing : But he went out and 
wept bitterly, and when his broken Bones were fet again, as in Na- 
ture they grow ftronger there than in another Place : So Peter grew 
very bold in Preaching and confeffing Chrift, whom before he had fo 
fearfully denied. : 

Objeff. 1. But there be divers Sins which are not here fpecified. 

An fa. Yet they are included, and underftood by a Parity of Rea- 
fon: And there might be fome Reafons given, why it might not be 
convenient to mention fome Sins particularly, which yet were inclu- 
ded, and for which there was Atonement. As if a Man be overta- 
ken in Drink, or Luft, or Paffion, ralh Anger, &c. thefe and all 0- 
ther pardonable Sins, are included either in the Trefpafs-Offering by 
a Parity of Reafon, with the Inftances mentioned in the Text, or clfe 
under the Sin-OfFering, or the Burnt- Offering. 

Objeff- 2. But fome Sins were not intended to be included in any of 
the Sacrifices of the Law: They had no Atonement, no Sacrifice pro- 
vided for them, as Murther and Whoredom. 

Anfa. This was for a fpecial Reafon, becaufe there was a Civil Pe- 
nalty appointed in fuch Cafes, and for fuch Sins extending even unto 
Death. And it had been incongruous to that legal and external Dif- 
penfation they were under, to appoint a Sacrifice to make Atone- 
ment for Capital Sins, for which the Sinner was to be cut off, This 

M m made 

$66 The Gofjjel of the Trefpafs-Offering. 

made David cry, Sacrifice thou wouldfl not^ Pfal. 51. elfe would 1 give it ^ 
he was at a Lofs what to do. There was no Provifion made by the Law 
for Atonement in that Cafe of his > But as God by prerogative and 
fpecial Difpenfation fpared his Life, fo he didalfo forgive his Sin, and 
taught him upon this Occafion the Imperfeftion of all the legal Sacri- 
fices : But yet there is an Atonement and a Trefpafs-Offering pro- 
vided under the Gofpel, even for fuch Sins : There is a Spiritual Sacri- 
fice, Jefus Chrift and his Blood : Therefore fuch notorious Sinners 
fliould not defpair ; fee 1 Coy. 6.1 i. Such were fome of yon, foul enough 
and bad enough, but ye art wafhed % but ye are juftified. 

Objetf. 3. But there be fome Sins even under the Gofpel, for which 
the Apoftie faith, there remaineth no more Sacrifice for Sin^ Heb. 10. but 
fiery Indignation and fearful looking for of Judgment. 

Anfw. This is only the Sin againft the Holy Ghofi: Now becaufe ma- 
ny when in Trouble of Conference, are apt to fear they have, com- 
mitted this Sin ; I fhall therefore open a little to you the Nature of it 
to prevent Miftakes and Difcouragements : I (hall endeavour to Jhew 
you both wherein it doth not,«and wherein it doth confifh 

And frrft wherein it doth not confifti 

1. It is not every Error in Fundamentals that amounts to this Sin* 
for fome Hereticks have been renewed by Repentance, have been con- 
verted and reclaimed from the Error of their Way, which they that 
Sin againft the Holy Ghoft cannot be. 

% 2. Suppofe a Man do not only err in Fundamental Truths, but 
fpeak reproachful phrcing Words againft it* as the Quakers ufe to do 
when they feoff againft a Chrift without us, ^nd againft the Bible, cal- 
ingit a Dead Letter, This is Blafphemy-, but yet it is not impoffible 
even for> fuch a one, to repent and be forgiven, for Matth. 12.30,325 
every Blafahemy againft the S<w, that is, every kind or fort of Blafphe- 
nvy, may be forgiven. 

3. Yet further, that Sin which of all other doth in fome Refpe&s 
come neareft to the Sin againft the Holy Ghoft, is Perfection -, For 
here is Malice : Yet fome, even of thefe alfo, have obtained Mercy ; 
as Paul the Apoftle, who before his Conversion was a Perfecutor, he 
was both a Fundamental Heretick, and a Blafphemer, and a Perfe- 

4. Some have thought it doth confift in univerfal Jpoflacy. But 
thefe are rather Circumftances that may accompany it, # but are not 
of the EfTence of it. Apoftacy is noteflential to it, much* lefs univer- 
sal Apoftacy. It is* true, thofein Heb. 10. and Heb. 6. were Apoftates 
that fdl away from their former Profeflions Therefore Apoftacy is 


The Gofpel of the Trefpafs-Offemtg. 2 67 

fometimes foond ia this Sin, but not always. For the Pharifees had 
never profeffed Chrift ; yet they did Sin againft the Holy Gho[fc, Mat. 
12. 32,33. Moreover Apoftates in fome Cafes may be recovered., 
Hof.14.. 4. Rev. 2. 5. and 3. 18. And as to that of univerfal Apo- 
ftacy, the Pharifees did not caft off all Profe,Tion of God and of the 
Truth, they were not univerfal Apoftates. Therefore a Man may 
pretend to Religion and be a ProfefTor of it in fome Degree, and yec 
a Pharifee, doing defpite unto the Spirit of Grace. 

Thus you fee negatively, concerning this impardonable Sin, what 
it is not. There may be fundamental Error, yea Biafphemy, Perfecu- 
tion, yet not unpardonable : Moreover a Man may Sin this Sin, and 
yet not be an univerfal Apoftate, as the Pharifees. But if all this be 
not the Sin againft the Holy Ghoft, what is it, and wherein doth it 
COnfift : 

j4nfw. There be two Ingedients that do concur to this Sin. 

1. Inward Conviftionby the Holy Ghoft. 

2. Malice. 

Thefe the Apoftle intends by Uovolu< if roe Sin wilfully, Heb. 10,' 
Hence our Saviour calls it Biafphemy againfl tk Spirit, Matth. 12. That 
is, againft the inward Illumination and Convi&ion of the Spirit in a 
Man's Confcience. 

If there be not a Conjunction of both thefe, both inward Conviction 
and malicious Oppofition -, if there be only one of thefe, without the 
other, it is not the Sin againft the Holy Ghoft. 

Peter in his denying Chrift, and fwearing falfly about it, he finned 
againft Light and inward Convi&ion ; but this was not the Sin a- 
gainft the Holy Ghoft, becaufe he did it not in Malice, but only out 
of Fear to fave his Life. 

Paul before his Converfion, did Sin and perfecute out of Malice; 
but yet he did not commit this Sin, becaufe he wanted Light and in- 
ward Conviction : Himfelf gives us this Account of it, 1 Tim. 1.13; 
but I obtained Mercy becaufe I did it ignorantly. 

But can this be known concerning others? 

Yes it may be known ; therefore 1 John $. 16. pray not for fuch. 

It will further clear up the Nature of the Sin, to name fome lnftan* 
ces of fuch as have committed it. 

There be fome Inftances and Examples of it in the Scripture : And 
there have been fome fince the Scriptures were written. 

The Scripture mentions the Pharifees, Mat. 12. 

The Apoftle Paul inftanceth in the Convi&ed, and yet Apbftatq 
Jews in his Epiftle to the Hebrews. 

Mm 2 Since 

268 The GofpJ of the Trefpafs-Offering. 

Since the Scriptures were written. 

Julian the Apoftate is thought to have finned this Sin ; for he had 
Light enough, he was a Chriftian, and an high Profeflbr of Chrifti- 
anity, before his Apoftacy. 

He did profefs Religion to fuch a Degree, that he was wont to read 
in the Church in the publick AfTemblies •, he did not difdain to read 
the Bible to them in the Church AfTemblies, though he was of the 
Blood Royal ^ but after he was fetled in the Empire, he fell away to 
Paganifm •, and not only fq, but to moft malicious and crafty Perfecu- 

Some have obferved of him, that he did not put forth fuch Edicts 
for the putting Chriftians to Death, as fome former Perfecutors had 
been wont to do. He did forbear to do it out of Craft and Malice, 
becaufe he had obferved the Truth of that Speech, fanguvs Martymm 
femen Ecclefia % the Blood of Martyrs is the Seed of the Church : He 
faw that fuch a courfe would propagate Chriftianity the more, and 
increafe the Church rather than diminiih it. 

Therefore be chofe rather to lay Snares for their Confciences, by 
way of Subtilty to draw them from the Truth, and fo to wafh his 
Hands in the Blood of their Souls ( a fweeter Viftory to him ) then 
of their Bodies ^ and to Triumph over them in their Falls, rather 
then in their Deaths, denying them the Ufe of Books or Schools to 
get Learning, fuffering none to bear Office in War or Peace ^ and 
when he died, being (hot with an Arrow in a Battle, and feeling 
bimfelf mortally Wounded, he plucktout the Arrow and threw it up 
with his own Bowels, with thefe Words, vici/H, Galilae vkifti. 

In thefe latter Times, of all the Perfecutors in Queen ^r/sTime, 
there is none that feems to have finned and filed the Blood of Saints 
againft Light, more than Stephen Gardner •, of whom there is this 
Story in the Book of Martyrs and others, that write of thofe.Times s 
That having invited fundry Perfons of Quality ,the Duke of Norfolk and 
others to Dine with him at his Houfe, he would not (it down to Din- 
ner, till he had News brought him by his Servant, of the Death of 
two Martyrs Ridley and Latimer, who fuffered at Oxford) and fomade 
his Friends and Guefts ftay, and wait upon his Cruelty and Blood 
Thirftinefs till four a Clock in the Afternoon : And then being ia- 
Scrmed, that Fire was moft certainly fet to them, he faid, now let 
us go to Dinner ^ and he began to eat, but was taken ill and carried 
Sick from his Table, and fo lay fifteen Days in moft intollerable 
Torments, having no Eafe or.Voidance of any thing in bis Body by 
Urine or otherwife, his Body being miferably inflamed thereby, anc^ 


The Gofpel of the Trefpafs-Offering* 269 

throwing his Tongue out of his Mouth fwollen and black : And while 
he lay in this Condition, uttering fometimes Words ot Defpair and 
Blafphemy, when Dr. Day Bifhop of Cbichefter came to him, and be- 
gan to comfort him with the Promifes of the Gofpel, and free Jufti- 
fication in the Blood of Chrift ^ What- my Lord ( faith he ) will you open 
tbas Gap now ? Nay, then farewel altogether \ fucb Words may be fit for one 
in my Condition ; but if once yon open that Gap to the People , then farewel 
altogether. And when he was put in Remembrance of Peer's denying 
bis Mailer, he faid, that he had denied with Peter, but had never repented ' 
with Peter. A9s and Monuments, Vol. 3, p. 527. and p. 957. 

Here was Light and inward Conviction, that this was indeed the 
right way ^ and yet Malice even unto Blood. Open that Gap to the 
People, and then farewel all together ; juft as the Pharifees laid, they 
feared the People would go after Chrift. 

Some have inftanced alfo in fome of the lalt killers of the WitnefRs 
of Chrift % Rev. 1 u of whom it is faid, Fire proceedetb out of their Months 
and devours their Adverfarks^ Ver. 5. which they parallel with that > 
Expreffion of the Apoftle, Heb. 10. 27. a certain fearful looking fo* of 
Judgment, and fiery Indignation that fhaU devour the Adverfaries. «x/o^ i 
w'»*. A receiving of Judgment, that is, in their own Confciences, 
God fealing up with fome flafhes of his Wrath, their Eternal Damna- 
tion : They have fome fparks of Hell Fire fpit into their Confidences, 
from the Lives and Doftrine of the WitnefTes. It is fpoken in Rev. u«, 
in allufion to Mofes, by whom thofe Rebels (Corah and his Company, 
as alfo Nadab and Abihu ) were burnt with Fire. 

There be two Things which are fure Signs a Man hath not com* 
mitted this Sin againft the Holy Ghoft. 

1. When Souls are afraid of tf, leaft they have committed this Sin * 3 , 
here is no Malice againft the Spirit of Grace .; for on the contrary, 
here is a fear leaft they have finned againft him this great Sin. 

2. If there be but common Meltings and relentings of Heart, yea* 
though without any true and faving brokennefs and foftnefs of Heart ; 
yet even this common Work is Evidence enough, that this Sinhatbu 
not been committed: For the Sin againft the Holy Ghoft, isthe high- 
eft Degree of wickednefs and hardnefs of Heart \ but where there ar;e* 
any common Meltings, there is not the higheft~degree of Hardfcefs 5 
therefore there is not the Sin againft the Holy Ghoft. In fuch there 
is a perfect Fixation of the Will in Evil, like the very Devils and the 
Damned in Hell. 

Therefore let the greateft Sinners know, if God hath but kept them 
from this unpardonable Sin, that there is Hope and Help in the Go^ 


-270 The Gofpel cf theTrefpafs-Offerhg. 

pel for them : There is Atonement in the Blood of Chrifl: for all that 
come unto God by him, God hath not excluded thee, do not thou ex- 
clude thy felf. 

'Tis true, there is Atonement : But how are we to apply this Atone- 
ment? How may we fo improve and apply that precious Blood of 
Chrifl:, as to get Peace by it, and Senfe of Pardon and Reconciliation 
with God ? 

i. Turnpwr Eyes and Thoughts from all other Wings but the Blood of 
Jefus Cbrift alone for Reconciliation. A Man may fet his Mark upon his 
Sheep } but it is his Money that bought them. Other Things may be 
Evidences of Juftification ; but ii is the Redemption that is in jefus 
Chrifl: that purchafes it, Phil. 3.7, 8. Never think to make God amends, 
or content his Juftice, or appeafe his Wrath by any thing that yots 
can do. 

a. Get a thorough Conviftion in thy Conference, of the f nine fs of the 
Atonement^ and the Soul-redeeming Virtue that is in the Blood of Jefus 
Chrrft, that it clean feth from all Sin, 1 John 1. 7. The redeeming Pow- 
er of the Blood of Chrifl:, is greater then the condemning Power of 
Sin. This Excellency it hath from the Excellency and Dignity of his 
Perfon, (for it is the Blood of God, A&S20. 28.,) which makes his Obe- 
dience and Suffering give more glory to God, then our Sufferings ia 
Hell would have done. Defire the Lord to make a clear Difcovefyof 
this Myftery to tfay Soul. 

3. Confider how freely this Blood is held forth and offered in the 
Gofpel, to be relied on by Sinners, Rom.3. 25. and 16. 2s. God has 
revealed it, that it may berefted on. 

4. Be not afraid of receiving the Atonement, Rom. 5. 1 t, 17. but 
rather be afraid to rejedT: it* Neb. 4. i. We fhould not be afraid of 
believing, but of not believing; for the Gofpel is nottendred unto 
Men, that they fhould haye Notions m their Heads, but that they fhould 
believe, Rom. 4. 13* 24. 

-5. Let your afting of Faith upon Jefus Chrift, be always accompa- 
nied with Repentance, Huh io\ laft. This obviates that Objeftion 
about fear of prefiiming : If thy Faith be accompanied with Repen- 
tance, thou doft not prefome, 



T H E 

G O S P E L 



! Levit. VIL 37. ' stft. io\ i$6g. 

"TNtending at this Time ( my Brethren ) to wind up thisSubjeft of 
J[ the legal Offerings and Sacrifices ^ I have therefore now refumed 
this Text, from which you may remember two Do&rines have beea 
formerly obferved. 

1. That there was a Divine InlUtution and command of God, for 
the Offerings arKl Sacrifices that were under the Law. , . 

2. That there were fix Kinds or Sorts of Propitiatory Sacrifices un- 
der the Law $ Tiamely t the Burnt-Offering, the Meat- Offering, the 
Peace-Offering, the Sin-Offering, the Tretpafs-Offering, and the Of- 
fering of Confecrations. 

In the Profecution of this fecond Dodrine, we have gone through 
many of the Offerings and Sacrifices of the Old Law, in the way of 
Expofttkm upon the former Chapters of this Book, to Kerf % of 
Cap. 6. 

The five firft fort of Sacrifices have been fpoken to ac large 
As to the fixth, The Offering of Confecrations, there will be Occafion 
to fpeak fomething of it, when we come to the Priefthood : Neither 
is it handled at large in thefe firft Chapters of Leviticus, but only fome 
of the Laws of it briefly toucht upon Jf therefore 1 (ball refer what I 
Jhall fpeak of it, to that other Place* 

:2?2 The Go/pel of the Offerings and Sacrifices, 

As to what remains of the dth. and 7th. Chapters of this Book, they 
containing fome additional Laws to the Offerings before treated of ¥ 
"they were fpoken to under the Offerings to which they belong. 

I fhall therefore now proceed unto two or three Queftions that re- 
main to be confidered, before we leave this Point. 

Qucfl. r. Whether the legal Sacrifices may not be otberwlfe diftrHmUd, 
and what other Diftribtttions there be of them? 

Anfvo, The Scripture gives other Diftributions alfo, as well as this 
in the Text^ but I chofe eo handletttem in this, as theplaineft for 
Weak Memories. 

They are fometimes thus divided into Zebacb and Mincba^ that is, 
flaughtered Offerings and Meat-Offerings, Dan. 9. 27. He fhall canfe the 
Sacrifice arid Oblation to ceafe. The Word is; the Slaughter-Offering 
and the Meat'Offering to ceafe; Zebach and Mmba\ and in many o* 
ther Scriptures. 

The Meat-Offerings, were of Inanimate Things offered up to God 
~%y Fire upon trie Altar. 

But the Slaughtered Offerings were of Living Creatures, and thefe 
were offered up both by Fire and Bloody the Beaft being firft flain, and 
then burnt with Fire. 

Some have diftinguifhed theft two, in refpeft of their Ends and 
Ufes,thus; That: the flain Sacrifices refpe&ed chiefly the Sufferings % 
and paffive Obedience of Chrift, as making Satisfaction for our Sins, by 
his Death and Blood \ and that the Meat- Offering related chiefly to his 
wttive Obedience , whereby he fulfilled the Law for us, by his holy and 
blefled Life, good Works being as it were Meat and Drink to an ho- 
ly Heart. 

In the Meat-Offering therefore ( fay they ) was fliadowed by the 
burning and attending of inanimate Things, the Obedience and Me- 
rits of Chrift to come. But it is not to be retrained to his aftive Obe- 
dience only ; for the burning and deftroying the Meat-Offering by 
fire, did plainly reprefent the Sufferings of Chrift for the Satisfaction 
of Divine Juftice, as was formerly Ihewed more fully in the Exposi- 
tion of the Meat-Offering. 

Moreover the flaughtered Offerings may be fubdivided from their 
Ends and Ufes, thus : That they were either limply for Atonement 
and pardon of Sin, or for other Occafions alfo. 

' Thofe for Atonement of Sin, were either for all Sins in general, or 
with fpecial Refpect to fome Particulars* 

For all Sins in general, was the Burnt-Offering, which therefore 
was offered every Day. There was bohcanflum )uge, for thofe pec- 


The, Gofpel of the Offerings and Sacrifices. 273 

catA jugia, a daily Burnt-Offering for thofe continual daily Sins, and 
flnfulnefs of our Hearts and Natures, Numb, 28. 10. This is the Burnt- 
Offering of every Sabbath, be fides the continual Burnt -Offerings and its 
Drink- Offering : Which was offered every Day at Morning and at Even- 
ing, faith the Geneva Note : Of which Daniel faith of Antiochui, that 
by him the daily Sacrifice was taken array , Dan. 8. 1 1. 

As to particular Sins, they being of two Sorts either leffer or grea- 
ter ; there were two Sorts of Sacrifices provided for them. For Sins 
committed through Ignorance and Infirmity, the Sin-Offering : But 
the Trefpafs-Offering, extended even to Sins committed againft Liglx 
and Knowledge. Thefe were the Sacrifices meerly for Atonement and 
Expiation of Sin. 

As to other Occafions alfo, there were two Sacrifices appointed and 
ordained of Old. 

i. As to Affurance of Peace, and of the Love of God • the Peace- 
Offering, which was a Sacrifice both of Atonement and of Thankf- 

2. As to Acceptance and Entrance into Office in the Church, the 
Milluim, or the Offering of Confecration, wherein, befides Atonement 
of Sin, this was fuperadded, the lnveftiture of the Perfon into Truft 
and Office in the Houfe of God. 

Qupft. 2. A fecond Enquiry may be this ^ Whether there were not other 
Sacrifices , befides what are comprehended under thefe Distributions. 

Anfw. There were fome others, but they were peculiar Sacrifices; 
thefe were the ordinary forts of them. 

As for the reft, either they may be fome way reduced and referred to 
fome of thefe, or elfe they will come in and may be fitly handled in 
other Places. As for Inftance •, 'the two Sparrows in the cleanfi-g of the 
Leper, were a peculiar kind of Sacrifice, Lev. 14. and they will come 
in among the Laws and Ceremonies of Purification, when we fpeak of 
Ceremonial Cleannefs and llncleannefs. So will alfo the Sacrifice of the 
red Heifer and the Holy Water , or Water of Purification made of the Afhes 
of that Sacrifice, Numb. 19. 

The Pafchal Lamb alfo was a peculiar Sacrifice, but it will fitly 
come in to be handled in the Feaft of the Paflbver, when we come to 
the Feftivals : And there alfo the Sacrifices of the yearly Feafi of Expiati- 
on, on the Tenth Day of the fevtnth Month will come to be confidered -, 
one Part whereof is theScape Goat, LeviL 16. But the ordinary Sacri- 
fices, were thefe that have been handled. 

Que ft- 3- The third Quare may be this ; Thefe fix here enumera- 
tedTa the Text, being the ordinary forts of Propitiatory Sacrifices * 

N n what 

274 The Gofpel of the Offerings and Sacrifices. 

tvbat other Sacrifices bad they, befides tbefe of Propitiation or Atone- 

I anfwer as to that ; when I entred firft upon the Subject, you may 
remember I diftributed the Offerings at the Brazen Mar into two 
Sorts: Holinefs of Holinefs, and Holinefs of Praifes ; or Sacrifices of 
Atonement, and of Thankfgiving. You find this Diftinftion of double 
Holinefs and fingle Holinefs, in Levit. 21. 22. he {hall eat the Bread of 
his God, that is, of the Sacrifices, bothof the moft holy, and of the Holy y 
fo the Fruit of the Land after it was Circumcifed, is fa id to be Holi- 
nefs of Praifes to the Lord, Levit. 19.24. Quodsfh HiHitlim, is contra- 
diftinguiflaed unto Quodtfh 'quodefhim. 

The former fort of Sacrifices, namely thofe that were Holy of Ho- 
lineffesiox Atonement, were made by Fire : But the latter fort, viz.. fuch 
as were meerly Sacrifices of Thankfgiving^ or Holinefs of Praifes, were 
not offered up to God in the Fire, but by other Ceremonies. 

Of thefe there were two forts, the Heave-Offering, and the Wave- 
Offering -, of both which we fhall fpeak a Word briefly, both concern- 
ing the Matter, the Manner, and the Signification of them. 

The firft: mention we have of them, is xxiExod. 29. 24,26,27. in 
the Offering of Confecration. The Shoulder is an Heave-Offering, and 
the Bred a Wave-Offering. Again in Lev. 7. the right Shoulder and 
the Breft, are referved out of all the Peace- Offerings for a Wave-Of- 
fering, and an Heave-Offering to the Lord for the Priefts, fee £^34. 
Again in Lev. 23. 10, n. we read of a Wave-Sheaf of the Firft Fruits 
of your Harveft unto the Prieft. And ye fhall wave the Sheaf before the 
Lord, to be accepted for you. This was to be done the Morrow after 
the Sabbath of the Paflbver, and fifty Days after, at theFeaft ofPente- 
coft, they were to offer two Wave- Loaves, Verfv'-j. 29. 

Thus you fee the Matter of thefe Offerings. 

The Manner, or the Rite and Ceremony with which they were of- 
fered, was Waving and Heaving, from whence they have their Names 
of Wave-Offering and Heave- Offering. Waving, that is, moving it 
to and fro round about towards the Eaft, Weft, South, and North, 
Tc^uphah, agiiatio, from the Verb Nuph, which in Hiphil is agitavit^ 
ventilavit. Heaving, that is, lifting it up towards Heaven. Terumah % 
from Rum^ elevari, extolli. Thefe were Geftures (fome may think) 
fomez/hat ftrange, and hardly grave enough in the Worfhip of God. 

But what was the My fiery and Meaning of them ? 

You will fird that clearly expreffed, in Numb. 8. 11. And Aaron 
fhall offer the Ltvites before the Lord, for an Offering of the Children of 
Ifrael, that they may exec ttte the Service of the Lord. The Hebrew reads 


The Co/pel of the Heave-Offering. 275 

it ( as your Wirgin tells you ) thus, and Mr on fhall wave the Levites 
before the Lord for a Wave-Offering of the Children of Ifrael. 

This then was th? End and the Meaning of thefe Geftures : To pre- 
fect and dedicate the Thing to the Lord : Who, if he will have it done 
by fuch or fuch a Gefture, who, or what is vain Mm, that he (houid 
controle or find fault with the unfearchable Wifdom and fovereign Au- 
thority of the Lord God Almighty. 

Thefe Words [Wave, Heave] are ufed generally concerning all 
things h jvea or dedicated to God ^ as Exod. 35. 22. And every one that 
offered . offered an Offering of Gold unto the Lord. Henipb Tcnnphzib^ agi- 
tavit agitatiwtem : He - - r ed a Wave Offering of Gold unto the Lord : 
Even Land it felf, 48.8,9, 10,20. Perfons a!fo ar^ faid to be 
waved as a Wave: Offering, when dedicated to the L'jrd Npmb. 8. 1 1. 
For Wave, the Greek tranfhteth fcparau , which Wo id raid ufeth* 
fpeaking of his Defignation ro the Minifrry 7 Rom. 1. 1. 

Some have obferved fome thing more in ihefe Geftures, efpecially 
that of Waving to and fro round abogt. The Original Word is fome- 
times ufed for lifting in a Sieve, Jfa. 30. 28. TliaE fignliies Tryals and 
Afflictions, Luke 22.31. And fo the Prophets apply this Word unto 
Troubles, Jfa. 10. 32. and 13. 2. and 30.28. The Senfe then will a- 
mount to thus much, That the faints and i\l : .:'fters who are fpiritual 
Priefts, are confecrated to the Lord through Sufferings. As it is faid 
of Chrift the Captain of our Salvation, Heb. 2. 10. fo the Saints, 2 Cor. 
6.4,10. As the Wave-Offering was toft and waved to and fro, and 
thereby dedicated to the Lord. 

There is fome Controverfy upon thefe, ftarted by 
a Learned Man, and one of much Light in other Mede Difc. 49, *. 
things, however he mift it in this, there being alt- 384. 
quid bumanum in the beft of Men \ and bumanum eft 
err are, no Man but is fubjeft to Error and Miftakes. The Qneftion is, 
whether they were Ceremonial, andCeafed, or Moral and Pepetual. 

But the Cafe is clear and eafy concerning them both ; both the Heave^ 
Offerings and the Wave -Offerings, they were Ceremonial^ and they are 

Objeft. They were not Types of Cbrift. 

Anfvo. If they were Types or legal Adambrations of Cbrift tan Du- 
ties, or of any of the Benefits of Cbrift ^ this fulliceth, and is enough to 
make them Ceremonial, and confequently Abolifhed. For the Types 
( as hath been often faid and proved, and muft be now again repea- 
ted ) do not relate only to the Perfon of Chrift, but to all Gofpel- 
Truths and Myfteries. 

Nfl2 Obiig' 

2 7 6 The Go/pel of the Heave-Offering. 

Object. They might be eaten by others befides the Priefts, and ia 
other Places T not in the holy Place only : Therefore could not be ty- 
pical, unlefs all the People and every Corner of the Land were Ty- 

An fa. So might the Peace-Offerings in this Chapter, Lev. 7. 1 5, \6. 
The Offerer had a Share in them, and yet they were Ceremonial, and 
not Moral. Moreover, not only the Temple % and the Priefts there, 
but the whole Land of Canaan and the People of Jfrael, were a typi- 
cal Land, and a typical People \ ( as hath been formerly and mail be 
further (hewed ) all the Fruits of the Land had a typical Holinefs •, the 
Firft Fruits being virtually the whole, they were a typical Dedication 
of the whole. 

Objeff. The Scripture exprefly rejects other Sacrifices and Offerings, 
and doth not mention thefe. 

An fa. Yet thefe are included by a Parity ofReafon \ if the chief 
be rejecled ; much more the leffer and inferior. 

ObjecJ. But Chriftians under the New Teftament, are bound to give 
part of their Subftance to the Lord, and to his life and Service: 
Therefore thefe are Moral. 

An fa. I anfwer, it follows not ^ for this is a Moral Duty to give 
part of our Subftance to the Lord \ but yet the Heave- Offerings and 
Wave-Offerings are ceafed, that is, the Ceremony is ceafed } but the 
Subftance or Thing ftgnified remains. The formalvs ratio of thefe 
Offerings, did not conlift ( as fome have thought ) in Prayer and 
Tbankfgiving • for there was Prayer and Thankfgiving in other Of- 
ferings alfo, as well as thefe, yea in all their Offerings. Are they not 
commanded to lay their Hands upon the Sacrifice of Atonement, by 
way of Prayer and Confeffion ? Cap. 1.4. But the formalvs ratio of this 
and other Offerings, doth confift chiefly in the Ceremonies ordained to 
be ufed about them, which is a great part of that which diftinguifti- 
eth one Offering from another, as you have formerly heard : There- 
fore, If Waving, and Heaving be not to be ufed under the Gofpel, 
as facred and fignificant Ceremonies in the prefenting and dedicating 
of our Subftance to the Lord, the Wave, and the Heave-Offering are 
ceafed. But the Geftures of Waving and Heaving are not to be ufed, 
as facred and fignificant Ceremonies under the Gofpel - 9 therefore the 
Wave and Heave-Offering are ceafed. 

Vfe 1. Remember thofe great Gofpel- My ft eries which are the Scope of 
all Sacrifices. Which (as you haye heard ) are chiefly thefe Two, 
Atonement and Thankfgiviiig. 

1. Atone* 

The Go/pel of the Heave-Offering. 277- 

1. Atonement and Reconciliation. This was the Great Myftery taught 
and held forth in all the Propitiatory Sacrifices -, That we are reconciled 
unto God, by the Death and Sufferings of his Sen \ and that they had fo 
great a Multitude and variety of Sacrifices, plainly taught them Two 

( 1.) The Imferfeftion of all thofe legal Sacrifices-, it taught them 
to look beyond thefe,. for a more perfect Sacrifice then any ofthefe, 
which might ferve once for all. The Apoftle exprefly fpells outthi*. 
Leflbn to us, from the multitude and iteration of the Sacrifices, Hcb* 
10. 1,2. 

(2.) This great variety of Sacrifices, taught them alfo the various 
and manifold Benefits of Chrift, and of his Death and Blood. Though 
Chrift be one, and died once for all -, yet the Benefits that come by 
him are many : No one Thing alone was fuffkient to reprefent the 
fttlnefs that is in Chrift. 

2. The fecond great Thing held forth by their legal Offerings, is 
Praife and Tban\fnlnefs : This was the intent of the Holy Offerings, as 
Atonement was of the moft Holy. This was the meaning of the 
Heave-Offering and the Wave-Offering , a thankful Frame of Sprit, to 
dedicate and give up our felves unto the Lord, to be owning God, 
acknowledging and admiring God in every thing, receiving it as from 
his Hand, and returning it to him again, by ufmgictohis Glory. 

Vfe 2. We fee here the rife, and withal thz Sinfulnefs of divers of the 
Topifk Superjlitions. They borrow many of them from the Jews, and 
from the Ceremonial Law. As when they talk of a Sacrifice, a propitia« 
tory Sacrifice in theMafs for Quick and Dead ^ and fo call the Commu- 
nion Table an Altar. It is true, we have an Altar and a Sacrifice under 
the Gofpel • but this Altar is the Deity of Jefus Chrift : This Sacrifice 
is the Blood of Chrift : This is the true Atonement between God and 
Sinners \ whereof the Blood of Bulls and Goats, was but a weak, low$ 
and ihady Reprefentation. 

So the Prieft's lifting up the Hoft over his Head, as if it were an 
Heave- Offering •, and that late Abomination, that they muft do it 
on the North Side of the Communion Table or Altar, as they love 
jo have it called. To reintroduce thefe old legal Ceremonies, and 
to talk of literal Sacrifices under the Gofpel, is to dig Mofes out of 
his Grave, and to- deny Jefus Chrift : There is more Evil in fcch 
Things, then many dc imagine or will believe. 

Vfe 3. Exhortation to keep clofe to the Command of God, in aUths 
Matters of his lVo>(hip. Confider the 38th. Verfe of this Chapter : Tb^ 
U the Law cf the Burnt* Offering, and of the Meat- Offering, (aud fo of 


278 The Gofpel of the Heave-Offering. 

all the veil of their Offerings) tthlch the I crd commanded Mofes in 
Mount Sinai, in the Day that he commanded the Children of Ifraei to of- 
fer their Oblations to the Lord, in the IVildemefs of Sinai. The manner of 
Worfhip is under a Command, as well as the matter : The Mode of 
Worlhip hath a Law, which mud be attended and obfeived and kept 
clofe unto. Let me prefs this Exhortation, that you would in all 
your Worfkip keep clofe unto the Rule of the Word, with thefe font 

I. It hath been the great Defign of Satan in all Times and Ages, 
to defile and corrupt the Worfhip of God. If he cannot perfwade 
Men to be downright Atheifls, and to fay, there is no God •, he la- 
bours then to drive them into the other extream of Idolatry and S/iper- 
fthion, and to impofe upon them with an Image, with an Idol, inftead 
of God } and the Hearts of Men are like Tinder, to the Fire of thefe 
Temptations. The Stratagem hath been I think, as Succefsful and as 
Advantageous to the Devil's Kingdom, as any that ever came into 
that Old Serpent's Head. 

When, or how foon this Delufion of Idolatry came into the World, 
I need not here Difpute. Certain it is, it was very early • for we 
have exprefs mention made of it amongft Abrahams Anceflors, Jofh. 
24. 2. Now the Call of Abraham was but four hundred twenty fe- 
ven Years after the Flood, or thereabout, as you will find, if y ou com- 
pute and put together the Ages 6i thofe Tei, Patriarchs, recorded 
Gen. 11, with Gen. 12.5. So that Mankind having been cut down 
with a Flood but a little before, for Atheiftical Profanenefs and 
Wickednefs \ they were loft again, and the whole World in a man- 
ner overwhelmed and drowned ( as it were ) with another and wor- 
fer Deluge of Idolatry, within that fhort fpace of four hundred Years 
or thereabouts \ for unto that Period as I conceive, the Rife of Ido- 
latry mull: be referred. And what was the great Sin among the Jews ? 
Was it not this t And among the old Heathens and Pagans, and among 
the Papifts, and other fuperftitious Chriftians at this Day t What is 
the great Defign and Work or Chrifl: in this Age, th^ Work of this Ge- 
neration, but to bring forth his Worfhip into Purity, that the New 
Jerkfalem may come down from Heaven ? This therefore Satan ftudies 
chiefly to oppofe, and fo to countermine the Lord Jefuiin his great 
Work. And will you take part with him, and be on his Side againft 
the Lord ? 

2. It will be varnilhed over with fair Colours, and plaufible Pre- 
tences, departing from the Will of God. revealed in his Word, in 
ijie Maifcer of his Worlhip, hath ever been fo. The Image that fell 


The tjofpcl of the Heave-Offering. 279 

down from Jupiter, (cried they All. 19. 35 ) this was given out for 
that Epbefian Diana ; fo the Whore of Babylon, gives the Wine of her 
Fornication in a Golden Cup. Rev. 17. 4. And 3^ the Light increafeth, 
lb the Crafts and Methods of Satan are more refined, and morefub- 
tile and fpiritual. In the firft" Times of the New Tcftament he did 
appear almoft like himfelf in the fhape of a great Red Dragon in the 
Roman Pagan Emperors ^ but when Michael and his Angels overcame 
and overthrew him in this Appearance, Rev. 12. Then he puts on a 
New Vizard, and appears in another Shape of two Wild Beads, Rev, 
13. but {till purfues the fame Delign, tho' under new Pretences, and 
by other |nftruments, viz.: by the Church and Pope of Rome. For he 
hath made it his Bufmefs ever fince the Time of Conftantir.e the Great^ 
to revive the old Heathenifh Idolatry under other Names, that the 
World might not be faid Idola relinauere, but fimulact a mutaffe ; thac 
whereas before they worfhipped the Devil under the Names of Jnpi~ 
tet, Diana, and Apollo, &c. now they commit the fame Idolatry, and 
worftrip the fame Devil ftill^ but under the Names of Popi/b Saints, 
Now it is not Jupiter and Diana any more, but St. Francis, and St* 
JBecket, and tie Vic at of Chrifi, and the holy Catholick Church o/Rome j 
thus doth th3t Harlot paint her Face -, fo the Prelatick Superftitions 
at this Day, thofe Reliques of Popery are painted over with thofe glof- 
fing Pretences of Antiquity, Fathers, Councils, Order, Decency, Edifica- 
tion, the Peace of the Church, and fuch like. 

3. If once you leave the Rule of the Word, the Will of God re- 
vealed there, and begin in a way of Superftition, you will never know 
whereto Hop or flay, nor where to make an end ^ but you will multi- 
ply your Idols, and increafe your Idolatries, and grow worfe and 
worfe. As in thofe fehfial Lufls of Drunkennefs and Uncleannefs ; 
the poor Creature faith, / will feek it yet again : So in thefe Spiritual 
Lufts they are unfatiable, Ezek. 16. 28. becaufe thou waft nnfatiable. It 
is an endlefs Sin. If you do but wear a Surplice for Peace fake, why 
not as well admit the Sign of the Crofs in Baptifm, or bow to an 
Altar ? And then within a little while, the fame reafon is as ftrong 
for bowing to an Image, to a Crucifix •, and why not as well fay Mafs 
too, for the Peace of the Church ? And [hen at laft fwallow down every 
Thing, fubmit your Conferences to the Pope, worfhip the Bead, and 
fo be damned and go to Hell, and all for the Peace of the Church. O 
there is no end here, but like a Man that is tumbling down a fteep 
Hill, that cannot Hop till he come to the Bottom. 

Popery came in by Degrees } the firft four Trumpets made way for 
the Perfection of that Apoltacy that came in by the Fifth, 


s8o The Gofpel of the Heave-Offering. 

Among the Idolatrous Kings of Ifraei, thofe in fucceeding Tim^s 
were worfe then their Wicked PredeceiTors. Jeroboam was bad enough*, 
but he only lets up the two Calves at Dan and Bethel ^ but Omri went 
'beyond him, for it is faid be did worfe then all that went before him, 
i Kings 16.25. We read of tbt S ,-•■ of Omri, Mich. 6. 16. Idola- 
trous and Perfecuting Laws. But his Sou Ahab was worfe then he. 
For , as if it bad been a light Thing for him to walk in the Sins of Jeroboam, 
be did fet up the Worfhip of Baal, and did more to provoke the God of Ifraei 
to Anger i thin all the Kings of Ifraei tbat went before him, 1 Kings 16. 
S l y 3 2 i 31- So that you fee itis an increafing and anendjefs Sin. 

4. All the honour Men do, or think they do to God by Worfhip 
of their own Invention, doih redound indeed, and in truth to the 
honour of the Devil ; which is a fearful Thing to coniider. Super- 
ftition is a Sin dire&ly againfl: the means of Worfhip \ but it is ulti- 
mately againfl: the Ohjecl of Worfhip. Strange Worfhip fets up a 
ftrange God ; for it neceflarily fuppofeth and feign- 
'Ames Med. Tbeol Lib. eth t0 it - felf ^ fuch an Qb j e ft of Worfhip as is well- 

Ihef h', 1 \\ 42. pleafed with fuch manner of Worfhip, asSuper- 

ftition offers up: And to whofe Will foever we 
fubmit our Confciences, as the Rule of our Religious Worfhip, him 
we- fet upas our God. Though it be not fo in Mens Intentions ; yet 
it is fo indeed, and in God's Interpretation. The Lord fo interprets 
falfe Worfhip, that a New God is devifed for the Objea of it ; fo of 
the Heatbenifh Idolatry, the Things which the Gentiles facrifice, they facta* 
fice to Devils, and not to God, 1 Cor. 10.20. And fo the Lord inter- 
prets the Jewifh Idolatry ; Jeroboam ordained Priefts for the Devils which 
be bad made, 2Chron. 11.15. Lev. 17.7. Deut. 3*-. *7- 

And he puts the fame Conftru&ion upon the Popifh Idolatry, they 
repented not of Wor (hipping Devils, Rev. 9. 20. And their Fa&ors and 
Emiffaries are called Spirits of Devils, Rev. 16. 14. they think they 
Worfhip St. Peter and the Plrgin Mary, yea God himfelf and Jefus 
Chrift; but it is indeed and in God's Account, the Devil whom they 
Worfhip. It is true, you cannot honour God too much ; his Name is 
above and beyond all Praife : But you may miftake and honour the 
Devil, when you think you honour God. A fearful Miftake indeed 
it is \ but yet it is that which all thofe fall into, who in their Worfhip, 
depart from the Will of God revealed in his Word, and turn afide to 
any of the Invenions of Men. 

T H E 




Of the Ceremonial 


Heb. IX. 13, 14. September 13.20; 

For if the Blood of Bulls and of Goats, and the Apes of an Heifer 
fpr inkling the Unclean, fan&ijieth to the purifying of theFlefl: 
How much more Jball the Blood of Chrift^ &c. 

IN the Diftribution I formerly gave of the Ceremonial Law, yoa 
may remember, 1 did put the legal Sacrifices and Purifications to- 
gether under one Head, as partaking iii the fame general Nature ; 
both of them tending to the Purging away of Sin, and of Uncleannefs ; 
Moral Uncleannefs being taken away by Sacrifice \ Ceremonial Unclean- 
iiefs by Ceremonial Purifications, whereof we are now tofpeakasthe 
Lord fhall enable us, from this Text, which (peaks very folly and 
moll divinely to this Point. 

There be Two Thing9 in the 1 ext. 

1. The Type, Vtrf 13. For if the Blood of BhIIs and of Goats ', &c. 

2. The Antitype, Vtrf 14. Bow much more fhall the Blood of Chrift % 

Under each of which, there be three Particulars which are here fet 
by the Apoftle, in a way of oppofite Correfpondency the one to the 

i . He fpeaks of Vncleannefs in the Type . To which anfwei s dead 
Worksy as the thing figured by it. 

O o 2, He 

282 The Gofpel of the CeremomalUncleameJfes, 6cc. 

2. He mentions Ceremonial cleanfing, to the purifying of the Flefh. To 
which anfwers the purging of the Confcience from Dead Works, toferve 
the Living God* 

3. The Means of the One, anfwers to the Means of the Other : The 
Blood of Bulls and Goats, and the Afhes of an Heifer fprinklt'ng the Un- 
clean, which is the Means of legal cleanfing. To this anfwers the Blood 
of Chrifi, who by the Eternal Spirit, offered up himftlf without fpot unto 
Cod, which is the Means of Spiritual Cleanfing. Though withal the 
Apoftle fhews, that thefe Two anfoer not each other in a way of 
equal Analogy, there being indeed a pre-eminent Excellency of the one 
above the other, of the Antitype above the Type : Therefore he ex- 
preffeth it with an how much more. If thofe legal Purifications, attain 
the end of legal Cleanfing for which they were appointed \ how muck 
rmre fhall the Blood ofChrift cleanfethe Confcience? It hath a grea- 
ter Efficacy, and is a Truth of clearer and higher Evidence. 

Thefe Particulars of the Analogy between the Type and the Anti- 
type, we may call into three doctrinal Propofitions thus. 

1. That they had a Ceremonial Uncleannefs under the Law, which 
figured the Moral Uncleannefs of dead Works. 

2. That they had alfo Ceremonial Cleanfings or Purifyings of the 
Flefh, which fignified the purging our Confciences from dead Works, 
Co ferve the Living God. 

3. That the Means of Ceremonial Purification by the Blood of Bulls 
and Goats, and by the Allies of an Heifer fprinkling the Unclean, fig- 
nified the Blood of Chrift, who by the eternal Spirit, offered uphim- 
felf without fpot unto God, 

1. For the firft, namely, That they had a Ceremonial Vncleannefs under 
the Law, which did figure out the Moral Vncleannefs of dead Works. He 
fets then: one againft the other ; fo that thofe Uncleanneflfes did fig- 
nify d?*d Works, and what is meant by dead Works, we may fee 
Heb. 5. 1 . Not laying again the Foundation of Repentance from dead Works. 
Wbat do we Repent of ? We repent of our Sins. Thefe are therefore 
the iead Works here fpoken of, and .Sin is called a dead Work, be- 
caufe ;c proceeds from Death, and is a part of fpiritual Death, and 
tends to eternal Death. As good Aclion* tend to Life, fo Sin tends 
to Death. So then Ceremonial Vncleannefs, fignifies Moral Vncleannefs 
of Sin and dead Works. 

There were two or three Sorts of Ceremonial Uncleannefs. 

1. They had Unclean Touchings and Tailings \ here was Unclean- 
nefs from withous. 

2, They 

The Gofpel of the Ceremonial V?ic!eannejfes, - <3cc. 2S5 

. 2. They had unclean Iflues •, here was Uncleannefs from within a 
Mans felf. 

3. Thac Difeafe of the Leprofy, was a Difeafe of Ceremonial Un- 
cleannefs : And here was both an inward and outward Unclean--' 

1 . There was a Ceremonial Vncleannefs by Eating or Touching any Vn- 
clean Thing, Levit. 11. In that Chapter it is treated of; which Chap- 
ter fhews what Beads, what Fifties, what Fowls, and what creeping 
Things might, and what might not be eaten. And it is faid of thofe 
that might not be eaten, Wbofoever tottcbetb the Car cafe of them, (hall 
be unclean, Verf. 24. And this was a Thing of fo great Weight, that 
the Lord ufes :hofe Vehement Expreflions about it. Ye (hall not make 
your [elves abominable with any of thofe unclean Things and creeping Things % 
&c. Verf. 43. For I am the Lord your God • yon (hall therefore Sanftify 
your felves. It did make the Perfon abominable, who did defile him- 
felf with thofe Thirgs. 

We read of Two Kinds of Uncleannefs of Beafts under the Law. 

1. There was an Uncleannefs of Beaftsfor Sacrifice, and an Unclean- 
nefs of Beads for Food. 

That Diftin&ion of Cleaa and Unclean which referred to Sacrifices^ 
was from the fir ft Entrance of Sin into the World. Therefore in 
Noah's Time, there were fo many Clean and fo many Unclean Beafts 
with him in the Ark. 

2. The Uncleannefs of the Beafts for Meat, feems now to be ap- 
pointed by God. There having been a more general Liberty in the 
Time of Noah, and ever fince, to eat of any whokfom living Crea- 
ture •, God now laid a Reftraint upon it by Mofes. 

Queft. Butwhyfuch a Difference? Is not every Creature of God 

Anfvo. They are good in themfelves. It is not any natural Unclean- 
nefs ^ but an inftitnted Uncleannefs, that Un:.\eannefs that is in them 
by Virtue of the Ceremonial Law. And the Reafon is, Theabfolute 
fuprearn Authority and Dominion of God oyer all his Creatures. He 
would have all Men know, That whatfoever they eat, it is by his Al- 
lowance, and they muft forbear fo far as he reltraias them. 

And this further Account may be given of it : That it did make up 
and ftrengthen that Partition Wall between Jew and Gentile, which the 
Lord thought good to fet up in thofe Times. The Gentiles being un- 
convinced of any fuch Things, and the Jews being ftri&ly trained 
up to it. 

O 2 Quejt, 

284 The Goftel of the Ceremonial Vncleannejfes, &c. 

Quefi. What Creatures be they that were Clean? And what were 
Unclean ? 

Anfw. They be fet down at large in Levin n. And there be three 
Rules obfervable about the Beads, which were Clean and which were 
Unclean-, which might be eaten and touched and which might not - 7 
and they were known thus. 

i. By the parting the Hoof. 

2. By chewing the Cud. 

3. By the Properties and Difpofitions of them. 

1. Such cvs farted the Hoof were Clean^ Levit. II. 3. Whatsoever par- 
texh the Hoof, and is Cloven-footed among the Bcajl*, that ftiali ye eat. 
And they that did not were Unclean. This plainly notes a right 
diftinguifhment of Things, which God requires of his People, that 
we fhould walk in them with a right Foot, diftinguilhing of Things 
that differ, Phil 1. 9, 10. And this J pray, that your love may abound 
more and more in Knowledge and in all Judgment, that ye may approve 
Things that are Excellent. The Margin renders it thus, That you may 
difcern of Things that differ. For many Things there are of a diffe- 
rent Nature which a Chriftian (hould diftinguifh- as the Difference be- 
tween the Laxo and the Gofpel; between our general and particular Callings ; 
that there be not an Intrenching of the one upon the other. This is 
one Property, the parting ot the Hoof. 

2. Thefecond is the chewing of the Cud, which intimates Meditation^ 
ruminating on the Things of God, digefting Spiritual Food ; for the 
Word is compared to Food. Amos%. 12. 1 witt fend a Famin in the 
Land -, not a Famin of Bread, nor a Thirfl for Water , but of hearing the 
Words of the Lord. The Word of God is Spiritual, and it muft be 
chewed and ruminated upon by deep and ferious Meditation, Pfal 1. 
Bleffed is the Man that meditateth in God's Law Day and Night. Luke 
2. ;q. It is fpoken in the Praife of Mary, That (he pondtrtdon thofe 

*Thmgs y and laid them up in her Heart. It istheMifery of Sinners and 
unclean Creatures, that they cannot ponder the Path of Life. Prov. 
5. 6. Her Feet go down to Death, her Steps take hold on Hell, left thou 
(houldp ponder the Path of Ltfe. The want of a meditating, confider- 
ing Frame of Heart undoes poor Sinners, they cannot confider what 
tbe, d' ., they are not ferious in meditating and ruminating on the 
Word -"God. 

3. Thc*e is a third Difference and Character between the Clean and 
the Unclean, and that is, in the Properties of each,' Some had good 
Properties, and fome bad. As the Swine, which wicked Men are com- 
pared imto, for tfcat foul and dirty Difpofition and Property of wal- 

The Go/pel of the Ceremonial TJncleannefJes, &c. 285 

lowing in tbe Mire. 2 Pet. 2. 22. The Dog is turned to his Vomit, and 
the Sow that w wa(hed, to htr wallowing in the Mire. So that as the Dog 
licks up his Vomit again ; ib many a poor Sinner that hath been wafh- 
ed and made Clean, and hath confefled his Sins, and vomited up his 
Filthinefs, he licks it up again, and returns to the fame Sin he had 
vomited up by Confeflion like the Dog and Swine. 
This Uncleannefs of the Beafts did intimate Two Things. 

1 . A diftin&ion of Perfons. 

2. The Neceffity of forbearing Communion with fome kind of 

1 . That there vs a Difference of Perfons, Clean and Vnclean Men, which 
is intimated by Clean and Unclean Beafts. It is common in Scrip- 
ture to fpeak of Men under fuch Refemblances, and efpecially wicked 
Men, to compare them to unclean Beafts. We fee it in Peter's Villon. 
AQs t o. He faw all manner of four-footed Beafts and creeping Things , 
&c Ferf. 15. What God bath dean fed, call not thou common or unclean. 
And fo hereupon when Peter was meditating on this Vifion, the Spi- 
rit faid unto him, go down with tbefe Men, doubting nothing, for I have 
fentthee. And he had lncouragement to go and Preach to the Gentiles 
by that Vifion. This Sheet let down with unclean Beafts (ignifies the 
Gentile People. 

There is a great Diftin&ion in the Godly themfelves, and much 
raore in Wicked and Ungodly Men. Daniel reprefented the four Mo- 
narchies by four Beafts. The Lyon of Babylon, the Bear of Perfia, the 
Leopard of Greece, and the Roman Monfter. This fpeaks thus much : 
That fome Perfons are Clean, and fome are Unclean, Godly and Un- 
godly, Clean and Unclean. 

2. !t befpeaks a Eeftraint of Communion with wichd Men. Eating is 
an Action of Communion, and not Eating implies a Reftraint of Com- 
munion. Therefore when it is faid to Peter, kill and eat, the mean- 
ing is, go and Commmicate with the Gentiles. Our Communion with 
Chrift is fee forth by Eating and Drinking : Eating bis Flefh, and drink- 
ing h'vs Hood, having inward Communion with him thereby. So to 
eat, or not to eat -of fuch and fuch Beafts is to have Communion, or 
not to ha^e Communion with fuch or fuch Perfons. Some Men muft 
be abftained from as Unclean, that is, wicked and ungodly Men, the 
neglect whereof God often reproves. Ezjt\. 44. 7. He reproves them, 
that they had let in Strangers into h'vs Santfuary. And Verf. 23. They 
fhaU teach my People the Difference between the Holy and Profane^ and 
caufethem to dt,'cer» -Jetwi en the Vnclean and the Clean. Men of unclean 
and corrupt Lives, are unclean as to Spiritual Communion ; But Men 

296 The Gofpel of the Ceremoniall/nck annexes, Sec 

of found Judgments and good Lives, are. Perfons fit to converfc with. 
Thus you fee that under the Law they had unclean and clean Meats, 
and they contra&ed Uncleannefs or cot* by touching or not touch- 

2. The fecondfortofVncleannefs, was the unclean Iff ues. 

3. There was alfo the unclean Dijlaft of Leprofy, as in Levit. 13. and 
the cleanfing of it, Cap. 14-. This indeed of the Leprofy, was the worft 
of all the Ceremonial Uncleanneffes, and it fhall be fpoken to, from 

All that we (hall do now, is to conclude with fome general Ufesby 
way of Inference from all that hath been faid, referring the further 
Explication and Profecution thereof, until the next Opportunity : And 
now for the Improvent of thefe Things. 

Vfe 1. Here vs a further Difcovery of fome of the Popifh Super ffitions : 
You may here obfervc both the Rife and the Evil of them. Three 
Things there be that are ftm retained amongft them, and other Super- 
ftitio«s Chriftians that retain fome Remnants of Baal, Popifh Superfl- 
uous in the Worfhip of God. 

1. The Difference of Meats : Not to eat fuch andfuch Meats, at leaft 
not at fuch or fuch Times. They borrowed this from the Ceremonial 
Law •, fome things might be eaten, fome not. 

2. They have their Holy Water. And this they had from the Water 
of Separation fpoken of here, the Allies of an Heifer fprinkling the 
Unclean, mentioned Numb. 19. which Water, was a Water of Sepa- 
ration made of the Afhes of an Heifer, and with this they fprinkled 
the Unclean, which fandtified them when they had eaten or touched 
any unclean Thing, which the Scripture calls Holy Water, Numb. 5. 
17. Now this Device of Holy Water they had from thence, a foolifti 
and ridiculous Device it is in them, being wholly without any Warrant 
from the Word of God in New Teftament-Times. 

3. The third is the Purification, or Churching of Women after Child- 
birth. An apifh Imitation of that old legal Ordinance of God, in 
Levit. iz. for the Purification of Women. In the Book of Common 
Prayer, they have omitted fome grofs Things, but retain the Title, 
Churching of Women, and order the Women to fpeakin the Church, 
and fay the 116, or 127. Pfalm % wherein too they leave the good and 
found Translation which we have in our Bibles, and follow a corrupt 
One, wherein they make the Woman talk of giving a Reward unto the 

y Lord: And moreover, they appoint abfurd broken Refponds and Tof- 
fings of their Prayers like Tennis Balls, as is common with them alfo 
in other of their Offices. 


The Go/pel of the Ceremonial Uncleanneffes, Btc. 287 

The Rife of thefe Su perditions is, they are borrowed from thofe 
Things which were once Ordinances, but now are Superftition*, bc- 
caufe the Stamp of God M taken from them. That Command is not now 
in force, but is abrogated by fending the Subftance Jefus Chrift, who is 
now come. 

And as you fee the Rife of them ; fo alfo the Abolifhment of them 
under the Gofpel. For if they were 'types and Shadows of Spiritual 
Uncleannefs, and Spiritual Cleanfing by the Blood of Chrift ( as you 
fee the Apoftle here interprets them) they muft needs beceafed, now 
that Chrift is come • Therefore our Saviour faith, That which entreth in- 
to a Man, cannot defile a Man, Mat. i$. .11, 17, 18, 19, 20. What foe- 
ver entreth in at the Month goeth into the Belly, and is c aft out into the 
Draughty but thofe Things which proceed out of the Month, come forth from 
the Heart, and they defile the Man. 

How contrary arefuch Words, to the retaining of this Difference 
of Meats ? Every Creature of God w good, tf it be received with Tbankf- 
giving -, for it vs Sanclified by the Word of God and Prayer, 1 Tim. 4. 4, 
It vs good that the Heart be Eftablifhed with Grace^ and not with Meats, 
which have not profited them that have been occupied therein, Heb. 13. 9. A 
Man may eat aHy thing that is Wholefom,if it be not upon the Account, 
that there is fome Hurtfulnefs in it. But thefe Popifh Su perditions arc 
borrowed from Mofes, and in the Practice of them, Men implicitly deny 
that Chrtft vs come, and hath cleanfed our Consciences by his own 
Blood, from dead Works. 

Vfe 2. See here the mifer able Pollution of our Hearts by Nature. This 
was the thing intended and aimed at in all thefe legal UncleannefTes, 
If the Water of Separation fpr inkling the unclean, fanclify to the purify- 
ing of the Flefh : How much more /hall the Blood of Chrift purge your Con- 
fciences from dead Works. There is a Spiritual Defilement on the Hearts 
of Sinners by Nature, and this was exhibited and fhown by thefe le- 
gal Shadows. Take Notice then w^ac unclean Creatures you are by 
Nature. There is a Three-fold degree of Spiritual Ualeannefs upon us ; 
in an unregenerate Eftate. 

1. There is external Infeclion and Defilement from without : Every thing 
we touch defiles, and is defiled by us in our natural Condition *, the 
very ploughing of the Wicked is Stn, bus Prayer is Abomination to the Lord. 
If carnal Men touch any Ordinance, they defile it ; if they come into 
the Houfe of God, they pollute his Sanctuary. There is a fearful De- 
filement on the Souls <md Conf-iences of Men, in this Refpect. Eve- 
ry thing that a wicked Mm hath to do withal, it defiles him, and he 
defiles ic. To the Pure, every Thing vs Pure, ( faith the Apoftle ) bit to 


s8S The Gofpel of the Ceremonial Vnckannejfes, See. 

the Vnclean, every thing is Vnclean. That is, a wicked Man, every 
thing infe&s and hurts him, he receives a feeret Spiritual Impreflioa 
as it were, of Hurt and Defilement from i; : And doth alio defile 
whatever he meddles with, efpecially the Perfons they convcrte with. 
A wicked Man leaves a Defilement on thofe he converfes with, and he 
is defiled by them. One wicked Man corrupts and infe&s anoEher : 
We fee it in bad Company how they infe£t, and areinfe&edby one 
another mutually. Therefore take heed left there be any Fornicator, cr 
- any Profane Per [on among you, any Root of Bitter nefs fpringing up and fo 
many be defiled, Heb. 12. 

2. There be unclean Jffues, running Sores, Ifa. 1.5,6. putrifying Sores, 
no found part. And what is this but the out-breaking of Corruption 
in actual Sins. Original Sin is like a corrupt Fountain, and aSual Sins 
are unclean, evil, and bitter Streams that iflbe from it. 

3. There is an unclean Leprofy in tbe-Hewt of every carnal Man, which 
Solomon fpeaks of and deplores, 1 -Kings 8. Knowing every one the Plague 
of bis own Heart, or the Leprofy of his Heart : The fame Word that 
is ufed in Levit. 13. And hence it follows, 

4. That they are unworthy aneLuncapable to Converge in Holy Things, and 
. to draw near to God in his Ordinances, For the unclean Perfon was to 

be feparatcd during the time of his Unclean nefs till purified and made 

-clean again. 

Vfe 3. See Chrift and the Gofpel in the Law of Mofes : labour to fee 
Jefits Chrift and the Gofpel in the Ceremonial Law. How excellently doth 

-the Apoftle put them together ? The fprinkling tbeVnclean, fanilifieth 
to the purifying of the Flefh : 1 he Blood of Chrift purgeth the Con fcience from 

-dead Works to fervc the Living God. If we cannot fee thefe Divine 
Myfteries in the Text \ if we cannot fee Gofpel-Truths^ in thefe legal 
Ceremonies, and how admirably they are adapted and fitted the one 
to the other ; the Type to inftruft, teach and inform us about the An- 
titype, it is becaufe of our own Darknefs and Dimfightednefs in Spiritu- 
al Things. 

Vfe 4. Behold alio the Pre-eminence and Excellency of Chrift above 
Mofes, and the Gofpel above the Law. How much more Piatt the Blood 
of Chrift purge your Confciences from dead Works? £ How much more?.] 
It hath a greater and an irrefiftible Efficacy, to cleanfe the Soul and 
Confcience. And this is a Truth of clearer and higher Evidence than 
the Ceremonial Cleannefs by thofe legal Wafhings and Purifications, 
which were the means of that Ceremonial Cleannefs. The Apoftle 
ufes the like Note of Pre-eminence when he compares Adam and 

iCbrift. Adam was a perfonal Type, astljiswasa real Type, Rom. 5. 


The Gofpel of the Ceremonial VnckanneJJeS) &c. 28^ 

1$, 17. For if by one Marts Offence Death reigned by one, much wore 

they which receive abundance ofGracs, and of the Gift of Fight con fncfs (hall 
reign in Life by Chrift Jefus. So here God's Defign is, thac in all things 
Chrift might have the Pre-eminence, and be preferred above Mofcs. 

Vfe 5. Labour to fee and find in your f elves the Experience ofthhsffi* 
ritual Cleaning whereof the Apftle freaks ; this Cleaning by the Blood 
of Chrift, and go thou thither, have recourfe to that Blood for it. 
Thou that haft an unclean Heart, and haft lived it may be an un- 
clean Life ( at leaft in fecret ) though perhaps Men have not feet\ 
it, get thy Heart, and Life, and Confcience purified from dead 
Works to ferve the Living God. There is healing cleanfing Vertue 
enough in the Blood of Chrift. And would you be cleanfed indeed f 
You fee the way of it. Hath the Lord difcovered to thee thy De- 
filement, and convinced thee of thy own Undeannefs ? Then get this 
Blood of Chrift applied. And as the Water of Purification was 
fprinkled on the Unclean under the Law • fo get this Blood of Chrift 
fprinkled on thy Soul and Confcience by the Gofpel. 

It is often called the Blood of Sprinkling, The reafon is, becaufe that 
as they did apply it by fprinkling, as a means of Cleanfing, &c. fo 
is the Blood of Chrift applied to the Confcience. It is applied by 
the Spirit in the Promife. Under the Promife held forth, we re- 
ceive it by Faith ^ and the Promife fo received, the Blood of Chrift 
is brought home and fprinkled on the Soul \ and this will cleanfe 
thee, though thou haft been never fo Unclean, there is healing puri- 
fying Vertue in that Blood, though thy Undeannefs be never fo 
great, and thy Confcience never fo defiled \ yet there is cleanfing by 
the Blood of Chrift. 

Thy Cafe is not defperate ; there is Vertue enough in the Blood of 
Chrift. How much more will the Blood of Chrift cleanfe thy Soul, if 
the Blood of Bulls and of Goats, and the Afhes of an Heifer fprink- 
ling the Unclean could cleanfe the Body. 

And remember this Blood vs offered : all that thou haft to do is to 
receive it ly Faitb y to beg a part in Chrift, and defire him to make it 
effectual to thee. 

The reafon of all the Defilement that appears in Men, and that 
continues under the Ufe of Ordinances, is becaufe they get not the 
Blood of Chrift fprinkled on their Confciences, they do not receive it. 
And two Things keep them off : Either there is a Spiric of Security, 
that they never feek after it, neither pray, nor endeavour, or mourn 
after it. Or elfe, There is a Spirit of Difconragemcnt, they never fly 
to Chrift and his Blood, they feek not to him \ bul fince he is offer- 

Pp ccL 

2$o The Gofpel of the CeremomalUndeannejjes, 6cc. 

ed, do not refufe him : Thou canfl: not difpleafe hira more, then by 
fo doing ; but fly for Refuge thither, as a poor unclean guilty Crea- 
ture, venture all on the infinite cleanfing Power and Virtue, that is in 
the Blood of Jefus Chrift. 

Vfe 6. Sec the Bondage and Burdenfornncfs of the legal Admlniflr atlon . 
They could fcarce be Tick, but they became unclean : They could not 
touch fo many Creatures, but they were forthwith Unclean ^ and be- 
ing Unclean, might not come into the Temple, or publick Society -, 
and in fome Cafes were fhut up. They had Porters to keep out them 
that were Unclean in any thing, 2 Chron. 23. 19. That they flwuld not 
enter in at the Gates of the Houfe of the Lord. Let us blefs God that we 
are delivered from this Yoke of Bondage. 

An Advertifement to the R E A D E R. 

THE attentive Reader will quickly obferve, that here is nothing up- 
on that Head of Vncleannefs by lffues, which according to the 
Author* $ propofed Method, Jlrould have been here treated of. But 
there is not any thing thereon to be found amongfl his Papers, nor to 
be recovered by the Help of any that took in writing thefe Difcourfes 
from his Mouth. It is therefore not improbable, that the Author did 
purpofely pafs over in Silence that Head, for Reafons to him Satisfacto- 
ry ; which now can be but Conjetlured at. 

Moreover, the Reader is de fired to bear in Mind, that the following 
Sermon on Lev-it. 13. concerning Vncleannefs by the Leprofy, was not 
Preached in the Authors Courfe, as it fell in his way in going over the 
Types,, but fundry Tears before, on occafion of difpenfing the Cenfure of 
Excommunication^ in that Church, whereof the Author had the Over- 
fight* This it was thought needful to Advert ife the Reader of, partly 
becaufe of the different Method of this Sermon, from his other Difcour- 
fes on the Types ; and partly becaufe fome Paffages therein, evidently 
refer to the Difpenfation of that Ordinance, on occafion whereof it was 
Preached ', and partly to account for the Date of this Sermon, which 
the Reader will fee is fome Tears before thofe that go before it. The 
like is to be obferved alfo concerning the foregoing Sermon on dream- 
cifion, which in this Book is at Pag. 173. It was Preached on Occafion 
of the Admlniflr at ion of Baptifm, as appears by a Pajfage in it, Pag. 
174, And more then two Tears before it fell in the Authors Way in his 
uoing over the Types ; yea^ fundry Months before he entred on this 
Courfe and Sub j eel in his Miniflry, THE 



Gofpel of the LEPROSY. 

April 12. 1665. Levit. Cap. 13. 

Brethren and Beloved in the Lordj 

T*F this Chapter feem to us at the firfl reading to be a dark and 
JL abftrufe Place, and to have little edifying Matter in it, we mult 
impute it to our own Ignorance and Unskilfulnefs in Scripture- 
Truths and Myfteries. It is true, there is a dark Shadow upon the 
Words. But there is much Light, and many ufeful Truths intended 
and held forth under thefe dark legal Shadows. 

The Subject both of this and of fundry foregoing and following 
Chapters is concerning Ceremonial Uncleannefs, of which there be 
feveral kinds, whereof this of Leprofy is one. 

The general Scope of this Chapter is to give Rules ofTryal where- 
by to difcern it. 

The next, viz.. the 14th. Chapter, gives the Rules for cleanfing the 
Leper. Concerning both which God gives them afterwards a ftridt 
and folemn Charge that they mould take heed and obferve diligent- 
ly and do according to thefe Commands of his concerning the Le- 
profy, Dent. 24. 8. 

The Leprofy, and the legal Uncleannefs thereof, was tyfical It 
fignified and held forth three Things. 

1. Sin } which is fitly compared to a Leprofy for the Loathfomnefs, 
and Painfulnefs, and Infection of it. Yet this is not all. For Sin may 
be compared to any other Difeafe as well as to the Leprofy. Any 
Sore or Sicknefs, or Difeafe whatfoever may fignify and hold forth 
Sin. As Jfa. 1.5, 6. full of Sores the meaning is Spiritual Sick- 
nefs: They were a finful People Mat. 9. 12. The whole need not a 

Pbjfician, bat they that are fick, that is, fick of Sin. Therefore, 

P p 2 2. It 

593 The Goffel of the Leprofy. 

2. It fignificd Original Sin. For the Leprofy overfpreads all. A du- 
al Sins are the Boils and Sores that break forth, but Original Sin is 
as the Leprofy overfpreading the whole Nature. Yet this is not all 
For this is in the belt •, and therefore if this were all, the People of 
God might be accounted Lepers. For all have Original Sin j but yet 
there be fome that be not Lepers. Therefore, 

3. The Leprofy fignified a State of Sin and Vnregeneracy. For the 
Leper mull: be Ihut out of the Camp, from among the People of God, 
as being none of them, as having fuch a Spot, as is not the Spot of 
his People. Therefore it feems alfo to hold forth a Staie of Sin, a 
finful or unregenerate Condition. ' 

Now for the Expofition of this Chapter ^ to let you fee a little 
further into fome of the Truths and Myfteries contained in it, I (hall 
onl^ give you fome general Obfervations, under which we fhall ex- 
plain fome part of the Chapter. 

Obfer. i. That it is -a Work both difficult and re eighty for People to dif- 
cern and judge aright of thtir own Spiritual Condition. This appears by 
all thefe Rules and Directions. Were it not nectffary^ what need of 
any Rule f Were it not difficulty what need of iomany Rules of try- 
al about the Leprofy ? 

This condemns the pightnefs of many that are. flight and carelefs about 
this great Work \ beftow few Thoughts and Cares about it, about 
fearching into their Spiritual Condition, as if it were an eafy or a 
flight Matter. It is the Exhortation of the ApofHe, iPet.i. 10. that 
we fhould give Diligence, to make our Calling and Eleftionfure. 

Obf. 2. That it is the Trkffs Office to judge of the Leprofy. It is the 
Office of the Miniflers of God to help his People, in difcerning their 
own Spiritual Eftates and Conditions towards God : Therefore it 
runs fo much upon the Prieft throughout the Chapter. Bring him to 
the Prieft^ and the Prieft fhall make him unclean. Defile him, pollute him— 
that is, Minifteriatly declare him fo to be. As Ez.ek. 43.3,4. defiroy the 
City — that is, Prophefy its Deft ru&ion. God hath given his Miniflers 
Power to retain and remit Sins, Joh.20.23. which is the thing intended 
in this typical Work of the Priefts. How fhould J under/land without 
an Interpreter f A<ft.8. 31. How could Men know the meaning of the. 
Scripture, or apply it aright, without this Means which God hath 
appointed for their help ? Ordinarily they cannot. 

Vfe. It reproves that Fe/trvednefs of many, who know not their own 
Condition, whether they be Lepers or no, and yet will not dif- 
clofe their Cafe :, whereas it may be the Prieft might declare and 
evidence it to them, that they are Clean. To complain to everyone, 
and to make Table-talk of their Corruptions, and fo to filh out Prai- 


The Goffel of the Leprofy. 293 

fes, favours of Hypocrify. But to make known their Condition to 

fomeable faithful Friend or Minifter, efpecially if in the ufe of other 
Means you cannot attain to a comfortable difcerning of it, is a Duty, 
through the negleft whereof, fome are kept long in the Dark about 
their own Eftates. It is oftentimes out of Shame, their Sins and 
Sores 3nd Spiritual Leprofles are loathfome and (hameful. But weie 
it not better to make it known, then to let the Sores of thy Confer- 
ence feller inwardly ? Their Wounds /link and are corrupt, becaufe of 
their Fooltfhncfs in this particular, 

Obf 3. Note here (which will carry us through many Particulars 
in the Chapter ) the Rules of Tryal, whereby the Frieft is to judge of the 
Leprofy. There be five Rules efpecially, which be clear and fafe to judge 
of the Spiritual Leprofy by. 

1. If it be but Skin-deep, it is not the Leprofy, he is clean ; but if deeper ' 
he is unclean, Verf. 3. 4 - -and again Vaf. 20. 25, 30. if it be but 
Skin-deep, it is fome Sin, fome fore of a leiTer Nature •, but ifdeeper 
then the Skin," in the Vitals, Blood and Spirits, he is unclean } it is 
the Leprofy. 

So if there be Sins and Corruptions appearing like Spots in the 
Skin, in a Man's outward walkings ; yet if the Heart be not tainted, 
it is a good Sign. A Child of God may have Spots in his Skin, Frail- 
ties in his Life ^ but his Heart is found, his Heart is perfect with 
God, found in his Statutes. But there be fome Sins that go deep a 
not only in the Skin •, but the Sin is deeply rooted in the Heart, and 
Spirits and Affections of a Sinner ^ fo that the Vitals are infe&ed. 
This is a fign he is a Leper. 

2. Tryal. Doth it ftand at a ft ay f Or doth it fpread further and 
further ? Verf. 5. 6,7, 8. And again, Pfr/23.27, 28, 34, 35, 37. If it 
ftand at a ft ay ? he is clean. If it fpread, he is a Leper. So a leprous 
Sinner that is in a finful State and Condition, the Leprofy will fpread 
in him. Evil Men and Deceivers, will grow worfe and worfe, 2 Tim, 
3. 13. Their Corruptions gain Ground upon them. But it is a fign 
there is fome beginning of healing, if it ftand at a flay. If the Lord 
be healing a Sinner, mortifying his Lulls, he is clean. There is fin- 
ful Corruption in a Child of God ; but it doth not grow, fpread, 
and gather Strength from Day to Day : But on the contrary, it is 
decaying, it is on the lofing Hand. The Houf& o/Saul grows weaker and 
weaker , but the Houfe of David grows ftronger and ftrongcr. Thl9 is a 
fign God intends good to him. 

3. Tryal is this. If there be proud raw Fle/b in the Rifing, Ver£ o^ 
io,i 1 — -^and 14, 1 5. he is not to be (but up in Sn/penfe^ the_ thing is evi- 
dent, But 

294 ?h e Gofpd of the Leprojy. 

But how (hall we apply this to the Spiritual Leprory ? 

Thus. Is there proud raw Flefh of Pride and Preemption and Impa- 
tience of Reproof? This is an evil fign the Sin is grown to fome 
Strength. There may be Sores and Spots in a Child of God -, but 
they are not fo fore, as that they will not be toucht - 9 they will bear 
Reproof. As David when Abigail reproved him, i Sam, 25. 32, 33. 
Bleffed be the Lord God of Ifrael which fent thee, and bleffed be thy Advice, 
andbleffedbe thou. And fo Pfal. 141. 5. Let the Righteous finite me, it 
{hall be a Kindnefs, 

Others you cannot touch them, but you muft be Fenced with Iron, 
and the Staff of a Spear, Mich. 2. 6. and 2 Sam. 2$. 6, 7. Such are the 
Sons of Be Hal, that (hall all of them at Thorns be thruft away, and ut- 
terly burned with Fire. When a Man cannot bear to be told of it, but 
his quick raw Flefh appears-, it is an ill fign, he is a Leper indeed. 
Such an one it feems Nabal was, 1 Sam. 25. 27. But where this fro- 
ward Touchinefs is wanting, if a Man will take a Reproof well, it it 
a good fign, it is not the Plague of unregeneracy. 

4. IfaU be turned White, a Man is Clean, Verf.12.17. and 34. This 
feems to be the ftrangelt Rule of all, and the darkeft Paffage in all 
this Chapter : There is fome Difficulty, both concerning the natural 
Reafon, and concerning the Spiritual Meaning of it. 

The natural Reafon feems to be this-, becaufe it is a fign of fome 
inward Strength ot Nature, that it expells the Difeafe, and fends it 
forth to the outward Parts. Whereas if there be raw Spots among 
it ; it argues it is more inward, and the Vitals not fo ftrong as to 
drive it forth. 

The Spiritual Meaning is by fome Thought to be this • if all become 
White by true Repentance and Mortification, then it is not deadly. 
But this is too general : Therefore it feems to intend this further, 
that if we think there be any found Part in our corrupt Nature, it 
is a fign of a Leprous Sinner : So Atnfw. in he. 

If Men have any Confidence in themfelves, if they feek any Life by 
the Deeds of the Law, then fhall they be pronounced Unclean. Bun 
an humble Acknowledgment of the overfpreading Corruption of our 
Natures, and flying to Chrift for help under a thorough Conviction 
and Senfe of our own total Uncleannefs and Pollutednefs ; this is a 
fign the Plague is healed, and the Leper made clean. The Language 
of a Child of God is, There is no Soundncfs in my Flefh, Pfal. 38.7.- 
And in me, that is in my Fleflo, there dwelleth no good thing, Rom. 7. 18. 

The Opinion of Free-will is a very dangerous Opinion. But if a 
Man te throughly convinced of his own Corruption, and foundly 


The Gofpel of the Leprofy. 295 

humbled under it; it wiil make him look up earneftly, and cleave 
firmly to Jefus Chrifl: to make him clean. It is the moft dangerous 
thing in the World to take up high Conceits of a Mans felf, and of 
die Power of Corrupt Nature. This is a lure Rule, if People think 
themfelves clean, and any part in them Sound, they are in a fad Con- 

5. In cafe the Leprofy be in the Head he is doubly unclean, Verf. 44. 
The Head is the principal Part of the Body, and the Seat ofReafon. 
Therefore a Leprofy there muft needs be very dangerous. So in cafe 
Men be Corrupt in their Minds and Judgments, they are Vnclean. 
Corrupt Opinions are a fign of a finful Condition ; fuch are far 
from the Kingdom of God. Where Sin has prevailed fo far, as to blind 
the very Mind and Underftanding, they are more uncapable of Con- 
verfion than others, becaufe fo far from Conviction : For Converlion 
begins in Illumination. There may be failings in the Lives of the 
People of God : But they difown them •, they are not fo corrupt in 
their Minds and Principles as to juftify themfelves in them. 

There be feveral other Rules in the Chapter •, fome relating to the 
bodily Difeafe, and fo not neceffary to feek out a Spiritual Mean- 
ing of each particular Expreffion : And the fame Rules in the firft 17 
V.erfes are repeated again in other Cafes of the Leprofy, in Clothes, 
in Skins, &c Let us therefore proceed to a fourth Obfervation. 

Obf. 4. Note the Duties impofed upon the Leper, when thus detecled ; 
They are five, Verf 45 45, 47. 

1 . To rend his Clothes : A fign of Sorrow and Lamentation ; fo 
2 Kings 6. 30. The King's Clothes were rent in that Famine. 

2. His Head muft be bare : For the fame End, this being another 
outward Expreflion of Sorrow, ufual in thofe Times. 

3. He muft cover his Lips : Thus they were wont fo to exprefs their 

Shame, fee Mica. 3. 7 Ez,ek. 24. 17. He muft keep Silence before 

God, as being under Shame and Confufion. 

4. He muft cry unclean, unclean : He muft give warning to others to 
fhun hiro> He may fpeak of his own Leprofle, but otherwife he muft 
be filent. So a fcandalous Sinner may fpeak in Confeffion of his Sin, , 
he muft tell others he is unclean. He muft not charge others with 
their Failings, but load his own Confcience, and take his Guiltinefs 
home to himfelf. 

5. He fhall dwell alone: They were to be put out of the Camp, and 
excluded from the Feilowlhtp of God's People. The Prieft muftfhut 
him out and he muft fubmit. So King Vxjxjab did, 2 Cbron. 26. 20. 

This . 

296 The Gofpel of the Leprofy. 

This was a Type of Excommunication, that great Gofpel-Ordi- 
nance, which is, the Shutting of a Sinner out of the Camp. This brings 
me to fpeak of Excommunication, which is fuitable to the prefent Pro- 
vidence. For this (hutting out the Leper from the Camp of Ifrael, fig- 
nified (hutting out ot the Church. This therefore I (hall fpeak a little 
to, both the Text ind the prefent Providence of God leading and 
calling to it, under thefe five Heads. 

i. The Natu»e of Excommunication. 

2. The Cafes a herein it muft be done. 

3. The Ends and Ufes of it. 

4. The Manner of Proceeding. 

5. To whom this Work and Power belongs. 

1. For the Nature of Excommunication. It is the putting of a Man 
out of the Church, and delivering him unto Satan. Tut away from 
among you that wicked Perfon, 1 Cor. 5. ult. So Diotrepbes, 3 Joh. 10. 
caft the Brethren out of the Church. There is a going out of the Church, 
when Men rend themfelves off by Apoftacy, Herefy or Schifm. 1 Job. 
2. ip. they went out from us* ■ In which they are active, and cut off 
themfelves, that is their own aS •, but in this they are Sufferers, this 
is the Church's A& by the Power of Chrift. 

For as a Perfon is united by Confent into Spiritual Fellowftiip : So 
by thzCburcb's Liffent to have him be of them any longer, he is cue 
off, or caft out ; upon which he falls into the Hand of Satan una- 
voidably : Delivering him unto Satan, 1 Cor. 5. 5. For the Church is 
the vifible Kingdom of Chrift in this World \ therefore when caft 
out of that, they fall into the Hand of Satan who is the God of this 
World ; if put out of Chrift's Kingdom, and from under his gracious 
Scepter } they muft needs fall under the Kingdom and Power of 

Queft. What Tower of Satan is this ? 

Anfw* Not a bodily Toffeffion ; becaufe the Apoftle writes to the whole 
Church of Corinth to do it But it cannot be fuppofed, that the whole 
Church had the Gift of Miracles : Neither indeed is the Lord wonted 
to work Miracles for that end. We do not find it in Scripture, that 
the Lord doth put Men by Miracle into Satan's Hand, but he rather 
Works miraculoully to deliver them from it. 

But a Spiritual Power of Satan over them is hereby meant -, namely,, 
either to terrify or ftupify them. 

1. Sometimes he gives Satan a terrifying Power in order to their 

1 2. If 

Tie Go/pel of the Leprofy. 297 

2. If they be not terrified by Satan, when under this Ordinance, 
there is a ftupifywg hardning Power-, and there never was any Man 
juftly Excommunicated, bin fell under one ofthefe two. 

Queft. z. What are the Cafes wherein Excommunication ought to be ad* 
minijlred } 

Jtnfw. It being the higheft Cenfuie, and the fever eft part of that 
Spiritual Vengeance, which the Lord hath intruded his Minifters and 
Churches with \ it (Iwuld never he n fed hut in Cafes of great Extremity , 
when no other means in the ordinary courfe of God s Difpenfation 
will attain the End. But when the Sinner's Cafe is fuch, that it is be- 
yond the reach of other Means to help, lmmedtcabile vulmis enfe re- 
ddendum eft. 

Hence it is not to be ufed for me tt failings, and Infirmities, and Sins 
of Weaknefs, which a godly Man mav fall into, and yet walk with 
God uprightly. But for fuch Sins and Evils as are inconfiftent with 
Grace here, or Glory hereafter: Such, as if a Man lives and dies, 
and goes on in - 7 it is not poflible he mould have any Grace in his 
Heart, or any grounded comfort or hope of Salvation. 

Hence alio ii is not tobt ufed for Things doubtful and di/putable, Rom. 
14. 1. much lefs for Things indifferent •, for they neither commend us, 
nor difcommend us unto God,' Cor, 8. 8. and therefore mould noc 
to the Church. For in fuch Things, we are not either the better or 
the worfe for praftifing or forbearing \ as the Apoftle there expref- 
ly afTerts. But for Things clear and certain^ and univerfally acknow- 
ledged amongft all that deferve the Name ci Chriftians : The Scrip- 
ture fpeaks clearly to two Cafes. 

1. Fundamental Errors of Judgment, So the Apoftle 1 Tim. 7. ult. 
dealt \N\t\r Hymentus and Pbiletus, And what they held, is more par- 
ticularly expreffed in 2 7tm. 2 17,18. viz. that the Refurreclton is paft 
already. So Tit. 3, 10. An Her etick after hh being twice admonifhed re- 
jecl : So here Lev. 13. 44. iftkt Leprofy be in the Head, he is utterly 

Hence therefore, if any Man deny one God and three Perfons, de- 
ny the Scriptures, the Deity of Chnft, the Immortality of the Soul, 
the Refurre&ion of the Body, or fuch like Fundamental Points ^ it is 
the Duty of the Church to caft him out from among them ^ he is 

2. For fcj^tdilous Praclices in a Marfs Life and Converfation. The 
Rule is plain, 2 Th e ff> 3- 6, Withdraw your felves from every Brother 
that walketh diforderiy .• So in the dfe of the Incefluous Corinthian, 
1 Cor 5. 13. put away from among your felves that Wicked Perfon. So 

d q Mat 

2<}8 The Gofpelef the Leprofy. 

Mat. 18. 17. So of old, 2 Chron. 23. 19. Jehoiada fet Porters at the 
Gates of the Houfe of the Lord, that none which was unclean in any thing 
fhontd enter in. This includes Moral as well as Ceremonial Unclean- 

Queft. 3. The Ends of this Ordinance. 

Anfw. They are many. The principal are thefe three. 

1. To vindicate the Name of God from the difhomur done to it by wick- 
id Men creeping in among his People. This vindicates the Holinefs of 
God, that though he loves Sinners, yet he (hews his Love in fan&i- 
fying and turning them from their Sins, not in fheltering and encou- 
raging them in their Wickednefs. This end is intimated in 1 Cor. 
5. 1. It is commonly reported that there w Fornication awong yon, and that 
fuch Fornication as is not fo much as named among the Gentiles, q. d. The 
Name of God fuffers by it : The Gentiles take Offence againft: Religi- 
on becaufe of this ^ they are ready to fay as Ez.ek, 36. 20. thefe are 
the Lord's People. And fo the holy Name of God is profaned by fuch 
Sinners, as the Prophet there fpeaks. So again, 2 Cor. 7. 11. what 
clearing of your felves ? In clearing themfelves they clear the Name of 

I mention this firft, becaufe this is the great and chief End of this 
Ordinance. And it never fails of attaining this End, though it have 
little Succefs in other Refpe&s : Though the Sinner be never fo ob- 
ftinate, yet however the Name of God is cleared. 

2. For the Church's Good, to take away infe&ious Perfons from a* 
mongft them, and fo to preferve and warn the reft • to keep the 
Church pure and free from Infection. 1 Cor, 5. 6. A little Leaven lea- 
<ueneth the whole Lump. One Root of Bitter nefs may defile many, Heb. 12, 
15. And to warn others, that others may fear, 1 Tim. 5.20. That -all 
Ifrael may hear and fear, and do no more prefumptuoufly, Deut. 17. 13. 

3. For the good of the Sinner himfdf, to bring him to repentance. For 
the DeftrucJionofthe Flejh, 1 Cor. 5. 5. the inceftuous Corinthian mufl: 
be delivered unto Satan, for the DeflrucJion of the Flefh. And God did 
foblefs this Ordinance to him, that he was humbled, and brought to 
deep and thorough Repentance thereby. I confefs this End is not al- 
ways attained : But yet the Ordinance is not in vain. For this is not 
the only End of it, nor yet the chief End. For God's Glory is the 
chief End, the vindicating his great Name, the manifefting his Juftic* 
and Holinefs, and hatred of Sin ^ and this end is attained, though the 
Sinner is not converted by it. 

Queft. 4, What is the manner of proceeding in Excommunication ? 


The Gofpel of the Leprofy. 29$ 

Anfw. Some things herein are left to Chriftian Prudence, and muft 
be judged of by the particular Circumftances of every Cafe. But there 
be forae general Rules to guide as in each particular. There are thefe 
two general Rules wherein all agree, all the godly learned that have writ- 
ten upon this Subject do agree thus far. 

Rule r. In fome Cafes there ought to be a more gradual and dilatory way 
of proceeding, by certain Steps and Degrees. 

Thefe Steps and Degrees are two. Firft Sufpenfton, and then Ex- 
communication. The firft Degree is called by fome the leffer Excommu- 
nication. And thefeccnd they call the greater Excommunication. 

Sufpenfton is a temporary debarring of a Perfon from the prefent En- 
joyment and Participation of Church-Priviledges ? as the Sacraments 
and Power of Voting, till fuch time as his Cafe be fully determined. 

Some call it Sufpenfton , others call it Admonition , others the leffer 

But he is a Member ftill. 

For Excommunication cuts him off} Sufpenfton only debars' him of 
prefent Communion with the Body for a Time : But Excommunication 
cuts off and diffolves his Union with the Body. 

The Rule for Sufpenfion is in Lev. 13. 4, 5. from the Triers (hut- 
ting up the Leper feven Days And Matth. 5. 24. Leave thy Gift be* 

fore the Altar And Matth. 18. The Church muft be told of his Sin, 

and of his obftinacy under the former Steps of Proceeding with him, 
and it muft appear, that he doth not hear the Church, before he 
may be made an Heathen and a Publican. 

Queft. But how long mufi they delay the Sentence of Excommunication ? 

Anfw. There cannot be a particular Time limited, becaufe of the 
infinite variety of particular Cafes and Circumftances : Therefore whe- 
ther an Offender mould lie under Sufpenfion a Week, or a Month, or 
a longer, or ftiorter Time, God hath left it to Chriftian Wifdom. It is 
dangerous to limit and make particular Rules,when God hach made none. 

The general Rule, which is fufficient to guide and give Light in all 
particular Cafes, is this. That till it do appear that the Offender Sins 
frefumptuoujly, the Church fhould not proceed to Excommunication. If the 
Cafe be dubious and uncertain, whether he be a leprous, a prefump- 
tuous Sinner or no, as Levit.\$. then {hut him up feven Days more, till 
it do appear that he is a Leper, and a Prefumptuoos Sinner. 

The fame Rule is given concerning leffer and private Offences, itt 
Matth. 18. 15, 16, 17. // thy Brother offend thee, tell him between him 
and thee : If he will not hear thee, talc vrith thee one or two more : And if 
he /hall neglett to hear them, then teU it to the Church. Tell it What 

dq 2 is 

goo The Gofpel of the Leprofy. 

is meant by the Word C it f ] It mull needs relate to the private Of- 
fence before-mentioned. This Text therefore (peaks not of publick 
Scandals; but of fuch Offences as are private, till the Offender's lna- 
penitency neccffitate the making of them Publick. 

The fame Rule is given in cafe of Corrupt Opinions. Titus 3. 10. 
There muft be a firft and a fecond Admonition before Rejection. The 
Reafon is, becaufe it may be hoped in thefe Cafes, that the Man's 
Sin may have been for want of Conviction, and therefore not of Pre- 
emption •, unlefs he refill: Light, when Means and Matter of Convi- 
ction is held forth. And in private Offences the matter may poffibly 
be healed privately. 

Rule 2. In other C aft s there is no need of fuch delatory Proceeding. If 
it be evident and apparent, that the Sinner doth not Sin for want of 
Light, but frefumftuoufly again fi Light. 

And if the Thing be already Publick, Co that it cannot be hid nor 
healed privately, as in the Cafe of publick Scandals. When the Of- 
fence is foheiniousy that it cries to Heaven for Vengeance, wafteth the 
Confcience, and is generally Scandalous •, the Cen- 
See Scoters coBeB of fures of the Church may proceed with more Expe- 
Ms mdOrdinances^u. dition. Thus ordained that great Reforming Par - 
48. cap.n8pag.119. liament by the Advice of that Affembly of Divines 
that fate at Weftminfler upon their Call. 

TheReafonsto prove this, viz.. that the Proceedings wkh Offen- 
ders, ought to be more fpeedy and fummary in Cafes of atrocious Wick- 
ednefs, are fuch as thefe. 

Reaf 1. From Levit. 13. The Prieft is direfted to fufpend or fhut 
him up feven Days, if the Cafe be doubtful. But if it be evident that 
the Man is a Leper, ( and prefumptuous Sinners may well be account- 
ed Lepers) the Rule is to fhut him out of the Camp, not to fufpend 
him feven Days, but fhut him out immediately. See Verf.^. and 46. 

Reaf 2. From the Cafe of the Inceftuous Perfon in 1 Cor. 5. The 
Apoftle doth not warn them to take heed of Excommunicating him, 
and to fufpend him firft, and then to wait meekly and mercifully for 
him, till he Repent. No, but he declares he had already determined 
the Cafe, that he fhould be delivered to Satan, Verf 3. 4, 

And indeed there is a general Silence throughout the Scripture con- 
cerning fuch Gradations and Delays in cafe of publick flagrant Scan- 
dals. There is no Caution, no Direction given for fuch previous Ad- 
monitions to be given to fuch Perfons 5 in order to the preventing of 

Reaf* 3 

The Gofpel of the Leprofy. 301 

Reaf. 3, From the ftrange impenitency and hardnefi of Heart that 
is in fcandalous Sinners. To inftance in the Sin of Uncleannefs, 
which is the Cafe that now lies before us,it is a very blinding harden- 
ing Sin. Trov. 9. 18. But be knows not that the dead are there ; and 
that herGuefts are in the depths of Hell. It is the Fruit of a feared Con- 
fcience, a Confcience pad feeling. Epbef. 4. 19. Who being paft feelings 
have given them [elves over unto lafcivioufnefs to work Vncleannefs. 

This meets with thac Objection : Should the Church cenfure a repenting 
Sinner ? 

1- will not now difpute that Queftion, whether Repentance be al- 
ways enough to prevent Church*Ccnfures. Some think it is not} for 
doubtkfs Aaron and Miriam repented. Numb. 12. 11, 12. See how 
Aaron there confeileth and bewails the Sin ; and he fpeaks in the plu- 
ral Number for them both. But here was a very fcandalous Sin, in- 
folentand feditious Speeches againft the chief Magiftrateand Prophet 
of God, who was exceeding faithful in his Place, for which God fmkes 
her with Leprofy •, and notwithstanding their own Confeflions, and 
Alofes's Intercefiions for them, the Lord would have her fhut out, 
Ver[e 14. And the Lord [aid unto Mofes, if her Father had [pit in her Pace, 
[houldfhe not be ajhamed fevtn Days f Let her be /hut out from the Camp 
[even Days . 

So we may fay of Fornicators, or of any other flagitious Sinner; 
If his Father had but fpit in his Face, ihould he not be alhamed feven 
Days? And (hall he not be fhut out of the Church at all for Fornix 
cation ? 

But there is no need to debate that •, for all fcandalous Sinners are. 
impenitent Perfons, and are fo to be accounted by all that fear God, 
till full Proof and Evidence do appear, that they have forfaken thofe 
fcandalous and wicked Ways. And this neither doth nor can appear 
ordinarily, till after there hath been a fufficient Space and Time, and 
Tryal and Experience how they walk. 

ConfefBon of a publick Scandal when [the Evidence of the Fad* is 
undeniable, is no fufficient Evidence of Repentance ; for Pharaoh and 
Saul and Judas did this. And no Man that hath the ufe of his Rea- 
fon, can or will do otherwife •, for to what purpofe is it to deny that 
which all Men know ? Or to feek to conceal that which cannot be 

In the.Confeflions of fuch Perfons it is obferveable, That they are 
either meerly forced and extorted by the Hand of God upon them 5 
as Pharaohs was when he confefled the Lord it Righteous, but 1 and my 
People are Wicked-, and Judas his, by the horror of his Confcience, 


2$Sq The Gofpel of the Leprojy. 

Mattb. 17. 3, 4, 5. Or elfe their Confeffion is extorted by the unde- 
niable Evidence of the Fact, and mingled with manifeft difcoveries 
of Pride, even when they feem to be taking (hame to themfelves ^ as 
Saul, 1 Sam. 15. Or, ( which is worft of all,) their Confeffions are 
mingled fometiipes with InvecYrv\s againft thofe which reprove them. 
As Mattb. 7. $, They turn again and rent you. 

Inftead of an humble broken-hearted Confeffion, you (hall fome- 
times have a venomous virulent Confeflion from them, wherein their 
Confeffions againft themfelves are mingled with flanderous Reflections 
and Inve&ives againft their Reprovers, Yet when Excommunication 
is moft fpeedy, it (hould not be without Admonition, both before, and 
in the Ordinance, and after. But (hut out they muft be. 

Hence continual Sufpenfton is -an Abufe ; for fcandalous Sinners to ftand 
fufpended from Year to Year, but never fully caft out. 
Ouefl. 5. To whom doth the Power of Excommunication belong? 
Anfvo. This hath been matter of much Controverfy ; there have 
been feveral Claims fet on foot, afid many Pretenders to this Power. 
The Pope and Prelates have been Efficiently detected to be meer 
Thieves and Robbers, and Ufurpers upon the Inheritance of the Lord. 
All the Queftion that remains, is about the Power of the Elders and 
the People. But I (hall wave that which is Controverfal among the 

I would endeavour fo to ftate the Cafe as to prevent and cut off 
Difputesand Janglings. Therefore note only thus much : That it is 
a general Rule in all Church- Adminiftrations, That the Officers are to 
guides and go before the Flock, and the People are to obey them in the Lord. 
Hence they are called Guides and Rulers. Obey them that have the Rule 
over you, Heb. 13. See Rev. 4. When the four living Wights, that is, the 
Elders of the Church, give Glory to God, then the four and twenty El* 
dtrs, that is, the Members of the vifible Church fall down before him 
and worfhip him. So in this Bufinefs of Excommunication, both the 
Elders and People have fomething to do in it. To fpeak to them fe- 

1. The Duty of the Elders or Minifters: This lies in two things. 
1. It is the Minifter's Part to enquire of the Lord for his People, 
and to declare the Mind of God unto them, what the Lord would 
have them to do. It is the Minifter's Duty to enquire of the Lord 
for them. They muft Deut. 17. 9, 10, 1 1. come to the Prieft for Judg- 
ment. So Abiathar enquires of the Lord for David. 

It is their part alfo to declare the Anfwer of God to his People. 
To bold forth the Mind of God, and their Duty to .them. JDeut. 17.9, 


Tbe Go/pel of the Leprojy. 303 

7* bey (hall fhew tbee tbe Sentence of Judgment. There is the like Rule for 
Gofpel-titnes, Ez.ek. 44. 23, 24. 

2. To pronounce the Leper Unclean : To make him Unclean, that 
is authoritatively to declare him fo. This belongs to the Elders of the 
Church, Levit. 13-3. Some body muft do it, and who fitter than 
the Officers, who have the Government of the Church in their Hands? 
WhofeSinsye retain, they are retained. Who fe Sins ye retain, that is, 
in a Ministerial Way, in Chrift's Name, they are retained. 

Now when the Minifter hath done his Part -, Wbat is the People's 
Part in this Work. 

As 1 faid before : I (hall not wade into Controverfies. 

There be two Things which are clear. There is a double Aft of 
Obedience on the People's Part. 

1. To give an aftual Confent of Heart and Mind and AfFe&ions to 
what the Officers do in the Name of Chrift, fuppofing the Officers to 
have done their Part aright, Dent. 27. 15. &c. all tbe People /hall fay , 
Amen. So the Apoftle to the Corinthians, 1 Cor. 5.12. do not yon 
yjge them that are within ? Their Judgments fhould concur in it. As> 
at the Great Day the Saints (hall judge the World, 1 Cor. 6. 2. how ? 
By approving the Righteous Judgment and Sentence of Chrift upon 
them : So here, the People are to approve and confentunto the Judg- 
ment declared by the Elders from the Word of God. 

2. It is the People's Duty to forbear keeping company with fuch 
a Perfbn. 1 Cor. 5. Keep no company with Fornicators. Verf 9. With • 
fuch an one not to eat. Verf. II. Withdraw from every Brother that ftalk- 
eth diforderly, that he may be afhamed, 2 TheflT. 3. 6. 

The Reafon hereof is plain. 

Either the People muft thus concur \ or elfedifleht, orelfeftand by 
as idle Spectators, and Perfons unconcerned : But they may not dif~ 
fent \ for remember how the Cafe was ftated concerning Officers that 
are faithful in the Difcharge of their Truft. In fuch a Cafe for the 
People to dhTent, is, no; fo much to difobey them, as to difobey the 
Lord Chrift. They have not rejeffed\tbee, but me, 1 Sam. 8. 7, 

Neither are the People to (land by as Neuters, and Perfons meerly 
unconcerned* for this were to frufirate the Sentence of Excommunication, 
and to make it void, for the Sentence doth exclude him from the Pel- 
lowlhip of God's People-, and therefore unlefs they make Confcience 
of it, to forbear keeping company with him, the Sentence is vain, 
It remains therefore that there b, and ought to be a Concurrence of 
the People in Church Cenfures. 

^04 The Gofpel of the Leprof). 

Objccl. But all this that hath been fafd, goes upon this Suppofition : 
that the Officers are faithful in the difcharge and execution of their 

But fuppofe the Officers be unfaithful, and will not exclude ignorant 
and profane People, or will .receive them, and fhut out better then 

Qr fuppofe the People be froward, and will not withdraw from the 
loofer fort, or will not confent to have them call: out , what is to be 
done in fuchaCafe? What is the Remedy there ? 

Anfw. This is a Cafe that feldom or never falls out in reformed 
Churches, in Churches rightly conftituted, and Officers rightly quali- 
fied, it cannot often fall out \ becaufe the Lord harh prcmifed his Pre* 
fence to be in the midft of them ; and therefore he will manifeft and 
make known his Mind, and their Duty to them. 

But if it do— After all other Means ufed, Light held forth, and pa- 
tient waiting and feeking to the Lord, and to the Godly-wife for Ad- 
vice and Council, &c. 

The laft Remedy that Minifters have, is, to reform the matter of 
the Church, by withdrawing from fuch a corrupt Majority, as will not 
be perfwaded to obey them in the Lord, and to clofe with the leffer, 
but founder part of the People. And this is the Remedy that all the 
Godly Minifters generally have taken : They have left out the igno- 
rant and profane Part of the Parifh from the Sacraments, efpecially 
from the Lord's Supper. 

So in like manner • if Minifters be fo large in their Principles, that 
they will needs pollute the Ordinances ^ what can the People do in fuch 
a Cafe to help themfelves : But, after all other Means ufed, to be- 
take themfelves to fome better Minifter and purer Church ? This is 
the laft Remedy in fuch a Cafe : And fo I have done with the fourth 
Obfervation concerning the Leper's Duty or Punifhment. Befide other 
Things, be mu& dwell alone and be (hut out. 

Obf. 5. We may here note the marvellous di filing, hfe&ing Nature 
of Sin, in that the Leprofy infe&eth Cloaths, and Skins, and Garments, 
Verf. 47. 48. And fometimes Houfes alfo, hee Cap. 14. h gets into 
the Walls and Timber •, fo that Sin reacheth other Things befide the 
Perfon. Sin may fpoii a Man's Bufinefs, infect all his Comforts, it 
may ruin his Houfe. We fee of what an infectious Nature it is: There- 
fore keep ofTatthe greateft Diftance, have nothing to do with it. We 
ftiould hate the very Garments [potted with the Flefh. 

Obf. 6. Note from the whole, what an intricate and enmberfome Dif- 
penfation the People of God were then under in thofe legal Times, in regard 


The Gcfpel of the Leprojy. 305 

of the Law of Ceremonies. Here was ( befide the bodily Difeafe ) a 
Ceremonial Uncleannefs in it, which was very burthenfome and dif- 
ficult to judge, of, and to keep themfelves from it, and to cleanfe it. 
And it was fuch a Burthen, as might light upon a Child of God, a 
Godly Man might poffibly be a Leper. As it is not improbable by 
fome Expreflions, but that might be Neman's Cafe, Pfal.%%. he faith, 
be was/hut up, an Abomination to them, and that Lover and Friend were 

They had this burthen of Ceremonial Uncleannefs, befides all their 
other Burthens. That, as Peter fpeaks Alls 15. Were a To\e which ne%* 
ther we, nor our Fathers are able to bear. We are free from all this : 
We have no further care or burthen lying on Us, but to look to the 
Health of our Bodies, and the moral Uncleannefs of Sin : But the Ce- 
remonial Uncleannefs is vanifht away. 

Vfe. Jtfhonld (lir us up to Thanhfulnefs, and ( as the belt Exprefllon 
of it ) to love and prize and keep clofe to the Ordinances and Inftitu- 
tions of the Gofpel, which are but two, which are plain and eafy and 
fpiritual, viz. Baptifm and the Lord's Supper, with fome few other 
Things for the Order and Way of enjoying thefe, as a Church-Eftate 
and Miniftry to difpcnfe them. 

As he faid to Naaman ; if the Prophet had required fome great Things 
voouldfl thou not have done it ? How much rather, when he faith to thee, wafh 
and he clean ? So if the Lord had put that old Yoke upon our Necks 
and Confciences, which he hath been pleafed to remove -, fhould we 
not have taken it upon us ? How much more, when he requires on- 
ly fo few, fuch plain, cafy, fimple, fpiritual Things. We ftiould love 
and prize them, and the Lord in them, and bring forth the Fruit of 

R r THE 



Gofpel of the Legal PVKIFICATIONS. 

September 20: Heb. IX. 1 3, 14* 


HAving fpokcn of the Ceremonial Uncleannefles, and the Moral 
Uncleannefs figured thereby : It follows in the next Place to 
fpeak of the Ceremonial Purifications, and the Spiritual Cleanfing fignified 
thereby, together with the Means thereof. // the Blood of Bulls and 

Goats fanclified to the purifying of the Flefh Thefe general Expreffions 

include all : But the Apoftle fpecifies one particular, viz,. The A(hes of 
an Heifer fpr inkling the Vnckan. The Law for it, is in the 19. Chap- 
ter of Numbers. 

There be Two Things chiefly to be confidered in it, as in other Sa- 

1. The Matter oi it. 

2. The Ceremonies, or Actions about it for Purification. 

1. The Matter ; and under this There be Four Things obfervable. 

1. That it wasan/fti/ir. 

2. A Red Heifer. 

3. Without Spot or Blemifh. 

4. On which never came Yoke. 

1. It muft be an Heifer ; So in the Text, fo in Numb. 19. Verf 12. 
The Lord fpake unto WLoks and unto Aaron, faying, this Is the Ordinance 
tf the Law which the Lord hath commanded^ faying, fpeak unto the Chil- 
dren of Ifrael, that they may bring thee a Red Heifer without Spot, wherein 
is no Blemifh^ and upon which never Yoke came. Here is God's Authori- 
ty, fo appointing that it fhould be an Heifer, though ordinarily they 
were to offer Males •, yet here the Law you fee is exprefly otherwife^ ; 
it muft not be a Bullock, but an Heifer : Therefore this was a peculiar 
kind of Sacrifice. God by his fovereign Authority did, and might 
appoint what he pleafed to be offered in his Sacrifices^ 

1. ft 

The Gofpel of the Legal Purifications. 307 

2. It is particularly required, that it be a Red Heifer, a Colour of- 
ten and fitly applied to Chrift in a rayftical Senfe. My Beloved is 
White and Ruddy, Cant; 5. 10. So lfa. 63. r. Who is this cometh 
from Edom, with Red Garments from Bozrah ? Red with his own Blood, 
and with the Blood of his conquered Enemies. And Rev. 19. 13. his 
Feffnre dipt in Blood. 

The rednefs of the Heifer did alfo point at the Humane Nature of 
Chrift, which he had from Adam, who was made out of red Earth, Gen. 
2.7. from which alfo he took his Name Adam. Thus Chrift is red, 
and that in regard of his Sufferings, and in regard of his Vi&ories, and 
of the Blood of his conquered Enemies, and alfo in regard of his Beau- 
ty •, and laftly, in regard that he took part of Flefh and Blood, was 
really and truly Man. 

3. It is further required in this Sacrifice, that it muft be without 
Spot and Blemifh, Numb. 19.2. This was required in an the Sacrifices, 
as Levit. 1. 3, 10. without Blemifh. And it fpeaks forth the Purity and 
Perfection of Jefus Chrift: Therefore it is faid, 1 Pet. 1. 19. We arc 
redeemed by his Blood, cm of a Lamb without Spot and Blemifh. And him 
that knew no Sin, hath God made Sin for as, that we might become the 
Righteoufnefs of God by him, 2 Cor. 5. 21. So he is both white and rud- 
dy — -Ruddy in regard of his bloody Sufferings : But white in regard 
of his pure and perred Righteoufnefs. 

4. It muft be fuch an Heifer, on which never came Yoke. Numb. 
19. 2. So Chrift was free from the Bondage of Sin, and did never 
come under the Yoke of Mens Inventions and Commands, nor did he 
fujfer by Compulsion, but freely and willingly when he died for us. 

Sin, and the Punifliment of it, is compared in Scripture to a Yoke, 
Lament. 1.14. The Yoke of my Tranfgrejfions is bound by his Hand : They 
are wreathed, and come up upon my Neck. And fo Job 8. 33, 34, 35, 35, 
whofoever committtth Sin is the Servant of Sin, he that lives in Sin, and 
commits and makes a Trade of it, he is the Servant of Sin. They 
boafted that they were free, and never in Bondage to any Man - 7 but 
he tells them of a Spiritual Servitude, which they underltood not : 
This was Chrift free from. 

And yet further, as there was not this Yoke of Sin upon him; fo 
neither was there any Yoke t>f Conftraint or Compulfion in his Suf- 
ferings, in any thing he underwent for us: All he did and fuffered, 
was fpontaneous and voluntary, Job. 10. 17, iS. / lay down my Life % 
that I might take it again. No Man taketh it from me, but I lay it down 
ofmyfelf: 1 have Power to lay it down, and I have Power to take ; t again. 

R r 2 S3 

go8 The Goffel of the Legal Purifications 

So here is a Heifer, a red Heifer, a Heifer without Spot, and one up- 
on which never came Yoke. 

2. Confider the Aclions and Ceremonies about the Heifer, which were 
alfo very fignificant, and full of fpiritual Myftery. Not to infill up- 
on the bringing of her to the Prieft, which was common to all the 
Sacrifices, there were four efpecially Remarkable. 

i. That (he muft be (lain without the Gamp. 

2. The Blood fprinkled feven times towards the Tabernacle. 

3. The body burnt with Cedar, Scarlet and Hyflbp, call into the 

4. The Afhes referved to make an holy Water to fprinkle the Un- 

1. This Heifer mult be /lain without the Camp. This is required- 
Numb. 19. 3. This Ceremony was required alfo in the Sin-Offering, 
Cap. 4. 12. This is expounded at large by the Apoftle, Heb. 13. io, 
ii, 12, 13, 14. We have an Altar whereof they have no right to eat, which 
ferve the Tabernacle. For the Bodies ofthofe Beafts, whofe Blood it brought 
into the Santluary by the High Trie ft for Sin, are burnt without the Camp. 
Wherefore Jefus alfo, that he might fanftify the People with his own Bloody 
fuffered without the Gate. Let us go forth therefore unto him without the 
Camp, bearing hvs Reproach. For here have we no continuing City, but we 
feek one to come. 

Some Sacrifices were to be eaten \ but other Sacrifices, the Sin- 
OfFering, and this of the Heifer for Purifications, they were not to" eat 
them, but to kill them, and burn them without the Camp, This (hews 
that they which ferve the Temple, which adhere to old legal carnal 
Ways, they have no right to eat of the Altar, faith the Apoftle ; 
they that ferve the Tabernacle, that adhere to Mofes, and to thofe 
things that are of Mens Wifdom and Invention ( as all Mofes his Ce- 
remonies now are, being abolifiied by God. And therefore now to 
adhere to them, and to ferve the Tabernacle, is to follow our own 
Wifdom, and Worlhip God according to our own Pleafure ) fuch 
have no right to eat of the Altar ^ they have no right to Jefus Chrift, 
in that they keep not to the Purity of his own Inftitutions. 

Again, Jefus Chrift did fuffer without the Gate, which was prefi- 
gured by their carrying this Heifer out, there to b« flain. So they 
carried Jefus Chrift out to Golgotha, there they Crucified him, fo that 
ft was fulfilled ia Chrift in a very manifeft way. For that he fuf- 
fered without the City, as this Heifer was to be flain without the 


Tie Gofpl of tie Legal Purifications. 309 

Jefus Chrift therefore being a reputed Sinner and Malefactor, and 
under that Reproach and Shame did therefore fuffer without the Gate, 
We muft therefore be content to fuffer with bim in the fame Dif~ 
grace and Difhonour. If ye cannot be content to bear the Reproaches 
and Difgraces of the World, ye cannot bear his Reproach. TheA- 
pottles were accounted the very filth of the World, fuch as by fwee- 
ping is gathered together ( as in the Margent ) the fweepings and 
refufe of all Things.. Wo unto you when all Men (haU fpeak well of you, 
Luke 6. 26. We fee the Myftery then of this Ceremony, that the 
Heifer muft be (lain without the Camp. 

2. The Blood muft be fprinkled [even times direclly towards the Taber* 
nacle. For the Prieft is fpoken of as {landing without the Camp where 
the Heifer was (lain, who was to fprinkle the Blood towards the Camp f 
and fo towards the Tabernacle. 

The Tabernacle was a Type of Heaven ; therefore the fprinkling 
the Blood towards Heaven, taught us, That our accefs into Heaven 
is only by the perfect Merit of the Blood of Chrift, Heb. 10. 19, 20. 

The fprinkling feven times notes the perfect Efficacy of the Blood 
of Chrift -, for feven is a Number of Perfection j therefore often ufed 
in thofe myftical Difpenfations of Old. It (hews the Perfection of his 
Blood, and that there muft be frequent and renewed Application of 
it from time to time : It muft be fprinkled again and again, and fe- 
ven times over upon our Confciences. 

3. 7 be Body of the Heifer muft he burnt with Cedar, Hyffop and Scar-^ 
let, caft into the Fire, and the Priefts that do it are unclean until the 
Even, Verf. 5.6,7,8. Of the Burning you have heard upon other 
Sacrifices. The calling in of Cedar, Hyffop and Scarlet, is peculiar to 
this Sacrifice -, and fomething of lnftruction we may pick out of it by- 
looking into other Scriptures. 

Cedar is noted for an Excellent kind of Timber, the chief of Trees ; 
and the Scripture doth fometiraes apply it unto Chrifl: in a Metapho- 
rical Way. Cant. 5. 15. It is faid of Chrift, k'vs Countenance is as Leba- 
non, excellent as the Cedars. Jt is a ftately and durable Tree, not 
fubject to Putrefaction. Therefore fome interpret this Law as a Sha- 
dow of the perpetual Efficacy of the Death of Chrift, who by one offer* 
mg perfected for ever them that are fanftified, Heb. 10. 14. 

As for Hyffop, it is faid Verf. 18. there muft be a bunch of it to 
fprinkle with. Hence David prays, Purge me with Hy [fop, Pfal. 51.7; 
Some apply it thus: That the Bunch of HyfTop wherewith they fprink- 
led the Blood, is the Word of Promife, by which Chrift is applied to 
the Soul, Or thus, The bunch ofHyffbpfigiufiesthe Jnfirumentoi the 

gio The Gofpel of the Legal Purifications. 

Application of Chrift's Blood. And what is the Inftrumenfe by which 
we apply the Blood of Chrift, but Faith, and this Faith lays hold on 
the Promife. It is the Word of Promife that brings Chrift and his 
Blood unto the Soul, and the Soul receives it by Faith. 

This muft be caft into the Burning. It is by the Death and Suffer- 
ings of Jefus Chrift, that the Promifes are made efTeftual, and that 
they have the Virtue of cleanfmg us from our Sins. 

And they were alfo to caft Scarlet into the burning. Scarlet is of 
a red Colour, and we read in Scripture of Scarlet Sins. J fa. i. iS, 
Though your Sins be as Scarlet, they /ball be made as Snow. The Death 
andBLood of Jefus Chrift faith the Apoftle, cleanfeth us from all Sin, 
i Joh. i. 7. 

And further, he that doth all this, muft yet be unclean until the 
Evening^ fo before in the Sin-Offering, Levit.4.. mth\Levit. 16 27, 
28. which plainly holds forth the Imperfection of all Legal Sacrifices, 
and the Iniquity that cleaves to our holy Offerings, as was there 

4. The fourth Thing is, The Jfhes tnufl be gathered and referved to 
make an Holy Water of, to far inkle the Vnclean, Numb. 19. 9 — 17, 18. 
This Water which was made by means of this facred Relick, is called 
in another Place of Scripture, Numb. ^.17. Holy Water. It is called 
Holy, becaufe it was appointed by God for a Holy life. He can fet 
his Stamp upon, and hallow this Water, as he did on the Bread and 
Wine, appointing it for a Holy life; and fo this, it muft be kept 
for an Holy life, and every unclean Perfon muft be fprinkled with it. 

Now the meaning of this Sanctifying to the purifying of the Flefti, 
is this, it plainly fignifies the fprinkiing of the Blood and Spirit of Je- 
fus Chrift upon us, for Juftification and San&ification. 1 John 5. 8. 
There are three that bear Witnefs in the Earth, the Sprit and the Water and 
the Blood, and thefe three agree in one. There is the Spirit of Faith in lo- 
cation. The Water of Sanflification. And the Blood of Jefus Chrift Tor 
Juftification. Thefe three concur in their Evidence and Teftimony, 
that there is Virtue and Life in Chrift for them that believe. 

So you fee the Myftery of it: When Perfons were fprinkled with 
this Water, they became clean ; others might converfe with them, 
they might come into the Tabernacle, and have Communion with 
God in his Ordinances. This holds forth Souls being fprinkled with 
the Blood of Chrift, and with the Spirit, which is often compared to 
Water, as when it is faid, / will pour Water on the dry Ground, and my 
Spirit on your Off-fpring. Ifa. 44. 3. fee alfo Ezjek. $6. 2%. and Joh. 7. 
38, 39. So they that have this fprinkiing by the Blood of Chrift, they 


The Go/pel of the Legal Purifications. 3 1 1 

have accefs to, and Fellowfhip with God by the Blood of Chrift. And 
fo much for the meaning of the Ceremonial Actions relating to this 
Now for Vfeand application a little, and fo we (hall conclude. r 
Vfe. Learn this Inflru&ion : See the fovereign Vertue and tranfcevdent 
Excellency of the Blood of Chrift : And it gives Direction and Incourage- 
ment to unclean Souls to have recourfe to Jefus Chrift for Cleanfing. 
If thefe Things did fo avail to the purifying of the Flefh, how much 
morefnall the Blood of Cbrijl clean fe your Confciences from dead Works to 
fcrve the Living God ? The Venue and Excellency of his Blood appears , 
as to the purging of our Souls and Confciences in a four-fold Re- 

1. If compared with Ceremonial Blood, of which the Text fpeaks. The 
Sacrifices were but Ihadowy Cleanfings, but a fhadowy Purification : 
But the Blood of Chrift cleanfing the Confcience is the Thing aim- 
ed at. Thefe were the Means to fhadow out this fpiritual Cleanfing. 
This is the End, the Subftance aimed at. They gave an outward Ho- 
linefs, no inward Holinefs. When they were made Ceremonially 
Clean, they did not change the Mind, they removed but the Shadow 
of Moral Uncleannefs, for Ceremonial -Vncleannefs was no Sin, but only 
a Shadow of it : But the Blood of Chrift removes the Sin it felf •, the 
Guilt of Sin in Jttftification, and the Tower of Sin in SanBtfication. So 
the Blood of Chrift hath a furpafling Excellency, being compared with 
the Blood of Bulls and Goats, &c. 

2. Compare it to the Blood of Souls and Sinners] . The Blood of Jefus 
Chrift brings more glory to God, than if all the Eledt themfelves 
had fuffered to all Eternity, more glory to God : And it is more 
efficacious for the good of Souls. If the Elecl bad fuffered, and their 
Blood had been fhed for their own Sins, God had wanted much of 
that Glory, which he hath by the Blood of Jefus Chrift. And more 
efficacious for good to them : For they could never have been faved by 
their own Sufferings. The worth of the Blood of Chrift appears. 

1. In regard of the worth ofthePerfon. 

2. In regard of the fpeedy Satisfa&iop. 

3. In regard of the full Satisfa&ion. 

1 . The worth of the Perfon : This is often taken notice of in Scrip-' 
tnre, as belonging to the Efficacy of the Blood of Jefus Chrift, thaC 
it is the Blood of God y as Jitts 20. 28. and Zach. 13.7. He is the Man 
that is the Fellow of the Lord of Hofls : Therefore the Apoftle having 
fpoken in Collof 1. how that we hay e Redemption through hvs Bloody eve» 
the forgivenefs of Sin, In Verf. 1 4. be falls into a Defcriptiou of the 


g i i The Gofpel of the Legal Purifications. 

Glory of the Perfon of Chrift. Who is the Image of the ittvifible Cod % 
by him were aU things made. The Dignity of his Perfon puts an infi- 
nite Value on his Blood and Sufferings, mounting the Blood of Chrift 
to a higher Satisfa&ion of Divine Juftice, than the Blood of all the 
Eleft. The Righteoufnefs of Jefus Chrift is a more glorious Righ- 
teoufnefs than if all the Elect had fuffered for themfelves ^ that had 
been but the Blood of Sinners, this the Blood of God. 

2. The fpeedy Satis faftion that vs made to Divine Juftice. Chrift paid 
all the Debt at once, which Sinners muft have been paying for ever : 
And this is more Satisfactory to the Creditor, than to have the Debt 
long a paying. If a Man owe an hundred Pounds, and muft lie in 
Prifon till the Debt be paid, paying ten Pounds every Year j this 
Debt will be long in paying, and it will not be fo fatisfa&ory to the 
Creditor, as if a Rich Man fhould come and fee the Prifoner free, 
by paying the Debt prefently. 

3. He fat'vsfied fully 1 and paid the whole Debt, John 19. 30. Our Sa- 
viour faith, now it vsfinifhed. He hath made full and perfect Satisfa- 
ction to Divine Juftice. So that the Law of God hath more Honour, 
and the Juftice of God more Glory, by the Sufferings of Chrift, than 
if all the Elect had fuffered. 

3. Compare the Blood of Chrift with the Righteoufnefs of Saints and An* 
gels, his Righteoufnefs, and their Righteouftiefs. There is a greater 
Glory in Jefus Chrift's Obedience ASive and Paffive, then in the 
Righteoufnefs of all the Angels in Heaven, though they had never fin- 
ned : For theirs is but the Righteoufnefs of Creatures, in whom is a 
negative Imperfection, 3^4.18. He chargeth the Angels with Folly , 
and the Heavsns are impure in his fight. Chrift's Righteoufnefs is more 
worth, then all the Righteoufnefs of all the Creatures. 

4. Jf compared with the Power of Sin in its kind, to defile and damn 
Souls . There is a far greater Power in the Blood of Chrift to cleanfe 
and fave, then in Sin to defile and deftroy. Rom. 8. 3. The Law be- 
came weak to do good, but it hath Power to Condemn. The ftrength 
of Sin is the Law, 1 Cor. 15. 56. The Law gives ftrength to Sin, be- 
caufe by Virtue of the Curfe of the Law, Sin reigns and defiles the 
Souls of Men through that righteous Curfe, The Soul that Sins fhall die. 
But the Blood of Jefus Chrift hath greater Power to fave, then Sin 
(together with the Law ) hath to Condemn ; for the Blood of Chrift 
takes away and aboliflies it utterly. Where this Blood is applied and 
brought home, Sin it felf cannot ruine that Soul. The Soul is poyfon- 
cd and corrupted by Sin \ but the Blood of Chrift takes away that 
goyfon, and makes the Soul Pure and Holy, as if it never had finned ; 


The Gofpel of Cleaning from the Leprofy. 

Therefore as to thofe Difcouragements, I /hall never get Power againft 
thefe Sins, againft thefe Corruptions, they will be my ruine : Thefe are 
deep Refle&ings on Jefus Chrift, as if Sin were ftronger then he, as if 
thy Sin were more powerful co damn thee, then Chrift is tofave 

Therefore be encouraged, how unclean foever thy Heart and Life 
have been, make ufe of this Atonement, which hath been made to God 
by the Blood of jefus Chrift. What is the Preaching of the Gofpel, 
but the fprinkling of this Biood ? It holds forth Chrift, and if Men 
will refufe this Blood, their Deftru&ion is of themfelves • they periih 
not under the Gofpel, becaufe there is no means of Salvation, no 
Means to help, no Means to cleanfe and purify them ^ but becaufe 
they will not make ufe of ig. And what a woful thing is this, when 
Light is come into the World, and help brought by Jefus Chrift • for 
Sinners to refufe it, for Sinners to ftand on their own Objections, 
this is to bid Defiance to the Gofpel, and to fay, that Jefus Chrift 
is no fufficient Saviour. But apply it, and make ufe of it, and it will 
cleanfe thy Soul for ever. 

Sept. 27. 166%, 

Hebr. 9. 13, J4. 

THe Apoftle in thefe Expreffions, £tbe Blood of Stills and Goats J 
includes, by a parity of Reafon, all the other Ceremonial Clean- 
fsngs which are not particularly mentioned. 

As they had three forts of Ceremonial Vncleannefs -, fo they had three 
ways of Purification. 

1. For the Uncleannefs by touching any unclean Meat or Thing. The 
Purification for this was by the Red Heifer, which the Holy Ghoft 
mentions in the Text particularly, whereof we fpake the laft time. 

2. For unclean lffues ; Two Turtle Doves or two young Pigeons, 
the one for a Sin-Offering, the other for a Burnt-Offering. Lev. 1 5. 
14, 15. and Lev. 12. 8. Or a Lamb and a young Pigeon, Verf.6. The 
Rites whereof being the fame with the Burnt-Offering and the Sin- 
Offering, were there handled, and fo need not be fpokea to here 

3. The third fort of Ceremonial Uncleannefs, was that unclean Dif- 
eafe of Leprojy, which is treated of at large in Lev. 13. and the clean- 
ling of it in Cap. 14. 

Of the Difeafe we have formerly fpoken in the Expofition of the 
13th. Chapter, and lhall therefore now proceed to the cleanfingofit^ 

S f which 

314 The Go/pel of Cleanfing from the Leprofy. 

which was done by feveral Sacrifices and Ceremonies appointed and 
dire&ed in that 14th. Chapter of Leviticus, wherein the method the 
Holy Ghoft is pleafed to ufe is this. He gives Direction fir ft concern- 
ing the cleanfing of a Leprous Per fori, to Terf. 3$. and then cfa Le- 
prous Honfe, from Verf. 33. to the end of the Chapter. 

The Rules and Directions about the cleanfing of a Leprous Perfon 
are of two forts : Preparative and Executive. 

The Preparatory Dircclions are thefe three. 

1. He muft be brought unto the Prieft, Lev. 14. Verf 2. This was an 
Ordinance of God, and therefore Chrift himfelf requires the Obfer- 
vation of it, of that Leper whom he himfelf had cured miraculoufly, 
Mattb. 8. 4. Go/hew thy felf unto the Prieft, and offer the Gift that Mofes 

The Leper was to dwell alone, without the Camp, and without the 
City -, but he was to be brought to the outmoft Part of the Camp, or 
to the Gates of the City, to the Prieft. Now the true Prieft is Jejus 
Chrift : Therefore the meaning of this Ordinance was plainly and 
clearly this. That Leprous Souls muft come to Jefus Chrift by Faith for 
Spiritual Healing. He is faid to arife with healing in hvs Wings, Mai. 
4. 2. You know how many Lepers he did heal in the Days of his Flefh. 
And all the Miracles of Chrift had a fymbolical life to inftruct us in 
what he does for Souls in a Spiritual Way, by what he did for Mens 
Bodies in a miraculous Way. 

2. The Prieft muft go forth out of the Camp to the Leper, Verf. 3. This 
plainly fpeaks thus much : That Jefus Chrift goes forth unto poor 
Sinners when in their Diftance, in their Back-Hidings and Separations 
from the Lord : He feeks them and finds them out, whofe bleiTed Of- 
fice it is, tofeek and to fave loft Sinners, Luke 19. 10. We are by Na- 
ture far from God, (hut out and caft forth Aliens from the Common- 
maltb o/Jfrael, Ephef i. 12. When thou waft in thy Blood, J paffed by and 
pitied thee, Ezek. 16. 6. He goes to meet the returning Prodigal, Luke- 
15. 20. As the Prieft here to meet the Leper, when fhut out of the 
Camp of Jfrael 

3. The Prieft jhatt fee and behold if the Plague of Leprofy be healed in 
the Leper , Verf. 3. The Judgment of it is committed to the Prieft, and 
he muft judge as the Thing is; It is Chrift himfelf that is the Judge 
of Souls, and he will judge true and righteous Judgment, Jfa. 11. 3. 
he fliall not judge according to the feeing of his Eyes. 

Though Men judge thou art a Leper, a Schifmatick, a Fanatick, 
be not troubled, if the Prieft pronounce thee Clean, if the Lord hath 
faid it to thee by the Witnefs of his Spirit in his Word. It is the 


The Gofpel of Cleanjing from the Leprofy. 315 

Tried mufl: judge, and ic is this Word which cannot err nor lye, that 
fhall judge of thee at that Day. 

It belongs alio to Mioiffers in an inferiour Way to judge of Men, 
todifcern between the Clean and the Unclean, and to retain or re- 
mit Sins Minifterially, John io. 23. Thefe are the preparatory Dire- 
ctions for the Purification oi> the Leper. 

2. The Executive Part follow from Verf. 3. &c. and it confifts main- 
ly in two Things. 

1. The Sacrifice of two Birds and their Ceremonies, to Verf 10. 

2. A Sacrifice of three Lambs with their Appurtenances and Cere- 
monies, from Fcrfi 10 to 21. 

1. The firft part of the Purification of the Leper, is by two Birds, and 
the Ceremonies belonging to them, from Verf 3. to Ferf 10. The 
Materials here required are two living clean Birds, together with Cedar • 
Scarlet and Hyffop, Verf. 4. The Birds are thought to be Sparrows,. The 
Hebrew Word Ziphor fignifies a Bird in general, any winged Fowl; 
Dent. 4. 1 7. They are forbidden to make the likenefs of any winged Fowl 
that flieth in the Air, Pfal. 8. 8. The Fowls of the Air. And is fome- 
times ufed particularly concerning a Sparrow, Pfal. 84. 3. and 102. 7. 
We may underftand it here in the largefl Senfe for any clean Birds. 
Thefe two Birds and the Herbs are the Ingredients that mufl; all 
concur to makeup the Matter of this cleanfing Sacrifice. 

The two Birds were not two Sacrifices -, for one of them was not 
flain, but difmifled : But .they did both make up one Sacrifice : Some 
of the Myfteries whereof, could not be reprefented by one Bird, and 
therefore two were appointed, the one to die, and the other to 

They had another Ordinance of the like Nature, and of the fame 
Importance with this, viz. the two Goats on the yearly Feaft of Ex- 
piation, Levit.16. whereof the one was flain, the other di<£ efcape, 
being fent away into the Wildernefs : Therefore called the Scape 

But why were there two Birds, and what was the Myftery of this ? 

Anf. It lhadowed forth both the Natnres and Efiates of our Lord 
Jefus Chrift. * 

1. Both his Natures ; his eternal Deity and his mortal Humanity, 
are here prefigured and reprefented. The flain Bird, reprefents his 
Humane Nature capable of Death and Suffering. The other Bird his 
Divine Nature, which was and is immortal and impafllble. As both 
thefe Birds were necefiary, and muft be ufed in this Sacrifice: So 
Chrift our Sacrifice mufl: be both God and Man. We are not clean- 

S f 2 fed 

51 6 The Gofpel of Cleanjing from the Leprojy. 

*ed and faved either by his Deity or Humanity alone : But both his 
Natures do concur in his mediatorial A&ions for our Salvation. 

2. Here is a (hadow of the two-fold State that Jefus Chrift faffed 
through - 9 Firft a State of Death and Humiliation, and then a State of 
Life^and Glory, i Pet. 3. 18. For Chrift al fa hath once fuffered for Sins 9 
the juft for the iinjufl, that he might Wing us to God, being pit to Death in 
the Flefh, but quickened by the Spirit. Put to Death in the Flefh, that is, 
in his Humane Nature- but quickened by the Spirit, that is, by his Dei- 
ty raifing him up again from Death to Life ^ he mu£ both die and live 
again for us. 

As to the Cedar, Hyjfop and Scarlet, they were ufed in the Purifica- 
tion by the Red Heifer ^ of which we fpoke before, and (hall now add 
thereunto only thus much further. That of thefe three, it is conceived, 
that there was a fprinkling Brufh made, namely the Brufh of Hyflbp, 
the Handle of Cedar- Wood, and the binding of a thred of Scarlet dye. 
The Apoftle calls it Scarlet Wool in Heb. 9. 19. And as there feems 
to be a general Refpeft had to the Properties of thefe Plants, as was 
formerly (hewed : So fome do obferve a particular Sutablenefs be- 
tween the Leprous Contagion, and thefe means of Purification, thus. 

That as the Leprofy did corrupt and putrify the Body, oppofite to 
this was the Cedar-Wood, which is commended for firmnefs and found- 
nefs againft Putrefa&ion. 

And as the Leprofy was of a foul Colour, contrary to this was the 
frefii and fair Colour of Scarlet. 

And as the Leprofy had a very ill and unfavoury Scent \ the fweet- 
nefs of Hyflbp was a Remedy againft that. So our Annotators on 
Lev. 14.6. 

Thus for the Materials of this purifying Sacrifice. 

Now the purifying Ceremonies and Aclions were of three forts , and all 
fullofMyftery °, fome relating to the flain Bird, fome to the living 
Bird, and fome to the Leper himfelf. 

Let me briefly open them unto you. 

1. The Ceremonies of the flain Bird, were chiefly thefe three. 

1. It muft beHUed^ Verf. 5. You know theMyftery of this in all the 
Sacrifices-, it was a Prefiguration of the Death of Jefus Chrift the true 
Sacrifice. Almoft all things in the Law were purged by Bloody and withont 
Ifhedding of Blood there vs no remi/fion, Heb. 9. 22. 

2. It muft be hUed over running Water , or living Water. Thatis^ 
Spring- Water called Living, becaufe of the continual Motion refem- 
bling Life thereby •, that is, it muft be taken out of a Spring oraRi« 
yzxj not out of a Pond, or Rain- Water, 


The Gofpel of Cleanfing from the Leprofy. g 1 7 

What this means, our Saviour himfelf interprets John 4.10, 14* 
where he fpeaks of fpiritual Living Waters. 

And the Blood thus falling into, and being mingled with the Wa- 
ter ; points us clearly to him, nho cave to cleanfe us and fave m from 
Water and Blood, 1 John 5. 6. For as Water and Blood here meet 5 ft) 
there were Streams of both ifluing out of his Side, when he was flain 
for us, John 1 9. 

• But this Water and Blood, is the Blood ofjuftificaticn, and the Wa- 
ter of Santtification, both plentifully flowing from Chrift our Purifica- 
tion. There is an ever flowing Fountain of thefe Waters of Life in 
and from the Lord Jefus Chrift, for the cleanfing of finful and leprous 

3. This muft be in an Earthen Veffel. The like, Numb. 5. 17. The 
Senfeofthispartof the Allegory, m3y be eafily gathered from the for* 
mer. That Soul-cleanfing Blood and Water iflued out of hisblefled 
Body \ therefore his Body was this Earthen Veflel, which was frail 
and brittle, and accordingly broken by Death at laft \ and mean and 
contemptible amongft Men, as Earthen Veffels ufe to be. The Mi- 
nifters of the Gofpel alfo are compared to Earthen Veffels, 2 Cor. 4. 7, 
God ufeth contemptible Inftruments many times, for the effecting of 
great Things. 

Thefe are the Ceremonies relating to the flain Bird ; it muft be kil- 
led, and it muft be killed over Living Water, and this is in an Ear- 
then Veflel. 

2. The Ceremonies belonging to the Living Bird, are alfo three. 

1 . The Living Bird mnfl be dipt in the Blood of the flain Bird, Verf. 
6. Araoft evident and excellent Reprefentation of the Union of the 
Divine and Humane Nature of Jefus Chrift, and the Influence of that 
Union into the Concernments of our Peace. Had not the Deity ftp- 
ported and influenced the Humane Nature in its Sufferings, they could 
not have been available with God for us. Upon the Account of this 
Divine Union and dipping of the Living Bird in the Blood of the flain, 
the Apoftle calls the Sufferings of the Humane Nature, the Blood of 
Cod, Ads 20. 28. 

2. The Cedar, Scarlet and Hyffop, mnft be dipped alfo with it. Verf 6> 
That is, all the Concernments of our Salvation do receive aTin&ure, 
an Influence from the Blood of Chrift. Whether we refer the My- 
fiery of thefe Plants to the Graces and Excellencies that are in him as 
our Saviour, or to the Graces we receive from him : All muft be con- 
fidered with relation to his Blood. Take itinthelatter, alUheGraces, 


2i8 The Gofpel of Cleanfing from the Leprofy. 

Virtues, Excellencies we receive from him, muft be dipped in his Blood 
to cleanfethem, and make them and us accepted of God. 

3. Ihe Living Bird muft bektlooje into the open Field, Verf. 7. This 
clearly reprefencs, not only Jefus Chrift's efcaping and deliverance from 
Death to Life : After he had fufFered and humbled himfelf unto Death, 
he did efcape and live again, and lives for ever. But alfo the open 
Publication and Preaching hereof, as it were in the open Firmament, 
in the view of all Men : So that Phrafe imports, Rev. 14. 6. flying in 
the midft of Heaven, Preaching the everlafting Gofpel. 

This refpecls alfo the fetting of the Leper free from his Reftraint 
that was upon him before, by reafon of his Uncleannefs, as appears by 
the Connexion. He (hall pronounce him clean, and let the Bird loofeinto 
the open Field. 

Thefe are the Ceremonial Actions relating to the Living Bird. 

3. The Ceremonial Heltons in reference to the Leper himfelf • thefe alfo 
are three. 

1. The Prieft fhall fpr inkle upon him feven times, and pronounce him 
clean, ver.7. This fprinkling of that typical Blood andWater upon him, 
is nothing elfe but the Application of the Blood of Jefus Chrift. There 
-muft be a particular Application of it to the Soul : It muft be fprinkled 
upon the Leper, and then he is pronounced Clean. All the other Ce- 
remonies would not make him clean without this ; though the Bird 
were killed, and other Ordinances obferved ^ yet it muft be alfo 

The Death and Blood of Chrift is not enough to the cleanfing of 
our Souls, unlefs the Blood be fprinkled, the Death of Chrift applied to 
u?. There muft be a Work of application, as well as of Redemption. 
All the precious Blood that Chrift hath fhed, will not fave a Sinner ^ 
unlefs this Blood be effectually applied and fprinkled on the Soul. Ap- 
plication is a great and neceffary Part of our Recovery and Salvation, 
as well, as the Blood of Chrift it felf. 

And it muft be applied feven times : Both frequently, and per fccl\y % 
over and over again -, once is not enough, fuppofe thou haft believed 
and laid hold upon Chrift already, and applied him by Faith to thy 
felf in particular, (the Blood muft be fprinkled feven times over) thou 
muft apply Chrift, and lay hold upon Chrift again. And the number fe- 
ven being a Numher of Per fe [Hon-, fojt holds forth per fed Cleanfing of 
the Sinner as well as frequent Application of the Blood of Chrift for 
that end. 

2. The Leper muft wafh his Cloaths, and himfelf, and foave his Hair, 
and then come into the Camp \ but not yet into his Tent. Verf. 8. The 


The Gofpel of Clean fmg from the Leprofy. 3 1 9 

like Ceremony is required in other Cleanfings. As at the Confecration 
of the Levhes, Numb. 8.7. they were to canfe a Rafor to pafs over all 
their Flefh. And Vent. 21.12. Of the Captive Woman it is faid, fie 
fljall /have her Head, and pare her Nails. Some allegorize this ia a 
plain and a good Way, thus : That it was a Figure of calling away 
all Remainders of Malice and Fikhinefs, James 1. 21. Thofe Excre- 
fcencies and Superfluities of finful Corruption, it fhadows out and 
teacheth the Work of Mortification, or paring away of finful Super- 
fluities of Luffs and Corruptions, as fad: as they grow, which we can- 
not be quite rid of, but muft be paring and cutting them off conti- 

This Expreffion is ufed JJa. 7. 20. in a metaphorical Way,- to figni- 
fie the Lord's confuming and weakning their Strength : For much Hair 
argueth Strength of Nature. Hence in Age, when there is a decay of 
Strength, the Hair fails off, and Baldnefs comes inftead of Hair, 
Therefore in a Leprous Perfon, it feems to argue Strength of the Dif- 
eafe : Therefore the (having it off, is thought to fignify the cutting, 
off and taking away the Strength of the Difeafe, and Plague of the 

And as to Wafhing, this was often required : Therefore the Apo- 
ftle fyzzks of divers Wafaings, Heb. 9. 10. And the Holy Ghoft refers- 
them to the Blood of Cbrifl, Rev. 1.5. And they refpedr alfotheSp/w 
ofChrift, often compared to Water, lfa. 44. 3. This is that Fountain 
ftt open, Zach. 13. 1. for the Houfe of Judah, and the Inhabitants o/Je- 
rufalem to wafh in, for Sin and for Vncleannefs. A Sinner muft wafh and 
bath himfelf in this Fountain, if ever he will be made clean. 

We read of the wafting of Regeneration, Titus 3. 5. which is an 
allufion to thefe Ceremonial Walkings, rather than to Baptifm. And 
the Leper was to wafh hvs whole Body, not fome part only, becaufe San- 
ftification is z clean fmg of the whole Man, 1 Thef 5.23. And he muft 
wafh hvs Clotb$s as well as himfelf. To teach us that we muft purge 
our felves from all manner of Fikhinefs, and every thing that defileth, 
hating the very Garment that vs [potted with the Flefh. Any thing of lin- 
cleannefs, the leaft degree of it,. //W^ Verf. 23. bating even the Gar* 
ments fpottcd by the Flefh: An Amplification, faith the Margin, taken 
from the forbidden Things in the Old Law, that did defile, that is, 
all Appearances, occafions, any thing that hath the leaft touch of Sin. 
It is a worfe fign of a Leprous gracelefs Heart, for a Man to dally 
with his Luft, and to allow himfelf therein, than one particular fail 
into a gr offer Ad of Unclean nefs if it be abhorred and repented of, 


3 20 The Gofpel of Cleanfing from the Leprqfy. 

Thus the Leper muft be wafhed, he and his Clothes - 7 and his Hair 
fliorn: And yet after all this, he is not to return to his Tent. The 
reafon is, Left there fhould be any thing of Infection in his Tent. 
For the very Houfes and Garments fometimes were infected with Le- 

3. The third Ceremony, or his after-duty is this, After feven Days 
he muft ufe the fame Ceremony of /having and wafting over again , Verf.9. 
This plainly teacheth us, that cleanfing Work muft be renewed from 
time to time. The mortifying and purging out of Corruption, it is a 
gradual Work, and a frequent Work, For the Leper is not made 
clean at once, in the firft Moment ^ nay, after all his former Obferva- 
tions, he is not perfe&ly clean, though he be begun to be made clean, 
but here are feven Days muft intervene, and then he muft wafh and 
fhave again. So that it is a gradual Work. We fhould do fo in Spi- 
ritual Cleanfing, efpecially upon the Sabbath Day, which is the Se- 
venth in this Senfe • that is, it is one of fcven \ and it is, and fhould 
be a Day of Spiritual Wafhing and Cleanfing. 

Thus you have feen the firft part of this purifying Sacrifice for the 
Leper, viz. The two Birds ^ with the feveral Ceremonies and Ceremo- 
nial Actions and Performances appertaining to them, both to the 
flain Bird, and to the living Bird, and to the Leper himfelf. 

r. The fecond part of the purifying Sacrifice appointed for him is 
that of three Lambs \ with the Ceremonies thereunto belonging: And 
this is declared at large from Verf 10. to 32. of that 14th. Chapter 
of Leviticus. 

The Materials of this are two Hee-Lambs, tin one for a Burnt-Offer- 
ing, the other for a Trefpafs-Offering •, and an Ew- Lamb for a Sin-Offering • 
and fine Flower for a M 'eat -Offering , and a Log of Oyl. Thefe are the 
Materials. Now what muft be done with them ? 

The Ceremonies about them are chiefly thefe three. 

1 . The Sacrifices muft be flain and offered according to the manner and 
inflitnuon, Verf. 1.2. 13. But this having been opened formerly, we 
jfhall not infift upon it. 

2. The Trie ft muft pat fome of the Blood of them upon the tip of the right 
Ear of him that is ts be clean fed, Verf. 14. and fome part on the Thumb 
of his right Hand, and on the great Toe of his right Foot. You have the 
like Ceremony, Exod. 29. 20 injoined in the Confecration of Aaron 
and his Sons. The fprinkling thefe parts did reprefent, and was inftead 
of fprinkling the whole Body. The fprinkling of a part of the Body 
was* appointed by God, as fignificative of univerfal Cleanfing of the 
whole Man 


The Gofpel of CJeanJing from the Leprojy. 32s 

Our Annotators have this Note upon it. The Ear 
wis to be fan&ified for holy hearing, and againft the tngX. Atmou on 
hearing of any corrupt Communication : And the Hand Bxoi. 29. 20. 
fc)r working} and the Foot for walking, that hisCon- 
verfation might be Holy, and bis Perfon fan&ified from Head to Foot* 
So in Baptifm, there is no Neceffity of plunging the whole Body ia 
Water \ but the fprinkling of it on the Forehead may fuffice to fignify 
the myftical Meaning intended by it, whereby a Sacramental Synechdoche t 
though but a Part be fprinkled, the Whole is warned and cleanfed. This 
is the fecond Ceremony fome of the Blood in thefe Sacrifices of the 
three Lambs muft be put upon the Leper. 

3. The third is, That the Priefi is to take the Oyl, andfprinkle part of 
it before the Lord, and with fart to anoint the Leper ; his Ear, Thumb and 
Foot, in the Place where he had put the Blood before^ and pour the reft upon 
h'vs Head, Verf. 15. 16,17, 18. This myftical Oy I whereof they had 
fuch continual life under the Law, we have often heard, that it typi- 
fies the Holy Ghofi : And therefore the Son of God is faid to be anoin- 
ted with the Spirit, I fa. 61. 1. And Atts 10. 38. God anointed Jefurof 
Nazareth with the Holy Ghoft, and with Power. Therefore the putting 
of the Oyl upon thefe Parts, fignifies the faving-Graces of the Spirit 
of Chrift, whereby they are cleanfed and fan&ified and comforted, 
who have been juftified and reconciled by his Blood. 

As to the putting it upon thefe Parts for the Whole, this teacheth 
us the fame that was noted before out of the fame Ceremony concern- 
ing the Blood. 

And whereas he muft put the Oyl upon the Blood, that is, upon 
the fame Place where he had put the Blood before, as it is explained 
more fully Verf. 28. This teacheth us, that our Santtification flows from 
our Juftification : The Blood muft be applied firft, and then the Oyl 
upon it: The Spirit of drift is the purchafe of the Death of Chrift ; 
and therefore the Spirit of San&ificatioa is the Fruit of the Blood of 
Juftification. Look not to have thy Soul cleanfed from the Power of 
Sin by San&ification, unlefs it be cleanfed from the Guilt of Sin by 
the Blood of Chrift applied for Juftification. We are firft juftified 
and reconciled by his Blood, and then fan&ified and anointed by his 
Spirit. He for givethaU thine Iniquities, andhealeth all thy Difeafes, Pfal. 
103. Juftification is in order before Sanftification : Firft the Blood,and 
then the Oyl upon the Blood. 

Thefe are the Laws and Ordinances for the purifying of the Leper. 
But now a Cafe ofConfcience may arife : What if the Leper be not able 
to get all thefe Sacrifices and Requires for his Cleanfing, what (ball- 
be done in fuch a Cafe ? Tt The 

222 TfteGofpel of Clean/ing from the Leprbjy. 

The Anfwer is, That the Lord hath made a gracious Provider! for 
the Neceffities of his People: Therefore letter Sacrifices are provided 
and appointed in fuch a Cafe, fs om Verf. i\ . to Verf. 33. where trtis 
Cafe is fully fpoken to, vis., inflead of three Lambs, he requires here 
but one Lamb, and two Turtle Doves-, or elfe two young Pigeons, whichso- 
ever he could bejl get. And in/lead of three Omers of fine Flower for a 
Meat-Offering, he requires in this Cafe but one Omer, that is, about a 
Pottle of our Meafure \ and a Log ofOyl, that is, about half a Pint. 
This is the fame that was before ; and thefe lefTer Sacrifices are as ef- 
fectual for the cleanfing of a poor Leper, as the greater Sacrifices were 
for richer Perfons. God accenting a Man according to he hath, and 
not according to that he hath not, 2 Cor. 8. 12. The Rites and Cere- 
monies of thefe, are the fame with the former : So I fhall pafs from 
this, obferving only the gracious Condefcenfion of God to the feveral 
Capacities and Neceflities of his People. 

The latter part of the Chapter, is concerning the cleanGng of a 
Lfprouj Honf, from Verf 33. to the End. Some fay it was a peculiar" 
thing in that Land, a ftrange Infection .that feized the Land ia focie 
Cafes, the whole Land being a typical Land, as we have heard. 

I fhall only note- two or three general Obfervations from it, and 
from the whole Chapter, and fo conclude. 

Cbf. 1. The marvellous infectious and defiling Nature o'f Sin, in that 
it infe&s and defiles other things , the very Houfe, and the Garments. 
To the Unclean aU things are unclean^ as to the Pure all things are Pure y 
Tit. 1. 15. It poyfons and corrupts all the Concernments and Enjoy- 
ments of a Sinner. The Apoftle fpeaks how the whole Creation groan- 
eith and travelleth in Pain together until now, Rom. 8. 22. For the Crea- 
ture was madefu'jefi to Vanity, &c. The Stones out of the WaUs, and the 
Timber out of the Houfes, are troubled with a Wicked Man, and cry 
out againfi him, as Habakktik hath it, Chap. 2. 1.1. That's the firft Ob- 
fervation. Learn the wonderful defilement, and infectious nature of 
Sin, that it corrupts ail the Concernments that a Sinner is concern- 
ed in. 

Obf. 2. Whereas the Leprous Houfe, if it were incurably infected, 
njufl be pulled down, and all the Materials of it cafi away, Verf. 40, 45, 
This teacheth us, That all the Monuments and Remainders of leprous and 
corrupted Things, mufl be deftroyed.. Idolatry and Soperftition, is a Le- 
flrofy that hath over-fpread the whole Chriftian World, during Popery. 
And as the Prophet faith concerning -Babylon, Jer. 51. 26. They {hall 
not take of Babylon, a. Stone for a Corner, nor a Stone for Foundations i 
M thou, (halt be dafolate for ever r faith the Lord. It holds true of my- 


The Go/pel of Cleanjing from the Leprofy. 323 

ftical Babylon that Leprous Church, whof$ Idolatry and Superftition 
is a fpiritual Leprofy, which did over-frftead the whole Church of 
God in the time of Popery -, therefore away with all the Monuments 
and Remainders of it. 

Dvpalpbintramvs applies this not impertinently to the Pope's JWafs- 
Book, The Pope's Mafs-Book was a Leprous Houfe, the Stones and 
Timber whereof mould have been caft: afide as polluted and an Abomi- 
nation : Therefore it was an UBhappy and a fatal Error in the firft; 
Reformation, to take Materials out of that to reform with •, totaKe 
the Stones and Timber of that Leprous Houfe to ufe in the Worfhip 
of God, which muft be therefore framed to comport with thofe le- 
prous polluted Things. It hath been the occafion of a new Conflict to 
the People of God in this Age, and of manifold Sufferings to theSer« 
vants of Chrift, becaufe they contended, that thefe leprous polluted 
Things mould be caft; afide. This might have been prevented, if there 
had been a thorough Reformation at firft, and the Stones and Tim- 
ber of thofe Leprous Houfes, the Pope's Mafs-Book, Ritual, Pontifical, 
and Breviary, had been at our firft: Reformation caft forth as polluted 
and abominable. 

Obf 3. How difficult, arid yet withal how neceffary a Work, the purify- 
ing and cleaning of the Leprofy vs. The Leprofy was a Type of Sin and 
finful Corruption, efpecially that original and univerfal Pollution and 
Defilement of our Natures: The Purification of the Leprofy Therefore, 
is nothing elfe but the Work of Mortification, or purging out of fin- 
ful Corruption. 

This is a difficult Work : See how many Ingredients muft: concur to 
it in the Type s There muft be two Birds, with Cedar, Scarlet and Hyf- 
fop, and a great many Ceremonies about thefe Materials. There muft 
be Spring-Water, and an Earthen Veffel, and Killing, Dipping, fprinWing, 
Washing, Shaving, &c. And when all this is done, there is but half the 
Work done-, for there muft: be alfo three Lambs for a Burnt -Offering, 
a Trefpafs-Offering, a Sin, Offering. And three Omers of fine Flower with 
Vyl for a Meat-Offering, and a Log ofOyl; and a multitude of facred 
Rites and Ceremonies about thefe Materials. O how much ado there 
is to get a Leprous Perfon purified and made clean ! And all thefe 
things inftruft and fliew you all along the method of the Lord's pro- 
ceeding in. purifying the Hearts of Sinners. There muft; be a great 
deal of pains taken with thy own Heart, in the Ufe of ail the Means 
and Ordinances that God hath appointed. 

And though there be all this Pains and Difficulty in the Work, yet 
it muft be done, there is a NtceJJity of it : For this Difeafe is very 

T t 2 ' ■ trouble- 

324 Tb e Go fp ef °f the H°b Naces. 

troublefomandloathfofn, and U may be mortal atlaft, if a Core be 
not provided in time. Therefore the Leper muft ufe Means and take 
Fains: And fofhould finful Leprous Souls. 

Obf. 4. That as there is a Leprofy of the Heart, as we are defiled 
and unclean by Nature \ fo there w & Remedy and Purification by Jefus 
Cbrift. And as there is an Ordinance of Ejeclion of fcandalous Sinners 
and Lepers out of the HoOfe of Ifiael : So there is for Re-admijjion ofe 
healed Lepers into the Church again. This confutes the Novatians. 
The 13th. Chapter of Leviticus reproves promifcuous Communions. 
This 14th. reproves that Nov atian Error of them who would not re- 
admit and receive repenting Sinners into the Church again? The 
Scripture is clear for both Binding and Loofmg. Binding Impenitent 
Sinners, and loofing and reftoring the Penitent. 

T H E 

Gofpel of the H I T PL A C E £ 

QSdB'er u.and 18; Deut. XII. 5, 6, 

But unto the Place which the Lord your God jhall chufe out of all 
your Tribes, to pit his Na?ne there, even unto his Habitation • 
pall you feek, and thither thou jbalt come : And thither ye 
pall bring your Burnt-Offerings , and your Sacrifices, &c. 

WE have been endeavouring (beloved ) to take off* the Veil from 
Mofes Face, and to unfold and open to you the Types and 
Shadows of the Ceremonial Law ^ they are dark Shadows^ but there arc- 
glorious Myfteries adumbrated and fhadowed forth by them. They 
are hard Shells, but there are fweet Kernels within, if the. Lord help 
us to break the Shell, and- to underftand the Myftery and Meaning of 
them. You have feen divers of thefe Shells broken, and what precious* 
kernels of GofpcUTruths are contained ia them, . 


The Gojpel of the Holy Places. 52 5 

You may remember we did refer this Law of Ceremonies to five ge- 
neral Heads. 

r. The Initiating Seal of Circumciflon. 

2. The Legal Sacrifices and Purifications. 

3. The tabernacle and Temple and other Holy Places. 

4. The Priefthood, with all the reft of the Legal Miniftry. 
$. Their Feftivals, or Holy Times and Seafons. 

We have formerly fpoken to the two firft of thefe, to iffit, the Ini- 
tiating Seal of Circumcifion, and their Legal Sacrifices and Purifications;. 
We are now to proceed in the help of Chrift unto the Third, 

3. Their Tabernacle and Temple and other Holy Places -, of which 
this Text gives you this Doctrinal AiTcrtion. 

Boil. That God was pleafed to chufe out certain Places to (land in a fpe~ 
cial Relation of Holinefs unto bin) felf under the Old Teflament. See again 

in this Chapter, Verf. if. 14, 18. Pfal. 68. 35. Thou art terrible, ob 

God, out of thine Holy Places. And Verfi 1 7. As in Sinai in the Holy- 
Place. But it is needlefSj and would be eafy to multiply Quotations : 
For this Phrafe, Holy Place, and Holy Places, doth occur in the Scrip- 
ture above Threefcore Times. Let me explain and open a little to 
you the Nature of this Holinefs of Places that was under the Law. 

You all know there is a twofold Holinefs ^ Inherent and Relative 

Inherent Holinefs \s nothing elfe v but the Saving Graces of 'Sanclifica^ 
tion in the Souls of Men. Now this is only in Perfons : It is a thing 
which Places are no way capable of. 

The Holinefs that is in Places, it a Relative Holinefs ? and it doth 
confift in a Separation or fetting them apart for God to be peculiarly his. 

Thar this is the Scripture Notion of Holinefs, and that particular- 
ly in reference to Holy Places, you may fee in Dent. 19. 2, 7. compa-* 
red with Jofh. 20.7. That which in the one Place is called Separati- 
on, in the other is called Sanclification : Thou /halt fepar ate three Cities 
for Cities of Re f age, faith the Lord by Mofes. And they fanfti fie d Kedeffr 
and Sechem, faith the Text in Jofhua. 

The contrary to Holinefs, is that which is Common or VncJean, Acts 
10. 14. God hath a fpecial Propriety in that which is Holy, it belongs 
to God as his peculiar, Exod. 13. 2. Santlify unto me all the firfi-borrr, 
it vs mine. Hence the nearer to Gcd any Place or Thing is, the more 
of Separation to his life, the more Holy. 

Thus you fee the general Notion of it; 

Now to defcend 10 fome Particulars, 


gs6 7 be Gofpelof the Holy Places. 

This Hoiinefs of Places was Two-fold, either tranfient and metrly 
for the prefent Time, or elfe move permanent and abiding. 

;. The tranfient Hoiinefs of Places was where the Lord gave vifible 
Appearances of himfelf in his glorious Majefty to the Eyes of his Ser- 
vants -, fuch Places were Holy during the time of fuch Divine Appea- 
rances. So when the Lord appeared to Mofes in the burning Bufh, 
Exod. 3. 5. the Place whereon thou (landeft is holy Ground. And he faith 
the like to Jofhua, cap. 5. 15. So Mount Sinai was holy, and therefore 
might not be touched, Exod. 19. Upon the fame Account the Mount 
where Ghrift was Transfigured is called the Holy Mount, 2 Pet. 1.18. 

I call this a tranfient kind of Hoiinefs, becaufe it continued no long- 
er, but while that extraordinary Pretence continued. There is no 
more Hoiinefs in Mount Sinai or Mount Tabor now, than in any other 
Place. The Apoftle calls it the Holy Mount from what it was, not 
that it is fo [till : Therefore it is but a fuperftitious Thing in the Pa- 
pifts to go on Pilgrimage to Jerufalem, and to vifit the Holy Sepulchre, 
and the like, there is no Hol'mefs in them now. 

2. But fecondly, there was alfo a more permanent and abiding Ho- 
iinefs of Places under the Law, during that whole Legal Difpenfa- 

Quefl. What were thefe Places ? 

Anfw. I (hall inftance chiefly in four Particulars. 

1. The Land of Canaan was an Holy Land, fo called Zach. 2. 12. 
the Lord fhaU inherit Judah his Portion in the Holy Land. It was a Type 
of Heaven, Heb. 1 1. 14, 16. they fought another Country, a better Coun- 
try, that is, an heavenly ; thine Eyes {hall fee the Land that is very fat 
off, Ifa.32.17. glimpfes of Heaven and Glory. 

And forae fpecial Places in the Land were holy, as 

2. The Cities of Refuge, whereof there were fix, three on this fide, 
and three on the other fide Jordan. The Inftitution and Ordinance 
for it you have in Deut. 19. the Performance in Jofh. 20. where thefe 
Cities are faid to be fan&ified. And that there was a Gofpel- My fiery 
in this Ordinance, and what it was the Apoftle infinuates, Heb. 6. 18. 
who have fled for Refuge, to lay hold upon the hope fet before us. .The 
Souls flying to Jefus Chrifi, and finding Safety and Shelter there, when 
purfued by the Law, as the avenger of Blood, is the Gofpel-myftery 
of that Ordinance. 

3. The Tabernacle, the Temple, the Ark and all the Places where 
they came, 2 Chron. 8. 1 1 . The Places are holy whereunto the Ark of the 
Lord hath come. The Ark did as it were Confecrate them, and fo 
there was a Reverence due to them. 


The Go/pel of the Holy Places. 327 

The Tabernacle you know, was made in the Wildernefs by Mofes^ 
and fo was the Ark *, it marched before them to feek Reft for them, 
till they came into the Land of Canaan. 

The fir ft Place, where it was pitched there, was at Gilgal, Jofh. cap. 
4. 19. there it continued about fix or feven Years, till Jofhuahad con- 
quered the Land, and then it was fet up at Sbilo, Jofh. 18. 1. there it 
continued ( as fome compute ) three hundred Years from Joflmas 
Time to E/?s ; and then the People in a Carnal Confidence carrying 
the Ark before them to Battle, it was taken Captive by the Pbiliftines 5 
and Sbilo was rejected of God, arid laid defolate for the Wicked- 
nefs of his People I [rati The Story whereof you have recorded in 
1 Sam. Ac- 

A very inftrufting Providence^ to teach them to take heed of car- 
nal refting in external Ordinances. Yea, Gofpel-Ordinances, Baptifm 
and the Lord's Supper, if thou art a Wicked Man, will ftand thee 
in no more ftead, than the Ark did them, Jer. 7. 12. But go ye now 
mto my Place which was 'in Sbilo, where J fet my Name at firft, and fee. 
what J did to it for the IVickednefs of my People Ifrael. 

And after this, it is obfervable, that the Ark and the Tabernacle, 
fo far as it appears out of the facred Hiftory, never met again after 
this parting. 

Whicrrlhourd teach fuch as* pretend to be the Tabernacles of God, 
in whom he r dwells.(as every Chriftian is) to take heed of Decays 
and Backflidings in your Chriftian Courfe. For it may be God and 
thou may part, never to meet more. We fee fad Examples of it in 
many Profeflbrs, that after Backflidings never recover their former 
Glory, they rjever enjoy the Ark of his Pr fence, any more as for- 
merly. T 

What became of the Tabernacle after the Deflation of SHlo y and 
after this departure of the Ark from it, the Scripture is in a great 
meafure Silent. Only this we find, that it was at Nob in SanPs Time, 
1 Sam. 2T. 1, 4,6. and that it was afterwards at Cibeon in David's 
Time, 1 Chron. 16. 39. 

And finally, that the VefTels of it were removed to the Temple af- 
ter the building of that by Solomon. Not, as the Jews fuppofe, to be 
laid by there • but rather to be ufed as occafion was, together mfti 
the other VeiTels of the Temple. 

Some think the Tabernacle had a Station once at A-fizpeb, which 
they gather from that Phrafe, r Saw. 10. 17. and Samuel tailed the 
People together unto the Lo.'d'to Mizpeh. But this is not certain, be- 


s 2 S The Gofpel of the Holy Places. 

caufe they might be faid to appear before the Lord elfewhere, and 
•not rmly where the Tabernacle was. 

The Places where the Ark came are more particulaily recorded ia 
the Scripture. 

Firft it was carried from Sbilo into the Field of Aphek, againft the 
Thiliftines^ i Sam. 4. 2. where the Pbilifiines took it Captive, and car- 
ried it from Place to Place, to Afhdod, to Ekron, to Gatb y 1 Sam. 5^ 

At laft they fent it home into the Land of Judab. 

Firft: to Betbfbemefh, cap. 6. 

Thence it went to Kirjatb Jearim. 

Thence to the Houfe of Abinadab, cap. 7. 

Thence to the Houfe of Obed-Edom, 2 Sam. 6. 

Thence to the City of David, ibid. Verf. 12. 

And finally, it was placed in the Oracle in the Temple by Solomon, 
1 Kings 8. 6% 7. where it continued till the Captivity of Babylon; at 
which time it was either deftroyed in the burning of the Temple, or 
elfccarried away to Babylon, and reftored amongft the reft of the Vef- 
fels of the Lord's Houfe by Cyrus. 

Some indeed think it was never returned, and that the fecond Tem- 
ple wanted the Ark. But this to others feems improbable ; becaufe 
the High Prieft was annually to Minifterin the moft Holy Place, and 
that ia reference to the Ark ; for he was to fprinkle the Mercy-feat 
with Blood, of which hereafter. 

Bot thefe various Removals and Travels of the Ark to and fro 
from Place to Place, may teach us this Leflbn, that God hath not 
tied himfelf and his Ordinances, and the Tokens of his Prefence fo to 
any People, but that if they prove unworthy, he may remove them, 
and feek unto himfelf another Habitation, Mat. 21.43. Reva.%. I will 
remove the Candlejlick. 

4. Hence fourthly, among the Holy Places Jerufalem was very e- 
mtnent, as being the Place of the Temple and Ark, and all the Pub- 
lick Worfhip thereunto belonging, Pfal. 76. 2. In Salem alfo w b'vs 
Tabernacle, and b'vs Dwelling-place in Sion. Pfal. 87. 2. Tbe Lord lovetb 
the Gates of Sion, more than all tbe Dwellings of Jacob. 

Jerufalem therefore is made in Scripture a Type of the Church both 
Militant and Triumphant, Gal. 4. 16. for Jerufalem wbicb is above is 
free, which is tbe Mother of us all. Therefore in that magnificent Dc- 
fcriptionof the Church Cat holick myftical, Heb. 12.22, 23. amongft 
other Elogies, it is called heavenly Jerufalem. So Rev. 21.2. the new 
Jerufalem that comes down from God out of Heaven, as a Bride a- 
dorned for her Husband, is the Church throughly reformed in the 


The Gofpel of the Holy Places. 529 

latter times both in DocTxine and Order and Worfhip. Which Purity 
is begun here, and perfected in another and an higher Glory in Hea- 

And throughout the Scripture the Elogies given to Jerufalem are 
very high and excellent. 

It is called the City of God, Pfal. 45.4. 

The ElecJ City, or the City which God hath chofen, 1 Kings 11. $1. 
but he (ball have one Tribe for my Servant David'* fake, and for Jerufa- 
lem'* fake, the City which 1 have chofen out of all the Tribes of lfrael. 

It is called the beloved City, Gog and Magog compafs the beloved 
City, Rev. 20. 9. 

The Holy City, Matth. 27. 53. many Bodies of Saints which fkpt, arofe 
and went into the Holy City, Rev. 22. 19- God [hall take his part out of the 
Holy City. 

The City of the Living God, the heavenly Jerufalem, Heb. 12. 22. 

It is called the Throne of the Lord, Jer. 3. 17, at that time they /ball 
call Jerufakm the Throne of the Lord, and all Nations (ball be gathered un- 
to it, to the Name of the Lord, to Jerufalem. 

Que ft. What is the Ground of this Holinefs ofthefe Places, and bow arc 
we to conceive of it ? 

Jnfw. You heard in general before, that it conflfts in the Lords [e- 
parating of them for himfelfin a facial and peculiar manner. But there 
be four Expreffions in the Text, the Explication whereof will a little 
further clear ir. 

1. The Lord is faid tofet his Name there. 

2. Thither Ihalt thou feek. 

3. Thither fhalt thou come. 

4. Thither fhalt thou bring thy Holy Things. 

I. The Lord is faid to chufe the fe Places to fet bis Name there, and 
therefore they are called his Habitation, even to bis Habitation /hall ye 
feek \ the meaning is, his Name dwelt there. 

What is God's Name ? And how is it fet in fuch a Place ? 

God's Name is any thing by which he is known, the Difcoveries or 
Manifeftations of himfelf, by which he is known amongft his People, as 
a Man is known by his Name. 

He fets his Name in fuch or fuch a Place, when he conftitutes or ap- 
points it to be the Place wherein he will give forth the Difcoveries and 
Manifeftations of himfelf unto his People. 

There be five Things here included. 

1. That here were the fianding Symbols and Tokens of his Prefence* 
The Ark, the Mercy-feat, the Altar, trie Sacrifices, here Ihey had 

U their 

53© The Gofpel of theHoly Places, 

their Abode and Reildence, even in the Places that God chofe for that 

2. In tbefe Places were viftble appearances of bis Glory upon fpecial Oc~ 
capons. As when Mo fa had ere&ed and reared up the Tabernacle, 
Exod. 40. 34. then a Cloud covered the Tent of the Congregation, and the 
Glory of the Lord filled the Tabernacle *, So Numb. 12. 5. the Lord came 
down in the Pillar of Cloud, and flood in the Door of the Tabernacle. So 
when Solomon had finilhed the Temple, and placed the Ark in the 
Holy Place, the Cloud filled the Houfe of the Loid, fo that the Priefts 
could not ftand to minifter, becaufe of the Cloud. For the Glory of the 
Lord filled the Houfe of the Lord, 1 Kings 8. ic, 11. I fat ah likewife faw 
his Glory in the Temple, Jfa. 6. 1. 1 faxo the Lord fitting upon a Throne 
high and lifted up, and his Train filled the Temple. 

3. Tbefe Places had their typical Significations of Chrift andGofpel-My- 
fteries : Therefore much of the Name of God was in them. There 
were chiefly two great Myfteries in them, Chrift and the Church. 

1. The Temple was a Type of Chrift, John 2. 19. deftroy this Temple, 
and within three Days 1 witt raife it up. But he fpake of the Temple of his Body, 
Verf. 21. Therefore the Apoftle faith, that in him dwell etb all the f ni- 
ne fs of the Godhead bodily, Col. 2. 9. He was a Minifter of the Sanftuary, 
and -of the true Tabernacle, which the Lord pit ched^nd not Man, Heb.9. 1 r. 

2. // was a Type of the Church, 1 Tim. 3. 1 5. how thou oughteft to be- 
have thy felfin the Houfe ofGod,which is the Church of the Living GW,Eph. 
2. 20, 21*22. And it was a Type not only of the whole Church 
in general, bufe of every Believer in particular, 1 Cor. 6. 19. what, 
know you not that your Body is the Temple of the Holy Ghoft ? He dwells in 
their Bodies, much more in their Souls. The manner how the Deity 
dwells in thefe Temples is very myfterious and glorious. 

4. Thefe Places were appointed of God to be Parts, yea principal and e~ 
m'tnent Parts ofhisWorfhip. I fay, they were parts of his Worihip or 
Ordinances-, they were fuch eminent Parts of his Worihip, that they 

lid fan&ify both the Worlhippers, and all the Worihip performed in 
them. The Mar.fandified the Gift, the Temple fantlificd the Gold,Mdt. 
13. 18, 19. The Places did bring Acceptance to the Worfhip ; fo 
tliat the Places were principal, and the Duties lefs principal, as fome 
•:xprefs it. There will J accept them, Ezek. 20. 40. Exod. 20. 24. In all 
Places where J record my Name, I will come unto thee, and 1 will blefs 
j >ce 

5. They were by God's appointment the Seat of all the Publicl Chnrch- 
Worfhip ofthofe Ttmes. They did perform the moral Worihip of Pray- 
er, and reading and hearirig the Law, in all their Synagogues ; but 


The Go/pel of the Holy Places. 35 $ 

their Publick Church-Worfhip was annexed and affixed to the Temple 
only. Which brings us to the fecond Expreflion in the Text. 

2. Tbitber /halt thou feek ; that is, for Anfwers and Oracles from the 
Holy Place, and from the Prieft by Vrim and Tbummim. For fo the 
Lord had appointed, Exod. 25.22, tbere will 1'meet with thee, and 1 
will commune with thee from above the Mercy-feat, from between the two 
Cbernbims which are upon the Ark of the Teftimony. And accordingly fo 
they did, Numb. 7. 8, 9. And they were to enquire by Vrim and 
Tbttmmim. Therefore it is faid of Jofhua, when he was to be chief 
M3giftrate, Numb. 27. 21. and be fhaU (land before Eleazar the Prieft, 
wbofiaUask Comfel for bim after the Judgment ofUrim before the Lord : 
At his Word {hall they go out and at bis Word, that is, at Eleazar's the 
Prieft anfwering from God, fiall they come in, both be, that is, Jofhua, 
and all the Children o/lfrael with bim, even all the Congregation. 

All other Places were forbidden for this life-, feek not Bethel, enter 
not into Gilgal, Amos 5. 5. And the Lord feverely punifh'd it in Aha- 
zjab the Son of Abab, 2 Kings 1. 16. Elijah faid unto bim, for as much 
06 thou baft fent Mejfengers to inquire of Baalzebub the Cod o/Ekron ( is 
it not becaufe there is no God in Ifrael to inquire of his Word <* ) therefore 
thoufhalt not come down off that Bed on which thou art gone up, but [halt 
furely die. 

The Devil, in imitation and abufe of this Ordinance of God, had 
his Oracles, and gave Anfwers in the old Pagan times : But his An- 
fwers were ufually Sophiftical and Ambiguous. And after the Death 
of Chrift God was pleafed to chain him up : Therefore Plutarch an 
Heathen Philofopher, in his Morals, hath a Difcourfe upon it, why 
the Oracles are ceafed \ and he hath an Expreflion for the revolving of 
it, which hath more of Truth in it than himfelf underftood. Amongft 
other Things he gives this Account of it, that it was becaufe the great 
God Pan was dead. It was indeed becaufe Jefus Cbrift 9 who is the great 
God and the great Shepherd of the Sheep, had fuffered Death, and 
thereby conquered Satan, and hath therefore ftopt the Devil's Mouth 
from giving Anfwers in that way ever fince. 

3. Thither fhalt thou come ; that is, at all their appointed Feftivals, 
three times a Year, Exod. 23. 14, 17. and whenfoever they offered 
Sacrifice, as afterwards, Verf.6. 

4. Tbitber (ball ye bring your Burnt-Offerings and your Sacrifices, &c. 
Verf.6. So Levit. 17. 8,9. here is a particular Induction and Enumera- 
tion of their Holy Things. 

Tour Burnt-Offerings ] mentioned firft, as being the firfl; fort, and alj 
the reft depending much upon that. 

Uu 2 Tour 

3j2 The Go/pel of the Holy Places. 

Your Sacrifices *} this is a general Word including all that belonged 
unto the Altar. 

And your Tithes "} thefe were for the Maintenance of the Priefis, 
whereof Levi*. 27. 3°> 32. 

They had two forts of Tithes, the firft went to the Priefls and Le- 
vites-, then of that which remained they were to feparate a fecond 
Tithe ; and this the Owners were to eat before the Lord in the Place 
that he (hould chufe, as infra Verf. 17. 18. 

The Heave-Offerings of your Hand"\ that is, the Firil Fruits which they 
were to bring in their Hands before the Lord, Vent. 26. 2. t boa /halt 
take of the fir ft of all the Fruit of the Earth, and {halt put it in a Basket? 
and /halt go unto the Place which the Lord thy God {ball chufe to place his 
Name there, and thou (bait fet it bejore the Lord thy God, and worfbif before 
the Lord thy God. 

Tour Vows and voluntary Offerings ] of which fee Levit. 7. id. 
fir filings of your Herd and Flnck~\ often declared to be the Lords, 
Numb. 3. 13. becau{e all the Firft-born are mine: For on the Day that I 
ftnete all the Fir ft -born in the Land of Egypt, 1 hallowed unto me all the 
Fir ft -born in ifrael both Man and Be aft : Mine they fh all be^ I am the 

For the Vfi of all, there is a Eour-fold InftrucYion from all thathath 
been faid concerning thefe Holy Places under the Law. 

1 . The firft I nft ruction is concerning the Ceffation of this Holine{s of 
Places under the New Teftament. For this being a part of the Ceremo- 
nial Law, it mud needs be ceafed and vanifhed away, now that Chrift 
the thing fignified is come. The Papifts have borrowed this ( as they 
do many other of their Superftitions ) from the Jews. Some they bor- 
tow from the Pagans, and others are nothing elfe, but Pieces and Re~ 
liques of the La w of Ceremonies : So is this of the Holinefs of Places, 
and confecrating of Churches. 

For there is nothing more clear, than that the Difference of Places 
is taken away under the Gofpel. _ When the Woman of Samaria plead- 
ed, Our Fathers Worfhipped in thvs Mountain ; but ye {ay, that Jerufalem 
fa the Place where Men ought toWorfhip. Je{u${aid unto her, Woman be- 
lieve me, the Hour cometh, and now vs, when ye (ball neither in this Moun- 
tain, nor yet at Jerufalem Wor{hip the Father •, but the true Worfbippers 
(hall Wor{bip him in Spirit and in Truth, John 4. 21, 23. He turns her 
Eyes and Thoughts away from the Difference of Places, to regard and 
mind the Spirituality of the Worfliip. For as God is no refpe&er of 
\ Perfons, fo he is no refpecter of Places. But wherefoever, for that 
indefinite £ where 2 is equivalent to an univerfal, wberefiever two or 


The Go/pel of the Holy Places. 333 

three are gathered together in my Name, there am 1 in themdfi of them , 
Matth. 18. 22. The Apoftie therefore faith, 1 Tim. 2. 8. J will that 
Men pray every where, VvWOT t'ovu^ in every Plate \ as was prophefted 
long before by the Prophet Malachi, cap. 1. 11. For from the rifmgof 
the Sun even to the going down thereof, my Name /hall be great among the 
Gentiles, and in every Place (therefore all Places are alike) Jncenfe 
/haU be offered unto my Name, and a Jure Offering, which before were 
limited to the Temple. Therefore the Church at Jerufalem met in aa 
upper Chamber, Ms 1. 13. fo did the Church at Troas, Ads 20.8. 
rhere they did Preach and break Bread- therefore all Places are alike. 
Every Place is now a Judea, every Houfe a Jerufalem, every Congre- 
gation a Sion. 

But what a ftrange thing is this ! that Men can fee no Holinefs in 
the Lard's Day, but (light and oppofe that \ and yet afTert an Holinefs 
in Places. Oh the Wrath of God upon fuch Mens Spirits ! 

ObjecJ. But Ihould there not be publick Worfhip ? 

Anfw. Yes • but that may be in Places that are not Confecratedo 
Dr. Vfha in his Body of Divinity, pag. 404. fpeaking againft the pri- 
vate Adminiftration of the Sacraments, he thus explains it in thefe 
Words: in times of Perfection the Godly (faith he) did often meet in 
Barns and fuch obfeure Places, which were indeed Publick, becaufe of the 

Church of God there The Houfe or Place availing nothing to make it 

either publick or private, even as wherefoever the Prince iy, there vs the Court, 
although it were a poor Cottage. 

Objecl. But there is a Spiritual Prefence of God in the Places •, there- 
fore they are Holy. 

Anfw. It follows not. For, 

1. God doth not vouchfafe his Prefence out of refpeft to the Place, 
but to the Perfons. He hath not fet his Name upon the Place, but on- 
ly upon the Perfons -, and is not prefent with them for the Places fake 3 
but only prefent in the Place for their fakes who are there Affembled. 

2. The Spiritual Prefence of God is not enough to make a Place 
Holy , for then all Places Ihould be Holy, wherefoever God's People 
do enjoy Communion with him-, and fo not only Dwelling-Houfes 
where there are Family Duties, but every private Chamber where 
there is fecret Prayer ; yea, the Fields, the Streets, and fornetimes 
Prifons and Dungeons, and Gibbets, and all Places whatfoever, where 
the Saints come and enjoy Communion with God in their Spirits, 
would be Holy Places. And fo this OlfjecYion lays all Places level, she 
Lord having many precious Saints that walk clofely with him, who 
aredifperfed and fcattered up and down almoftin every corner of the 
Land. Our 

§34 ?he Gofpel of the Holy Places. 

Our publick Meeting-places for Worfhip have not any fuch facred 
Symbols of Gods Prefence, as the Temple had, the Ark, the Altar, 
&c. neither have they any fuch extraordinary vifible Appearances of 
the Divine Majefty and Glory, as the Temple had upon fpeciai Oc- 
cafions : Neither have they that typical Refpeft unto Chrift and Gof- 
pel-myfteries -, neither are they parts of Worfhip or Ordinances •, nor 
hath God annexed his Worfhip to them. He hath no way feparated 
or fet them apart unto himfelf, as his own peculiar : Therefore ttiere is 
no pretence for Holinefs in them. 

Inftr. 2. The fecond Inftru&ion is this ; Learn to prefent your Wor* 
Jhip unto God by Jefus Chrift ; for he is the true Temple, and Taber* 
nacle, as hath been ftiewed. Therefore that ftri& Injundion, to bring 
all their Sacrifices thither, fignified thus much, that we muft prefent all 
our Services and Sacrifices to God in the Name and Mediation of Jefus 
Chrift. Make ufe of Jefus Chiift in his mediatory Relation, a thing 
much and often preffed in the Scripture, as indeed it cannot be too 
much infilled on, Heb. 7.25. He is able to fave to the utmoft M that 
come (into Cod by him, 1 Pet. 1. 21. Who by him do believe in God, John 
14. 6. I am the way, the truth and the life, no Man comes unto the Father, 
but by me. Col. 3.17. And whatfoever ye do in Word or Deed, do all in 
the Name of the Lord Jefus, giving thanks to God and the Father by him. 
A thing of abfolute Neceffity, if we defire either Accefs unto God, Ac- 
ceptance with God, or Influence and Afiiftance from God. 

1. There is no Accefs unto GW,but by this greater and more perfect Ta- 
bernacle Jefus Chrift, in whom we have Boldnefs and Accefs with confi- 
dence by the Faith of him, Ephef. 3. 12. God, confidered as in himfelf, 
dwells in Light inacceffible, 1 Tim. 6. 16. dwelling in the Light which no 
Man can abroach unto, whom no Man hathfeen, nor can fee. He is glo- 
rious and excellent in himfelf, but approachable only in Chrift : We 
cannot fee him, nor conceive of him, nor get into his Prefence but by 
Jefus Chrift.^ 

2. There is no Acceptance with God out of Chrift. If you bring a Sa- 
crifice to God, and bring it not to the Door of the Tabernacle of the 
Congregation, Blood fhall be imputed to that Man. Levit. 17. 1, 2, 
3,4,5,6,7. Ifthoucouldftlivelikea glorified Saint, fhine like an Angel, 
if out of Chrift, God regards it no more than the facrificing Swines 
Fiefh, or the cutting off of a Dogs Neck. Ez.ek. 20. 40. for in mine holy 
Mountain^ in the Mountain of the height of lfrael, faith the Lord God % 
there fhall all the Houfe of lfrael, all of them in the Land ferve me ; there 
will I accept them, and there will I require your Offerings and the Fir ft- fruits 
cf your Oblations, with all your Holy Things. All our holy Offerings, 


7he Gofpel of the Holy Places. 335 

our beft Duties and Services as they come from us are abominable, but 
through his Mediation acceptable. 

3, There can be no gracious Influence or jijfiflance from God, but only 
in this way, by Jefus Chrift. The Lord hear thee in the Day of Trouble, 
the Name of the God of Jacob defend th.e; fend thee help from the San- 
ttuary, and flrengthen thee out of Sion, Pfal. 20. 1,2. For in Salem it bis 
Tabernacle, and his Dwelling-place in Sion h there brake he the Arrows of 
the Bow, the Shield, the Sword and the Battle, Pfal. 76. 2, 3. It is fpokea 
of temporal Deliverance, and may be applied to the Church •, there is 
a protecting Prefence of God there. But it is true in an higher Senfe 
concerning Chrift ; Chrift is the true Sanctuary from whence al] our 

Strength and Help cometh Thou therefore, my Son, be flrong in the 

Grace that is in Chrijl Jefus, 2 Tim. 2, 1. Nay in all thefe things we are 
more then Conquerors, through him that loved us, Rom. 8. 37. 

This is thereafon you conquer not: But Sin and Luft prevails, and 
you are worfled by Corruption and Temptation from time to time. 
There is a fecret Diftance by Unbelief from Jefus Chrift} did you come 
to the Door of the Tabernacle, the Lord would fend you help from 
the Sanctuary, and ftrenghthen thee out of Sion ; but Men are loth 
to leave their own home, or loth to break through Difficulties ^ they 
faint and tire by the way before they gee thither, and fo never come 
to receive thofe blefTed Influences, thofe reviving, Soul-ftrengthening, 
Soul-refrefhing Influences. SeeP/i/.84. 5,6,7. It is a Defcription to 
the People in their Journeys to the Temple.— -They went through 

thick and thin, as we ufe to fay, through drought and heat till 

they came before God in Sion ; and there they found what they went for. 
They met with God there, Verf. 10. it.— better a Day there, than a 
Thoufand elfewhare y for there the Lord will give Grace and Glory. 

Inftr. 3, Remember that there is a Church War (hip. As there was 
a Moral Worlhip which they were to perform every where; for it- 
was Perfonal, and not meerly Publick, fo they had their publick Church* 
Wovflnp, viz their Sacrifices aud other Inftitutions which were limit- 
ed to ihe Tabernacle, as it was a Type of the Church. As no Service 
is to be offered out of Chrifl, fo fome Services are not to be offered 
out of the Church', for the Tabernacle, as you have heard was a Type 
of the Church. And therefore, as God's end in this Inftitution was 
to lead out their Thoughts and Defires and Expectations to Jefus 
Chrift, and fo to prevent Idolatry and Unbelief in that Refpeft; fo 
Jikewifo to prevent Schifm, and to keep them in the Unity of that 
Church which he had then inftituted and appointed. So now inGof- 
yel- times look that you partake of the Ordinances in Gofpel-Churches - 


9 $6 The Qofpel of the Holy Places. 

for thefe/ace the New Teftament-Tabernacles wherein God dwell?, 
and vouchfafes his blefled Prefence. 

It is oftea noted, as a great Corruption of Worihip among the Jens, 
that they facrificed in the High Places-, yea though they did it to the 
Lord their God only. So in Manaffeh\ Time, 2 Ckron 37. 1 7. Ne- 
verthelefs the People did facrifice flill in the High V laces *, after fome be- 
ginnings and degrees of Reformation \ yet unto the Lord their God only. 
And the reafon they were not taken away is fometimes noted to be the 
perverfnefs of the People : So in Jehofaphafs Time, 2 Chron. 20. 33. 
Howbeit the high places were not taken away • for ays yet the People had not 
prepared their Hearts unto the God of their Fathers. 

t Yea there were fome good People in thofe Times who were uncon- 
vinced of this Truth, that they ought to facrifice only at the Temple 

and Tabernacle, though they were againft the Worfhip of Baal, 

yet they were not againft the High Places : So we have fome in our 
Days that are againft Popery \ but they are not againft mixt Commu- 
nions. They are not convinced that they ought to prefent their Ser- 
vices and Sacrifices, their publick Worihip unto God in Gofpel-Tem- 
ples, that is, in pure Churches, and not among profane People. 

It is ftrange to fee the fupine Carelefoefs and Scepticifm of fome 

Mens Spirits in this particular they regard not, they care not with 

whom they join •, whether it be a true Church or a falfe Church, whe* 
ther a pure or an impure Church, whether a Church or no Church. 

Search the Scriptures, and you will find no inftance, that ever the 
Lord's Supper was difpenfed but in Churches, Gofpel-Churches, pure 
Churches The firft Inftitution of that Ordinance was in the firft Gof- 
pel-Church, founded by Chrift himfelf the chief Paftor, who did dif- 
penfe this Ordinance himfelf to" the twelve Apofties, who were the 

Foundation Stones of the firft Gofpel-Church at Jerufalem then a- 

gain, Ads 2. 4.2. they continued ftedfaflly in the Apojlles Dotlrine and 
Fellow/hip, and in breaking of Bread, and in Prayers. Breaking of Bread 
is there mentioned amongft other Ordinances, and therefore not to 
beunderftood of common but facred Bread, Aft s 20. 7. it is faid of 
the Church of Troat, that they came together on the firjl Day of the Week 
to break Bread. The fame Ordinance alio was obferved in the Church 
of Corinth, 1 Cor. 11. and whereas Corruptions and corrupt Members 
were crept in, the Apoftle fpends a whole Chapter in exhorting them 
to purge out the old Leaven, 5th. Chap, of ift. Epiftle. 

ProfeflTors that lie amongft the Pots, never joyning themfelves as 
fixed Members in any particular Church, though they have Opportu- 
nity for it, do live in the negleft of a Duty, a known Duty j yea fuch 


The GofpeJ of the Holy Places. 337 

a neglect as doth infer and carry along with it the negle&of many 
other Duties alfo. For how can Church-Difcipline be exercifed, but 
in the Societies of God's People; therefore this neglect expofeth the 
Ordinances of Chrifl: to contempt and proftitution. 

It is as great a Sin to receive the Lord's Supper in an AfTembly of 
ignorant and profane People, as it was to offer Sacrifices in the high 
Places; yea it is indeed the very fame Thing. For let thy Conference 
fpeak. Are fuch Afremblies *he Temples of the Holy Ghoft? Are 
they the Tabernacles of the molt High? Doth God dwell there ? Is 
this to go to the Door of the Tabernacle with thy Sacrifice, when 
thou knoweft thou goeft into a Dunghill of Profanenefs, into a Dun- 
geon of Ignorance, into an Affembly of wicked and ungodly Men. 

Art thou a Soul that defireft Communion with Chrifl: ? Then take 
his own Direction for the obtaining of it, Cant. 1. 7,8. Go forth by the 
Footfieps of the Flock, this is Church-fociety. Feed thy Kids by the Shep- 
herds Tents. Make ufe of the Miniftry and Minifters of the Word, who 
are fet in particular Churches. 

Irtflr. 4. Labour every one, that his own Soul may be an Habitation for 
the Lord j a Temple of the Holy Gheft. For the Temple fignified not only 
the whole -Church in general, but' every Saint in particular, as hath 
been Ihewed. Let not thy own Soul be, as it is fa id of Rome, Rev. 
1 8. 2 his become the Habitation of Devils, and the hold of every foul Spi- 
rit, and a Cage for every unclean and hateful Bird. But let the Spirit of 
God dwell there^ be refllefs in thy felf, give God in Heaven no reft f 
nor thy own Heart within thee any reft, till thy Soul be an Habitation 
of the Holy Spirit. Say, as it is faid of David, Pfal. 132.4, 5. I will 
not give fleep to mine Eyes, nor {lumber to mine Eye-lids, until 1 find out a 
Place for the Lord, a Habitation for \he mighty God of 'Jacob* 

x THE 

33 8 



0*ob.2i. 2 Sam. VII. 15. 

1668. J 

He flail build an Houfe for my Name, and I will eft ablijb the 
Throne of bis Kingdom for ever. 

OF their Holy Places under the Law the chief was the Tabernacle 
and the Temple. The Difference between which two, was not 
in their typical life and Signification, wherein they were the fame - r 
but only that the one was moveable, the other fixed. The Tabernacle 
was a moveable Temple, the Temple was a fixed Tabernacle : And 
accordingly they differed in their Quantity and Dimenfions, the Tem- 
ple being double the Quantity of the Tabernacle, fukable to its fixed 
State ; but the Tabernacle was lelTer and lighter, becaufe it was to 
be portable and fit for the Shoulders of the Levites, who were to car- 
ry it from place to place. 

The Temple being the greater and more glorious of the two, I have 
chofen to fpeak to that, and in fo doing lhall fpeak of the Tabernacle 
alfo, fo far as is requifite to this End of opening the typical Significa- 
tions of thefe legal Shadows. 

The Text fpeaks of two Things, the Temple and the Kingdom ; it 
is the former, of which I am to fpeak. The Doctrinal Propofition in 
the Words is this. 

Dodh That God appointed Solomon fo build him a Temple, or an Houfe 
unto his Name. A Temple is an Houfe inhabited by a Deity. As a 
Man dwells in his Houfe, fo God dwelt in the Temple: Or as Satan 
dwells in the Temples of Idols, and in falfe Churches, which are there- 
fore called Synagogues of Satan, and Habitations of Devils : So God 
dwells in the Temple, and in the true Gofpel- Churches. I give thefe 
oppofite Inftances, becaufe Contraries put together do illultrate one 
another. To dwell there, is to vouchfafe his prefence there. 


The Gofpel of Solomon' j Temple. 339 

The Temple was a very great and glorious Ty$e \ both the Temple 
and all the Concernments of it were myftical and 
flgnificant of Gofpel-Truths. The general Sig- See tbe 6 Sermon * ggj 
nifications of the Temple were Chrift, and the %$; prnefltim™ 
Church, and every individual Saint ; this in ge- 

But, befides thefe Significations of the Temple in general, almoft all 
the Particulars about the Temple had their particular Myfteries and 
Inftru&ions. They may be referred to five Heads. 1. The Builders. 
2. The Time. 3. The Place. 4. The Materials and Preparations for 
it. 5. The Parts of the Temple. 

1. The Builders-, 1. Of the Tabernacle. 2. Of the firft Temple. 3. Of 
the fecond Temple. 

1. Of the Tabernacle ^ Mofes, Bez.aliel, Aholiab. The People con- 
tributed, Exod. 35. and every Prince's Offering at the Dedication of 
it, is fet down particularly, Numb. 6. 7. to (hew that the Lord takes 
fecial Notice of the Bounty and Liberality of his People.. 

2. Of the firft Temple, David and Solomon. David made vafl Pre- 
parations for ir, appointed the Place, and gave the Pattern of it in 
Writing to his Son, 2 Sam.%. 11,12. — 1 Cbron. 29. 2, 3, 4,5. and 
1 Cbron. 28. 11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19. Solomon had an Army . 
of Workmen that were employed about it, 1 Kings 5. 23. to the end. 
One hundred and fifty thoufand Bearers of Burthens, thirty thoufand 
Jfraclites for plain Work, three thoufand and three hundred Officers, 
befides Hiram's Men. 

3. Of the fecond Temple ; Cyrus, Ifa. 44. and 45. Ezra 1. Jebofhua 
and Zerubbabel. 

Take thefe Inftru&ions from this. 

i. The chief Builders were Types of Chrift, whofe Work and Of- 
fice it is, to build the Temple of the Lord. Mofes, Solomon, Zerubba- 
bel were fo : And fome think Cyrus alfo was a good Man, and a Type 
of Chrift: But concerning the other there is no Controversy. 

2. Obf. That all Hands fhould help to carry on Church- Work, 

3. Obf. The Freedom and Soveraignty of God in the choice and 
ufe of Inftrumentsto do his Work. He chofe Cyrus, who was by birth 
a Perfian, he (ingles out and chufes whom he will. He chofe Paul a 
Perfecuter to be an Inftrument to plant and gather Churches. Stran- 
gers of Tyre and Sidon, Kings of Perfia ; Gentiles as well as Jews (hall 
be added to the Church. Thofe that were once Strangers to the Com- 
monwealth of Ifrael, they that are far off (hall come and build in the 
Temple of the Lord, Zecb. 6. nit. 

Xx 2 2. The 

340 ~* The Gofpe! of Solomon's Temple, 

2. The Time. The Tabernacle was built about the Year of the 
World two thoufand five hundred and thirteen : The Temple about 
tour hundred eighty feven Years after, i Kings 6. i. nit. which fell up- 
on the Year of the World three thoufand, according to that Account* 
The Temple ftood from the Dedication of it by Solomon to the laft: 
Deftru&ion of it by the Romans, about a thoufand Years. For to the 
Captivity in Babylon was about four hundred Years -, the Captivity 
lafted feventy Years: From thence to the Death of the Me/ftahfouv 
hundred and ninety Years, which is Daniel's feventy Weeks, cap. 9. 
And it was deftroyed by Fefptftan, about forty Years after ChrinVs 

So that it was finifhed and dedicated about the Year, of the World 
three thoufand, and finally deftroyed about the Year of the World four 
thoufand : So it flood from fir ft to laft about a thoufand Years, viz. 
the fourth Millenary from the Creation of the World, excepting the 
Intercifion of the Captivity in Babylon, when it lay wafte about fifty 
Years, a whole Jubilee, force think feventy, but the leaft is fifty ; fup- 
pofing their Bondage under the Yoke of Babylon to begiaabout twenty 
Years before the burning of the Temple. 

In all this we fee the Viciflitudes and various Revolutions that do be- 
fal the Church of God, whereof the Temple was a Type ; and that the 
Ingratitude andllnprofitablenefs of a People may bring Defolation upon 
all their pleafant Things. The greateft Glory of external Ordinances 
may- by Sin be laid in the Duft, as this Temple was twice. And more- 
over the life of it was ended, Chr'tfi the Subftance being come. 

3. The Place. Mount Moriah was the Place of the Temple : There was 
a double Dehgnation of the Place to this life. 

r. By lfaac's being offered there, Gen. 22. Get thee to the Land of 
Moriah, &c 

2. By the Angel's flaying there, and commanding an Altar to he 
built there in David's Time, and God's anfwering David from Hea- 
ven by Fire on that Altar, 1 Chron. 21. with cap. 22. 1. We may here 
learn the Soveraignty and unfearchable Freedom of the Will and Grace 
of God in choofing one Place to be the Seat of his Temple, of his Chu* ch 
and Ordinances rather than another. For it was laid, P/^J/87. 2. He 
loveththe Gates o/Sion, more than all the Swellings of Jacob. Why he 
chofe this I know no reafon can be given, but the good Pleafure of his 
own Will. 

So, that the Lord ftiould chufe England to have Gofpel-Temples 
here, to plant his Churches and Ordinances here, rather than in Spain 
or ltaly 3 he hath reprobated them to be the Seat of Jnticbrift, but 

• hatb 

The Go/pel of Solomon^ Temple. 341 

hath chofen thefe to be the Mountains of Delights of Holincfs, as Datt. 
11.45. ^° account can be given hereof, but the good Pleafure of his 

4. The Materials and Preparations of them. There were the choiceft 
Materials, and the moft plentiful Preparations of them : The People 
contributed to the Tabernacle very liberally, Exod. 35. 21, 29. Exod. 
35.5,6,7. So that Proclamation was made for them to ceafe. And 
tor the Temple was prepared Gold, Silver, Brafs, Iron, Wood, Stone, 
all in j;reat abundance and vaft Sums by David and Solomon. 

1. Thefe rich and choice Materials inftrudt us, that we mufl: give 
God the bed we have, and give it plentifully and liberally. 

2. There moft be a preparing Time, and Work for the building of 
* the Temple, which to do is God's free Gift: Therefore we mud ac- 
knowledge and admire him for it, as David did* 1 Chron. 29. 14. who, 
or am 1 or my People, that we fhould offer fo willingly. And the way 
to continue this Frame, is to beg it of God, as there David alfo doth, 
Verf 1 8. keep it for ever in the Hearts of thy People. 

5. The Parts. Which I fhall mention now, but defer the Interpre- 
tation of them to another Time : They were three,, the Houfe, the 
Courts, and the Veffels : All thefe were parts of the Temple y take it in 
the largeft Senfe, for all the holy Buildings and Appurtenances thereof, 

1. The Houfe, or Building ; the covered Temple. 

Of this there are the common Parts that belong to every Houfe, 
namely, the Foundation, the Walls, the Doors, the Windows, the 
Floor, the Roof. 

The peculiar Parts of this Houfe, as it was the Houfe of the Lord, 
were the Porch, the Sanctuary, and the Oracle, with theSide-chanv 
bers belonging to them. Thefe are the Parts of the Houfe it felf, or the 
covered Temple. 

2. The fecond general part of the Temple, is the Courts about it ° 7 
for they were Holy Ground, as well as the covered Building -, and 
they were two, the outward and the inward Court •, or the Court of 
the People, and the Court of the Friefts. 

3. The Veffels -, they were many, I fhall inftance only the chief, and 
fuch as were fignificant of Gofpel-Myfteries. And they are either be- 
longing to the Sanduary, or to the Oracle. 

1. To the Sancluary, and that either fub dio, or fubteclo, without or 
within Doors. There were four without Doors, and three within.: 
Without, the Brazen Altar of Burnt Offering, the Molten Sea, the La- 
yers, and the Pillars of Brafs : Within, the Altar oflncenfe, the Table 
of Shew bread, and the Candlefticks, 

2, To j 

£4-2 Ate GtjQte/ 0/ "Solomons Temple. 

2. To the t?rjclf j wherein was the Ark and the Appurtenances there- 
of Heb.9.1 to 5. 

Vfe. Exhortation unto Temple-work. It is prophefied that even the 
Gentiles, Zech. 6. tilt* they that are far offfhaH come and build in the Tem- 
fle of the Lord. We are all by Nature far off, Eph. 2. hut brought nigh 
by the Blood ofChrift, and built up into an Holy Temple to the Lord, as it 
there follows, Verf. 1 3. 1 7, 1 9. &c. to the End. Take thefe Rules about 

1. Be fur e you build according to the Vattern (hown in the Mount to 

Mofes, Exod. 25. 9 Heb. 8, 5. It is eighteen times repeated in 

the two laft Chapters of Exodus, £ as the Lord commanded Mofes, fo did 

he ] as the Lord commanded Mofes. And in like man- 
seetbe Geneva ner David and Solomon, 1 Chron. 28. 1 1,12, 19. they 
Note upon it. had both the Word and Spirit of God to direft 
If you ask, how may we know the Pattern? Thefe are the Means 
of knowing its the Word and the Spirit, Hag. 2.5. and they give 
Light in this matter in the way of effeftual Humiliation and Repentance ^ 
efpeciaily repent and be humbled for Tenrple-Sins, Temple-Defile- 
ments j for your Church-Sins, Church- Defilements, Sins againft the 
Worfhip of God, fee Ez.e\. 43. 10, 11. foRev. it. 1. a Reed is given 
at the reftoring of the Churches and Worfhip of God from the Anti- 
chriftian Apoftacy, to meafure the Temple, the Altar and the Wor- 
fhippers. Get this Meafuring Reed into your Hands, the Word of God, 
Rev. 21.15. 

2. Leave out the outer Court, Rev. n. 2. that is, nominal Chriftian?. 
Look to the matter of the Church, elfe it will be like rotten Timber 
in the Foundation of a Building: Not that I do exhort you to Rigour 
and Severity •, I know there may be an extream on both Hands •„ But 
take heed of Extreams, and of admitting Perfons vifibly unfit. Thefe 
two Directions are of that Weight, that I have thought they are e- 
nough as to Communion of Churches. If they own the Scripture for 
their Rule of Worfhip and Difriplifie, if they build by the Golden 
Reed, and if they leave out the outer Court-, if there be care taken to 
keep off promifcuous Adminiftrations. But if they (light the Scripture 
as the Rule of their Walking, or of their Worfhip and Adminiftrati- 
ons. Or if they be not in a Capacity to keep the Ordinances pure, 
I do not fee how we can have comfortable Communion with them. 

3. Let there be no noife of Axes and Hammers in building the Temple. 
It was built entirely of hewed and fquared Stones, whereof everyone 
was perfectly fitted for its Place, the length of the Stones, fome fay, 


The Go/pel of SolomonV Temple. 34 j 

being the thicknefs of the Wall, 1 Kings 6. 7. Ic is not to betoorigo* 
roufly understood, but the meaning is, as fome exprefs it, no found 
thit was obilreperous to a publick Difrurbance : No laborious Sound 
from the hewing or fqnaring of Timber, but only a more cheerful, yea 
melodious harmony from the Conjunction and compadtingof Matter 
afore-hand fitted and prepared. 

Doubtlefs this was not without a Myftery : It may be divers ways 
applied; as that the matter of the Church fhould be well prep^ed be- 
fore their Admiffion as Members; and that the Saints are afore-hand 
fitted and prepared unto Glory : So that when they eome todie, they 
have nothing elfe to do but to die ^ for the Temple was a Type of 
Heaven, and of the Church Triumphant. But the Application that I 
would make of it, is this: Thereihould be no noife of Strife, no Con- 
tention, no Collifion of Mens Spirits in Church-Society. And the 
Means to avoid this, is the well-preparing of the Matter : When the 
Soul is well-prepared by an bumbling- work in its fir ft Convey [ion, when hewed 
andfquared, it will lie even in the Building, elfe not. ^ ox only by Bride 
comes contention, Prov. 13. 10. 

4. Build the Hoitfe of the Lord before your own Houfes : So Solomon did-. 
The Lord's Houfe was finifhed in feven Years,but his own was not finifh- 
ed till thirteen Years, 1 Kings 6. nit. with cap. 7.1. not that he re- 
garded his own Houfe more, but lefs ; and therefore finittied the Lords 
Houfe before his own. And the Jews after their return from the Cap- 
tivity, are greatly reproved for this Neglect, Hag. 1.4. and 2. 10. 
It is indeed the general Scope of the whole Book of Haggai. It brings 
a Blefling upon all your Concernments, Mattb.6.23.. Seekfirfi the King- 
dom of God, and all other Things /hall be added. But if this be neglected and 
poftponed, God will Blafl and Curfe all the other Works of your Hands, 
as he did theirs. 

5. Labour to fee the Beauty of the Lord in his Temple. This was Da~ 
vids earned Defire, Ffal. 27. 4. One thing 1 have deftred of the Lord r 
that will 1 feel after, that I may dwell in the Houfe of the Lord all the Days 
of my Life, to behold the Beauty of the Lord, Pfal. 84*7. to appear before 
God in Sion, Pfal. 63. 2. to fee thy Power and thy Glory in thy Sanctuary. 
What do you come there for, if you do not meet with God there ? Be 
in the pureft way of Worfhip, but reft not in it without God. Get 
real Vi dons and Frmcions of God in his Ordinances, to fee the plea- 
fant Beauty of the Lord in his Temple. 

Qucft. But when vs God real to the Soul in his Ordinances ? 
~Anfw. When God is as real to the Soul, to the Eye of Faith, as the 
external part of an Ordinance is to the Eye ofSenfe. Wheayfrufes 


344 The Gofpel of SolomonV Te?npk. 

Chrifl: crucified in the Sacrament, when you fee his Body broken, his 

Blood poured out, as really as you fee the Bread broken, and the 

Wine poured out. And if there be a real Sight of Chrift, it will have 

real Effe&s, to fubdue thy Lulls, to keep the Heart in ways of Ho- 


Que ft. But what of God are we to fee in bvs Temple .? 

Anfw. All his Glory fhines forth there, efpecially his Power and his 
Grace. ( i.) His Power, Pfal. 63. 2. To fee thy Power and thy Glory. 
( 2. ) Efpecially the Glory of bis Grace, Zech. 4. 7. Cry Grace, Grace 
unto it from the Foundation to the Top.ftone. 

Afiw.i. 2 Sam. 7. 13. 

1668. / D 

He fiatt build an Houfe for my Name, and I will eft ablifi the 
Throne of his Kingdom for ever. 

^ T Ow of the Parts of the Temple,. Taking the Word in the largeft 
1* Senfe, for all the Holy Buildings and the Appurtenances there- 
of, fo the Parts of it were three. 

1. The Houfe. 

2. The Courts. 

3. The Veffels of the Temple. 

I call them all Parts, for want of a fitter Term to exprefs it by : For 
there is a Penury of Words, from whence there is a NecefTicy fome- 
times of Tropes and Figures, and improprieties of Speech. 

1. The Houfe it felf; that is, the covered Building called **cffrom 
Kt'ta to inhabit •, as all the holy Ground is called h$iv, for the whole 
Place, and all the Courts were holy. As to the Houfe it felf, we may 

1. The Common Parts of it, which belong to every Houfe, and fo to 
this amongft the reft. And here the Scripture takes notice of the 
Foundation, the WaUs, the Doors, the Windows, the Floor, and the Roof 
of the Temple. Not that we fhould feek a Myftery in every Thing, 
but only fofar as we fee the Scripture going before us we may fafely 
follow, when we find the Scripture allegorizing any thing and alluding 
to it in a Spiritual Senfe, we fhould mind, and needfully take out fuch 
Leffons and InftrucYtons. 

1 mull fpeak firft to the Letter and Hiftory of them, as parts of the 
material Temple- and then confider what myftical Application the 
Scripture makss of them. This -method I ihall obfet ve under every Head. 

1. The 

Th* 'Jo/pel of Solomons Temple, 345 

x. The foundation of the Houfe of the Lord. It was o( great coftly 
hewn Stone, 1 K> ;; : s 5. 17. But what is the Foundation in the Spiri- 
tual Temple? The Scripture often applies this to Jefus Chrifjt, Ifa. 2$. 
16. behold I lay in Sion for a Foundation, . a Stone, a tried Stone, &c. 

V.Peter 2. 4 6. To whom coming as to a living Stone, difallowed 

indeed of Men, &: refufed of the Builders, Pfal. 118. 22. the Stone which 
the Builders refufed is become the head of the Corner. A Scripture often 
interpreted in the New Teftament concerning Chrift. Other Founda- 
tions can no Man \a? , 1 Cor. 3. 9, 11. The Scripture often fpeaks of 
Chrift under this Notion, as a Scone, and a Rock, and a Corner-ftone, 

Gen. 49. 24. from thence is the Shepherd the Stone of Ifrad Dan. 

2. 25. a Stone cutout of the Mountain without Hand. Ifa. 2*5.4. Truft 
ye in the Lord for ever *, for in the Lord Jehovah is everlafiing Strength* 
the Word is, the Rock of Ages ; in which Rock Mofes was hid, Exod. 
33. 22. while my Glory paffeth by, I will put thee in a Cliftofthe Rock. 
And Elijah, 1 Kings 19.9, 13. He is that Stone, Zech. 3.9. ingraven 
withfeven Eyes upon it. And as Chrift is the Foundation-Stone of the 
Church : So the Apoftles in regard of their Do&rine are alfo called the 
Foundations of it, Rev. 21.14. Eph. 2. 20, 21. Look to it, that you 
be built upon this Foundation, that you be not built upon the Sand, 
but upon this Rock, Mat. 7. 24. For hence it is that the Church ftands 
fo fafe, becaufe built upon this Rock : Therefore the Gates of HeUjhaU 
not prevail againfi it, Mat. 26. 18. 

The Papifts make the Pope the Cornet-ftone of their Church : But it 
is not the Pope, it is not Peter himfelf as perfonally confidered, that 
the Church is built upon. 

Many build upon the fandy Foundation of their own Righteoufnefs, 
and their own Strength and moral Endeavours. Thefe are falfe Foun- 
dations. But if you be upon this Foundation fear not \ whofoever be- 
tieveth in him (hall not be confounded. 

2. TheWatts of the Temple. They were of Stone, the infide was 
Cedar, adorned with carved Cherubims, Palm-trees, Flowers, and 
overlaid with Gold *, and yet further adorned with precious Stones, 
fixed, and fparkling like Scars, in fit Places in the Wall, 1 King. 

6. 18, 29 2 Cbron. 3. 6. The ousfide of the Wall was either white 

polimed Marble, as fome think, or overlaid with Silver, as others con* 
ceive from 1 Cbron, 29.4. For within it was overlaid with Gold, 1 Kings 
6. 2i. Therefore this Silver, as it feems, A*as for the out- fide, which 
could not but yield a very bright and glorious fhew to the Eyes of all 
Spectators, efpecially when the Beams oftheSundid fhineand fparkle 
upon it. The thicknefs of the Wall of the Temple is not expreflediin the 

y y Scrip- 

346 The Gofpel of Solomon 9 * Temple. 

Scripture : But the leaft that can be allowed at the Foundation is four 
Cubits i becaufe there was a Rebatement of three Cubits in the thick- 
nefs of the Wall for the Side-Chambers, i Kings 6.6. and for the Wail 
in the higheft Story, we may well allow one Cubit, and fo there will be 
four at the bottom. 

The Scripture applies this myftically to the New Jerufalem^ Rev* 
21. 12. it had a Wail great and high, and again, Verf 17. and often 
tke Walls are mentioned. 

( 1. ) The Walls of an Houfe or City are the Defence and Safety of 

it : So lfa.6o. 18. thou (halt call thy Walls Salvation And God is faid 

to be a Wall of Fire, Zech, 2. 5. /or / faith the Lord, will be unto her a 

Wall of Ftre round about, and will be the Glory in the midfi of her the 

Lord is for Walls and Bulwarks to his People, J fa. 26. 1. 

'( 2. The Stones in this facred Building are fpiritually Saints^ vt ho zrc 
called Living Stones, 1 Pet. 2. 5. So fome interpret that AUufion, 
Pfal. 144. 12, 13. that our Daughters may he as Corner- ft ones, polifked af- 
ter the Similitude of a Palace. Vide Calv. Ainfw. in loc. 

(3.) The Trees that were placed in the Temple either for ufe, as 
Timber in the Building, or for Ornament in Sculptures and Ingra- 
vings, and the Flowers ; I find them myftically applied in the Scripture 
to the Saints and People of God in the Church. The Trees themfelves 
could not be planted in the Temple ; but therefore the Sculptures of 
them were there, as reprefenting the Trees themfelves. David com- 
pares the Righteous to the Cedar and the Palm-tree, Pfal. 92. 12, 13, 
14. and himfelf unto the Olive-tree, which was ufed in and about the 
Doors of the Houfe, Pfal. 52. 8. But lam like a green Olive-tree in the 
Houfe of God. There were alfo Sculptures of Lillies in the Temple, 

1 Kings 7. 19, 22. and Saints are fet forth by that Flower, Cam,!.. 

2. As the Lilly among the Thorns; fois my Beloved among the Daughter s y 
Cant. 2. 16. my Beloved he fee deth among the Lillies.- The Allufion feems 
to lie in the Gifts and Graces of the Spirit of God fhadowed by the ex- 
cellent Properties of thofe Trees and Flowers. 

( 4. ) The Gold and precious Stones have the like Signification. Thofe 
fpiritual Excellencies in the true Temple, thofe Divine Graces and Or- 
naments of the Soul, more precious than Gold and Jewels, were fha- 
dowed forth by them. Therefore Faith is compared to Gold, 1 Pet. 
I. 6. And the Church is faid to have her Foundations of Agates , Jfa. 54. 
rt, 12. So the Netvjerufakm, which isaVifionand Prophefy of the 
Church in her Excellency both of Grace and Glory, Rev. 21. 18,19, 
And the Members of the Church, Lament* 4.7. are compared to Ru- 
bies and Saphhes. 

\, The 

The Gofpel of Solomon'* Temple. 347 

3. The Doors of the Temple. They were made with folding Leaves ; 
and for the San&uary, they were of Fir-tree, with carved Cherubims, 
Palnvtrees and Flowers — overlaid with Gold - y and the Pods of Olive- 
tree. But for the Oracle, both Polls and Doors were of Olive-tree, 
1 Kings, Chap. 6. Verf. 31.35. 

Now for the My fiery of this, take thefe Hints. 

1 . Chrijt bimfelf is the Door of Entrance and Admittance into the 
Temple and Prefence of God, John 10. 7, 9. 

2. The Ordinance of Admijfion into the Church, or keeping or (hut* 
ting out % is hereby figured alfo. For the Ufe of a Door is to let iit 
fome, and keep out others, Cant. 1.12. A Garden inch fed vs my Sifter , 
my Spoufe y a Spring (hut up y a Fountain fealed y Rev. 27.27. There /baU 
in no Wife enter into it any thing that defiletb, neither whatfoever worketb 
Abomination , or maketb a Lye \ bat they which are written in the Lamtfs 
Book of Ltfe. And Chap. 22.15. Without are Dogs , &c. 

4. The Windows of the Temple, 1 Kings 6. 4. and for the Houfe be 
made Windows of narrow Lights. Your Margin reads it, Windows 
broad within, and narrow without, or skewed and clofed They were 
made in that Form, for the better diffufion of the Light, and keep- 
ing out the Weather. Thefe Windows were of a great height from 
the Ground : For they mult needs be above the Side -Chambers, which 
were fifteen Cubits high, 1 Kings 6. 10. therefore the lowefl: part of 
the Windows was fifteen Cubits from the Pavement. 

Whether the Oracle had Windows in it or no, is difputed on both 
fides. It is a Queftion alfo, whether there was any Glafs in thefe 
Windows : But kad the Invention of Glafs been fo Ancient, probably 
there would have been not only much Ufe, but exprefs mention of it 
in the Scripture. It is faid of AhazJab long after Solomons Time, that. 
be fell through a Lattice , 2 Kings 1. 2. and thence fome infer, that pro- 
bably Glafs-windows were not then in Ufe. And indeed when was the 
firft Invention of Glafs, by that little fearch that I have made, I can- 
not find. I find no clear mention of it in the Old Teftament. For 
their Looking- glafles were of policed Brafs, Exod. 38. 8. 1 know 

fome render mifrepoth majim Jofh. 11. 8. and 13. 6. Fornaces vi* 

traceas, the Glafs-fiirnaces, which I confefs is ingenious. But it may 
be otherwife rendred ; and it doth not feera probable, that this In- 
vention of Glafs was fo Ancient as fofhua\ Time. Therefore the 
Windows of the Temple were open to the Air, and as to Ornament, 
w e may fuppofe they were gilded or golden Lattices. But fo much for 
the literal Explication of them, 

Yy 2 A? 

3 48 The Gofpel of Solomons Temple. 

As to the Myfiery of them, their Ufe being to let in Light into the 
Temple - 7 we may here confider both external and internal Light. 

i. As to external Light \ This fpeaks forth Gofpel- Light in the 
Church from Chrift by his Minifters. For Chrift him fe If is the true 
Light, John i . 9. that was the true Light, which coming into the World en- 
lightencth every Man that is enlightened *, fo fome interpret thofe Words. 
For ipx'ww may be referred to %w as well as Mp»*ov. He is the 
Sun of Righteoufnefs (hining in thro' thefe Windows, looking through 
the golden Lattices, Cant. 2. p. 

'His Minifters are Lights alfo, though he is the Sun ; they are but 
Stars that fhine with a borrowed Light, John 5 35. John the Baptift 
was a burning and a (hining Light -, and Matth. 5.14. Chrift fays to his 
Apoftles, Te are the Light of the World % and his Church and People fhine 
as Lights in the World, Phil. 2. 15. 

2. As to internal Light-, Some apply it yet further to the Spiritual 
Illumination of the Minds of God's People. As the Eyes are the Win- 
dows of the Body, and fo called, Ecclef. 12. 3. in old Age they that 
look out at the Windows are darkned: So the Eyes and Windows- of 
the Soul are the Faculty of the Underftanding elevated and fanclified 
by the Holy Ghoft, whereby it receives the Light of the Gofpel. There 
is in the Saints a fpiritual vifive Faculty, thofe Eyes of the Soul, where- 
by it receives the Light of the Sun of Righteoufnefs darting in his 
Beams of fpiritual Light into the Soul, though it is with manyasjoki. 
the Light {bines, but the Darlnefs comprehends it not. 

5. The Floor of the Temple - 7 This was of Planks of Firr, and Boards 
of Cedar, over-laid with pure Gold, 1 Kings 6. 15, 30. This LefTon 
and Inftruction we may learn out of it : That every thing in the Houfe 
of God is excellent and precious, the loweft, the meaneft Saint or 
Ordinance of Chrift. The very Floor of the Temple is over-laid with 

6. The Scripture takes notice alfo of the Roof ox Covering of the 7Vw- 
pkj 1 Kings 6. 9. which was made of Boards and Leaves of Cedar, laid 
within with Gold. What the outfide was is uncertain : For it is not 
likely that the Cedar-boards were expofed to the injuries of the Wea- 
ther— but covered, yet not with Lead, that was too poor a Mettal to 
be ufed in this magnificent Temple, but either with Sheets of Silver, 
as fbme think, or with Plates of Brafs, as others think. 

The Roof was ; doubtlefs fiat, according to the Cuftom of thofe 
Times } and therefore defended with Battlements, according to that 
Law, Deut.11. 8. and adorned with Pinnacles .• For the Devil carried 
our Saviour to a Pinnacle of the Temple, Mat,$. 5. that is, faith the 


The Goffel of Solomon'* Temple. 349 

Marginal Note, the Battlement wherewith the fiat Roof the Temple 
was compafled about that no Man might fall down, Dent. 22.8. and 
tho' flat, yet might be fome gentle riling in the middle, to caft off the 

The Scripture feems to apply the Covering of the Temple as an Em- 
blem of Divine Shelter and Protection over the Church, I fa. 4. 5, 6% 
For upon all the Glory /hall jte a Defence, or^as the Margin reads it a Co- 
vering — Ana* there /hall be a Tabernacle for a Shadow in the Day time from 
the Heat, and for a Place of Refuge, and for a Covert from the Storm, and 
from the Rain, This Covering and Shelter is the Lord Jefus Chrift, J fa, 
12. 2. Cant. 2. 4. Hvs Banner over me wot Love. 

2 Sam. 7. 13. Nov. j. 

He flail build an Houfe for my Na?ne, and I will eftablijlj the 
Throne of his Kingdom for ever. 

WE have fpokenof the Foundation, the Walls, the Doors, xhzWin- 
dows, the Floors, and the Roof of the Temple: Thefe 1 call 
the common parts of the Temple, becaufe they are fuch as are in every 
Houfe, of what Form, or of what Ufe foever. 

But the fpecial farts, or the Rooms in a Houfe may be various and di- 
vers, according to the Mind of the Architect, and the Ufe he puts it to. 

The Rooms in thisfacred Building and Houfe of the Lord were chiefly 
Three, the Porch, the Sancluary, and the Oracle, with the Side- Chambers 
belonging to them. 

It will be needful here to fpeak fomething firft concerning the Letter 
and Hiftory of thefe things \ and then concerning their myftkal ftgnifi- 
cations, becaufe we cannot fo well fee the Ground and the Truth of the 
myftical Application, unlefs we have a right Idea and conceiving of 
the Letter of the Type it felf. 

1. And firft for the literal or hiftorical Explication of thefe parts 
of the Temple, you may eafily conceive of them by the Form of our 
Churches, as they are called •> only there was a difference in the po- 
rtion or fituation of the Parts, but the Parts themfelves are alike in 

For firft there was a great Court about the Temple, to which anfwers 
the Church-yard about our Churches. Then there was a (lately Tower- 
porch, four times as high as the Temple it felf: To this .anfwers that 
wbich is called the Steeple, To the Sancluary anfwers the Body of the 


350 The Gcfpel of Solomonv Temple. 

Church, And then anfwerable to the Oracle, is that which we call the 
Chancel. And finally, as the Temple had Side-chambers and Lodgings for 
the Levitts : So there is belonging to our Churches the Feflry and the 
Dwelling-houfe for ,the Minifter, &c. 

Only there is a difference in the pofttion or fituation of thefe Parts. 
For whereas the Holy of Holies in the Temple was at the Weft end of 
it: On the contrary with us, the Chancel is ever towards the Eaft-, 
which was done either in oppfition to the Jews, [or in imitation of 
the Pagans. 

As to our Churches or publick Meeting-places, the thing it felf is 
neceflary : For if there muft be publick Worlhip, there muft be publick 
Places to aflemble in. A Meeting- place is a neceffary appurtenance to 
the Worlhip : And as for this Form or Falhion of Building, whatfo- 
ever is for life or Convenience, or moderate Comelinefs and Orna- 
ment is lawful and allowable ; and therefore there is no evil in a 
Churchyard, or a Steeple, or a Feflry, or an Houfe for the Minifter : 
But to have a Chancel, or one part of the Meeting- place, as more Holy 
than the reft, in imitation of thejewifh Oracle, this is evil and fuper- 
ftitious. Publick Meeting-places are neceflary •, but the Opinion of 
Holinefs in them, this is fuperftitious. For our Meeting- places do not 
(beceed in the Room and Nature of the Jewifh Temple, as a Temple - 9 
but of the Jewifh Synagogues, where they had their moral ^Worfhip in 
all their Towns and Cities throughout their Habitations. 

It will be ufeful here to fpeaka little firft concerning the Dimenfiom 
of thefe feveral parts of the Temple , and then concerning their Pofttion 
or Situation to each other. 

And firft for the Porch, it was a hundred and twenty Cubits high, 
twenty Cubits long, and ten Cubits broad. This appears by compa- 
ring and putting two places of Scripture together, i Kings 6. 3. with 
2 Chron. 3. 4. In the Kings it is faid, And the Porch before the Temple 
*f the Houfe, twenty Cubits was the length thereof, according to the breadth 
of the Houfe, and ten Cubits ways the breadth thereof before the Houfe. In 
x Chron. 3. 4. the height is mentioned ; the height was One hundred and 
twenty Cubits. It is not to be fuppofed, that it was all void to the 
Top •, but that it had Chambers and winding Stairs up to the Top, ac- 
cording to that in 1 Chron. 28 n. which (peaks of the pattern of the 
Porch and of the Houfes thereof, and of the Treafures thereof, and of the 
upper Chambers thereof, and of the inner Parlours thereof. 

And a gallant Profpeft it was from the top of this Tower-fteeple, 
they might fee far and near. Some have Written, that the Rirer Jor* 
dan, the dead Sea, and all Arabia, might be difcemed : And fo I fuppofe 
might the Mediterranean Sea Weftward. The 

The Gofpel of Solomon'* Temple. 35 1 

The ufe of this ftately Porch in the Front of the Houfe, was chiefly 
for Ornament to the Houfe it felf, to the reft of the Temple. 

2. The fecond part of the Houfe was the Sancluary, or the Holy 
Place, called fometimes the Temple, fometimes the Houfe, and the^r^r- 
er Houfe, 2 Chron. 3. 5. in contradiftin&ion to the Oracle, which was 
the Lefler. This was forty Cubits long, that is, from Eaft to Weft, 
between the Porch and the Oracle, 1 Kings 6. 17. and the Houfe, that is, 
the Temple before it, viz.. before the Oracle, was forty Cubits long, 
And verf. 2. The breadth thereof twenty Cubits, and the height thereof 
thirty Cubits. In this flood the Altar of Incenfe, the Table of Shew- 
bread, and the Golden Candlefticks. And here the Lord was wont to 
walk as ic were amongft the Golden Candlefticks. 

3. The third part of the Temple was the Oracle. This was twenty 
Cubits every way, both in the height, length and breadth, 1 Kings 6, 
10. and the Oracle in the forepart, that is, which as a Man entred into 
the Temple lay before him in the Weft end of it, was twenty Cubits in 
kngth, and twenty Cubits in breadth, and twenty Cubits in the height there 
of : So that it was a perfed cube excavated. 

It had Doors of Olive-tree, 1 Kings 6. 31. and the Lintel or Side- 
pofts were a fithpart of the Wall, that is, four Cubits, the Wall be- 
ing Twenty : So there was eight Cubits of Wall, belide each Door. If 
may berendred a little otherwife, but thus our Tranflators •, and this 
feemeth the fitted Proportion for the Doors. 

And ftere was the Veil hong, Namely, between the Santtuary and 
the Oracle. The Jnftitution of the Veil we have, Exod. 16. 31, 32, 
33. Itisfaid, iCbron.$. 14. and be made the foil of blue, &c. And we 
find, 1 Kings 6.21. he made a Partition by the Chains of Gold before the 
Oracle, that is, to hang the Veil upon them. 

It is a Queftion here, on which Side of the Wall the Veil hung, whe- 
ther in the Oracle,or in the Sanftuary, which I (hall leave to your own 
Meditations to confider : As alfo whether the Oracle had Windows. 
Some think not -, becaufe the Scripture, in allufion to it, fpeaks of 
God's dwelling in thick Darknefs. So Solomon at the Dedication of 
the Temple, 1 Kings 8. 12. and of the New Jernfalem, which is de- 
fcribed with fome Allufion to Solomons Temple. It is faid, Rev. 21. 
23. It had no need of the Sun, neither of the Moon to Shine in it • for the 
Glory of the Lord did lighten it, and the Lamb is the Light thereof Nei- 
ther was the Work of the High Pricft in this moft Holy Place fuch as 
reeded any more Light, than what the Opening of the Doors mifcht 
yield, from the Light that was in theSandinary. 


§ j2 The Gofpel of Solomon's Temple. 

It is further Queried concerning the Oracle, whether there were any 
Side-Chambers over it? 

The Anfwer i$, that the Text feems clear for it, 2 Cbrort. 3. 1. andht 
overlaid the upper Chambers with Gold, that is, the Upper Chambers 
over the Oracle : For the whole Context in thofe three Verfes, 8, p f 
10. treateth concerning the Oracle. It was but twenty Cubits high, 
whereas the Santluary was Thirty : Therefore what became of the 
remaining Ten Cubits? It is not likely that there was a pair of Stairs 
(as fome fuppofe) of Fifteen Foot high, between the Santluary and the 
Oracle, whereby toafcend and go up into the Oracle ; but rather, that 
the remaining Ten Cubits was made into Two Upper Chambers, to 
be Repofitories for the choiceft Things over the Oracle. And fo this 
brings me to fpeaka Word to, 

The Side-Chambers of the Temple, of which we Read, 1 Kings 6. 5, 
6 — and againft the Wall of the Houfe (or upon, or joyning to it, faith 
the Margin) he built Chambers round about, againft the Walls of the Honfe 
round about, both of the Temple and of the Oracle, he made Chambers round 
about. The nethermoft Chamber was Five Cubits Broad, the middle 
was Six Cubits Broad, and the Third was Seven Cubits Broad. For 
without, in the Wall of the Houfe he made narrowed Refts round about, that 
the Beams fhould not befafiened in the Walls of the Houfe. So that here 
were Three Stories of Chambers contiguous to the Temple ; the low- 
eft Story Five Cubits Broad, the Second Story Six Cubits, and the up- 
permoft Story Seven Cubits ; which different Dknenfions of the 
Chambers avofe from the feveral Rebatements that were in the Wall, 
for the Beams of the Floors to reft upon. 

The Number of thefe Chambers is not expre(Ted in Scripture, but in 
EzAieVs vifionary Temple there were Thirty Chambers, Ezek. 41 . 6 — *+ 
and the Jewifh Writers report, that there was the fame Number < in 
Solomon's Temple. 

Queft. But here it may be demanded, Cubits being fo often mentio- 
ned in meafuring the Temple, how much a Cubit is ? 

Anfwer. A Cubit was above a Foot and a half of our Meafure, it 
comes very near it, except fome fmall fractions. 

The Oracle therefore being Twenty Cubits, was about Thirty Foot 
Square. The Porch-tower being One Hundred and Twenty Cubits high, 
was about One Hundred and Eighty Foot high. 

& Some diftinguifti of Cubits, and think there were Two Sorts of them, 
the Sacred, and the Common Cubit ; and that the Sacred Cubit was 
double the quantity of the other : And fo Two Sorts of Shekels, the 
Shekel of the Sanctuary, and the common Shekel 3 and fo of other 


Tl)e Go/pel of Solomons Temple, 355 

Meafures; But others on the contrary conceive, there was but one<5u- 
bit, and but one Shekel : And that Phrafe, the Shekel of the Sanc7uary t 
they Interpret of cxa& Meafurc^ the Standard of all Meafures being 
laid Up in the Sanctuary, 1 Chron. 23. 29. It is true, the Temple is 
faid to be fo long, according to the Cubits of the fir fl Mcafure^ 1 Chron. 3. 
3. but this is various ways Interpreted. Some underftand it of the 
Meafures left in the Written Pattern by David to his Son Solomon. 
Others underftand it ofcthe Tabemacle-meafures left by Mofes. Sec 
the Belgick Annot. in 2 Chron. 3. 3. 

'If the Cubit ufed in the Temple were double to the Ordinary, there 
would have needed Pillars in the midftof the Houfe to fupport the Roofj 
but the Scriptures fpeaks not of any fuch Pillars. 

Obj. But if a Cubit was no more but a Foot and an half, wherein 
then confided the Magnificence of Solomon's Temple ? For it is faid, 
i Chron. 22. 5. The Houfe that is to be builded for the Lord mufi be ex* 
ceeding magnifical ofFame y and of Glory throughout aU Countries. 

Anfxo. This Magnificence did not confift in the Houfe only, but in 
all the facred Buildings, the Courts and Vtenfils belonging to it. Nor 
did it confift in the bignefs, fo much as in the fumptuoufnefs of it : For 
there is a Competency and a Meafure in things, which to exceed is 
not Magnificent, but rather Monftrous. It is not the Excellency of a 
dwelling Houfe, to have wild vaft Rooms, but fit Rooms for ufe. The 
Sumptuoufnefs of the Temple was unparalkl'd. It feems in this Re- 
fpeft to have been incomparably the moft ftately StruSure that ever 
was in the World : For I have never Read in any Hiftory of any Houfe 
befide this, that was overlaid with Gold all over, both the Walls, and 
the Roof, and the Pavement of it, and garnifhed with Jewels and pre- 
cious Stones fixed and fparkling in the Walls like fo many Stars in the 

But fo much for the Figure and Dimenfions. 

2. Now fecondly of the Pofition or Situation of thefe Parts to each 0- 
ther, which was this. The Porch flood to the Eaft, the San&uary or 
Holy Place in the middle, and the Oracle in the Weft end of the Tem- 
ple. For Ezekiel Handing in Vifion in the inner Court, cap. 8. 16. be 
fawfive and twenty Men between the Porch and the Alt or ^ with their Backs 
towards the Temple of the Lord^ and their Faces towards the Eafi % and they 
wr (hipped the Sun towards the Eaft. And Ez.ek. 44. I. there is mention 
of the Gate of the outward Sanftuary, which looketh towards the 
Eaft. And again, Ezjel. 47. 1. behold Waters iffued from under the tbrc~ 
(hold *f the Houfe EajlwarcL For the fore- front of the Hoofe flood to- 
wards the Eaft. 

2z |The 

354 Tie Gofpel of Solomorfr Temple. 

/The Reafon of this was in Oppofition to the Heathenifh Idolatry of 
thofe Times, who were wont to Worfhip towards the Eaft ; and there- 
fore had their Doors and Entrances into the Temples from the Welt, 
and their Adyta and more facred Places towards the Eaft end, there 
their Idols flood. As in our Churches in Popifh Times they had a 
Loft or Gallery over the Chancel, which was called the Rood Loft, 
where all their Idols flood -, as the Pi&ure of Chrift, and of the Virgin 
Mary, &c and amongft the reft, they had one great Idol, called the 
Rood, which if it was, as fome now think, the' Piclure of an old Man • 
from thence the poor ignorant People came to conceive of God the 
Father, as an old Man fitting in Heaven : Though it feems rather to 
be a Wooden Image of Chrift hanging on the Crofs. See Ads and 
Monuments, Fol.z. Pag. 302. or a Wooden Crofs only, without any 
Image hanging on it. From whence is the term Roodmat, ufed ftill in 
fome parts of England ; by which they mean the firft or third of May, 
the Pope having made that an Holy Day, and called it hventio Cruets, 
becaufe forfooth on that Day the Crofs on which Chrift was crucified 
was found, if you will believe the Fable •, Mafje or Mejfe fignifyingin 
the old Saxon a Feaft, or a fet time of holy Rejoycing, and Rood, as it 
feems, a Crofs. 

But this is to be obferved that in all the Ceremonial Worlhip, the 
Lord took fpecial care to keep his People at a Diftance from the Hea- 
thenifh Idolatries of thofe Times, he would not fuffer them to con^ 
form at all to thofe falfe Worfhips, nor to comply with them in the 
leaft. And it is a good Spirit to be zealous againft fuch Things ^ but 
where there is a flight, loofe, indifferent, fceptical Frame of Spirit in 
the Matters of God's Houfe and Worfhip, this Spirit is not of God, 
this Spirit is not of him that calleth you. 

So much for the Houfe it felf. 

2. Now fecondly for the Courts of the Temple, there were two of 
them, the Scripture mentioneth fo many and no more, 2 Cbron. 33. 5, 
And be (Manaffeh) built Altars for all the Hofl of Heaven in the two 
Courts of the Hmfs of the Lord. About the Tabernacle we read but of 
one Court, Exod.27. 9. for the whole Camp of Ifrael was the outer 
Court. But about the Temple were Two, called the outward, and the 
inner Court. The outward Court being the larger, is called the great 
Court, 2 Cbron. 4. 9. and the Court of the People \ becaufe here the 
People came together to be taught, Ezra 10. 9. But though the Peo- 
ple came into it, yet it was part of the Temple, and an Holy Place ; 
For none might enter that were unclean in any thing, for it was the 
Office of the Porters ta keep them back, 2 Cbron. 23. 19. And hence 

The Gofpel of SolomonV Temple. 355 

it was that the Jews took fo much Offence at ?an\ % when they thought 
he had brought Greeks into the Temple, and fo polluted that Holy 
Place, A8t 21. 28. 

There was alfo another Court called the inner Court, 2 Kings 6. $<S. 
and the higher Court, Jer. 36. la and the 

Court of the Priefts, 2 Chron. 4. 9. Both thefe vid. plura on Rev. 11. 12. 
Courts, as it feemeth did compafs the Temple This Reference fa tie a* 
on all fides round about, and they were four tbors Notes fc*>* *>e taf 
fquare. The- length of each fide of the outer t&^&TfiVf* 
Court was a Furlong, as the Jemfh Writers re- ^ g tfiffi 
port, and the whole about half an Englifh Mile Time, if gu will. 
in compafs. 

There were alfo, as they report, fome other Courts added unto thefe 
in after times ^ but becaufe the Scripture takes no notice of them, I 
flulj not. Neither (hall I fay any thing of the Walls about the Courts, 
and the Gates, and other Buildings belonging to them, as Chambers, 
Porches, and Treafuries to lay the Veflels and other things in •, and 
tor the Priefts and Levites to lodge in. For there is mention, 1 Chron. 
18. 11. of the Porch, and of the Houfes thereof, and the Treafuries 
thereof, &c. and ver. 12. of the Courts of the Houfe of the Lord, and 
of all the Chambers round about, of the Treafuries of the Houfe of 
God, *nd of the Treafuries of the Dedicate things. Neither need I 
fpeak particularly to the myftical fignifications of the Houfe and the 

The whole as confider'd together may be divided into three Parts* 

1. The outer Court 

2. The inner Court, with the Sanftuary. 

3. The Oracle, or the Holy of Holies. 

Some apply thefe three parts of the Temple to the three parts of a 
Chriftian mentioned by the Apoftle, 1 Theff. 5. 23. the Spirit, Soul 
and Body. The Body (fay they) is fignified by the open Court, where 
all may fee what is done. The Soul (fay they ) may be compared to 
the San&uary, which as it was more holy than the outward Court ; fo 
is the Soul of Man an higher and more Divine Part than the Body, 
whereby the Lamp of God's Spirit the Reafon and Underftandiog 
is enlightened. The Spirit ( fay they ) is as the moft Holy Place, 
where God dwelleth in Secret by Faith, which faith the Apoftle, is of 
Things not feen nor comprehended by Reafon. 

Others apply it to the three parts of the World thus. The outward 
Court to this inferiour World, where all Things lie open to the view 
and ufe of Man. The Sanctuary to the Starry Heaven, which is full of 

2z 2 Lights 

3 $6 The Go/pel of Solomons Temple. 

Lights and Stars, as the Sanftuary had the feven Golden Candlefticks, 
and Gems, and Jewels fhining in it. The Holy of Holies to the third 
Heaven, wherein God dwelleth ; and indeed the Apbftlebimfelf makes 
it a Type of Heaven, Heb. 9. 24. 

There is fomething of Analogy in the Thing as to all thefe. But 
the beft Accommodation of a Type is from Scripture, and from the 
Hints and Intimations which the Scripture gives, which (as hath been 
formerly (hewed) makes % Temple a Type of Chrift, and of the Church. 

Letusconfider then wliat Inftru&ions thefe parts of the Temple do 
afford as to both thefe. 

1. As to Chrift himfelf. The Temple was a Type of Chrift; efpe- 
cially in regard of that chief part of it, the Holy of Holies, wherein 
there was a Figure, or weak Reprefentation both of his Divine and. 
Humane Nature. Therefore Chrift is called the Holy of Holies, Dan, 
9-24 feventy Weeks are determined to anoint the moft holy, or the Holy 
of Holies, that is, to initiate and inaugurate the Lord Jefus Chrift into 
his Mediatorial Office. The Veil of the Holy of Holies typified his 
Humane Nature, Heb. 10.20. through the Veil, that is to fay, bis Flejb, 

We may draw forth the Analogy more at large in thefe Particulars. 

1 . The Humane Nature did veil the Glory of his Deity, as the 
Veil of the Temple did conceal the Holy of Holies from the Eyes of 

2. There was curious Embroidery of Cherubims and other Orna- 
ments upon the Veil, Exod. 26. 31. thou /halt make a Veil of Blue and 
Furple, and Scarlet, and fine twined Linnen of cunning Work, with Cheru- 
bim* [haU it be made. So Chron. 3. \6. This is not unfitly applied to 
thofe excellent Graces of the Spirit, wherewith the Humane Nature 
of Jefus Chrift was filled and adorned. 

3; The Veil (hutting up the Sanftuary from the fight and entrance 
of the People.fignified the (hutting up the Myfteries of the Gofpel while 
fcheold Temple flood, Heb. 9.8. the Holy Chofi thus ftgnifying, that the 
way into tip holieft of all was not yet made manifeft, while at the fir ft Taber~ 
mcle woa yet fianding There were dark Shadows then of the My- 
fteries of the Gofpel. 

4. The rending of the Veil when Chrift died reprefents his Suffer- 
ings in the Helh, or Humane Nature, 51. the Veil of the 
Temple wa/i rent in twain fr§m the top to the bottom. If the Veil be the 
He(h or the Humane Nature of Chrift, then the rending of the Veil 
mM needs be the breaking of his Body, and the Sufferings of his Hu- 
vi^ue Nature 

5. As 

The Gojpl of Solomon's Temple. 35? 

5* As by this the Holy of Holies was open to the View of all that 
came to the Temple: So under the GofpeJ the Myfteries of Salvation 
are made manifeft, Rev. 11. 19. and the Temple of Cod was opened m 
Heaven, and there was feen in bfa Temple the Ark of bis Tcftament. Clear 
Difcoveries of God ia Chrift. 

6. As the Prieft entred into the Holy Place through the Veil ; & 
hath Chrift into Heaven, and made way for us all to enter after him 
and with him through his Sufferings, Heb. 9. 12. neither by the Blood of 
Bulls and Goats, but by his own Blood he entred in once into the Holy Place, 
having obtained eternal Redemption for us ; and Heb 6". 1 laft^ which hope 
we have, as an Anchor of the Soul, both fire and fiedfaft, and which entred 
into that within the Veil, that is, into the Holy of Holies^ whither the 
Fore-runner is for us entred even Jefus. 

This is the fir ft accommodation of this Type, even unto Jefos Chrift 

2. The Temple fignified alfo the Church : And the feveral part* of the 
Temple may be confidered here alfo. 

1. We learn here that there is a three-fold Diftin&ion of the Churchy 
into vifible, militant and triumphant. 

The outer Court (ignified the vifible Church, into which all the 
People came that were clean according to the Law 1 So into the vifi- 
ble Church come all that make a fair outward Profefllon, though they 
are not all Sincere, as all were not Ifrael that were of Ifrael. 

The Sanctuary and the inner Court fignificd the Church-militant of 
true Believers, who are indeed Spiritual Priefts unto God. 

And laftly, the holieft of all was a Type of Heaven, and of the 
Church- triumphant there: So the Apoftle often, Heb. 9. 24. for Chrift 
15 not entred into the Holy Places made with Hands, which are the Figures of 
the true, but into Heaven it felf: 

2. Whereas there was a Wall about the great Court to keep out 
the Gentiles, for none but Jews were admitted : The Apoftle (hews 
that Cbrifi bath broken down the middle WaU of Partition between us, Epft; 
2. 14. which he hath done by converting the Gentiles, and repealing 
the Ceremonial Law. 

3. The outer Court muft be left out in Church-reformation, Revl 
11. 1,2. that is, when the matter of the vifible Church is whoHy cor- 
rupted thefe Gentiles muft be caft out, or left out 

4 Whereas the Materials of the Sanctuary and of the Oracle were 
the fame, Cedar- boards and Gold, and garhifhed with precious Stones^ 
&c. as was fhe wed before, when wefpakeof the Walls of the Temple 5 
hence we may learn this Inflation } that Grace aad Glory differ not 

5 M. 

3 5 8 The Gofpel of Solomons Temple. 

in Kind, but only in Degree. Grace is Glory begun ^ Glory is Grace 
perfected, Heb. 12. 23, the Sprits of Juft Men made per fed. A Belie- 
ver hath eternal Life begun in him in this World, 1 John 3. 15, 

5. The Side-Chambers and all the Buildings about the Chambers, 
wherein the Priefts and Levites had their feveral Lodgings and Stati- 
ons appointed them, may inftruct and mind us of thofe ManfionsthaE 
are prepared for us in Heaven, John 14. 2. in my Fathers Houfe are ma* 
ny Manftons^ if it were not fo 7 I would have told you % I go to prepare a 
Place for yon. 

6. Whereas in thefe Chambers were kept and laid up the Standards 
ofaU Weights and Meafures; for fo fome underftand that Blace, 1 Cbron. 
23. 29. fpeaking of the Levites work in their feveral Places and Sta- 
tions, it is faid, their Office was to wait on the Sons of Aaron^ as for 
other Things, fo for all manner of Meafure and Size % that is, as fome 
expound it, that unto their Truft were committed the Standard mea- 
fures of Things,and here laid up under their Cuftody, as in a moftfafe 
and facred Repofitory ; and thefe were called the Meafures of the San- 
ctuary ^ as with us the Standards and Meafures are laid up in the Tower. 
We may here learn, that God regards Jnfiice among Men next to bk 
own Worfhip. To unjuft Perfons he faith, as Ifa. 1. 11. to whatpurpofe 
is the Multitude of your Sacrifices untp me f Who hath required th'15 at your 
Hands to tread my Courts? Verf. 12. The reafon is given, Verfx^ 
your Hands are full of Blood* And would you know that there are Man- 
fions prepared in Heaven for you ? You may take this as one Evidence 
of it, Pfal. 1$. 1. Lord, who (hall abide in thy Tabernacle t WbofhaU 
dwell in thy holy Hills He anfwers in the fecond Verfe, He that waiketb 
uprightly, and worketb Righteoufnefs, and fpeahth the Truth in his Heart. 

And let me add this further, Do not judge of your Spiritual State by 
your getting into the outer Court : For Hypocrites may get in there, if 
they be but outwardly Clean. Bat art thou admitted as a Spiritual 
Priefl: into the Sanftuary, to enjoy true Communion with God in his 
Ordinances, and to WorfhipGod in the Spirit ; art thou a Member of 
the Church Militant, as well as of the vifible Church ? 

The Church Militant fhall be at laft Triumphant : They (hall pafc 
from and through the Sanftuary into the Holy of Holies, even into 
Heaven it felf, whither Jefus our fore-runner is entredforus. 





Gofpel of the Two Brazen Pillars in the 

i Kings YIL. 21, 2 2. *&*• *• »^8. 

Aiii he fet up the Pillars in the Porch of the Temple : And he Jet 
up the right Pillar, and called the Name thereof Jach'm : And 
he fet up the left Pillar, and called the Name thereof Boaz. 
And upon the top of the Pillars woj Lil lie-work: So was the 
Work of the Pillars finified. 

SO much of the Houfe and the Courts. Now follow the Feffils or 
VtenfUt of the Temple, the facred Houfhold- fluff or Furniture of 
this Houfe of God. They were many. We read in Ezra 1. n. all 
the Veffels of Gold and Silver were five thonf and and four hundred. We 
may diftinguifti the Veffels of the Temple into two forts. 

1 . Sttch as were of natural NeceJJlty and Conveniency for the Worfhip that 
was there to be performed; as Knives, Pots, Flefh-hooks, &c. which had 
not their particular myftical Significations. But yet thus much we may